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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 




asMt|nsetts Jnrficnltnral Stocidg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



/ 



PART I. 




BOSTON : 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

1886. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



PEa$sat|usette Porfaultiiral Swcietg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



PART I 




BOSTON: 
PHINTED FOE THE SOCIETY. 

188G. 



The following papers and discussions have been circulated to 
some extent in the form of slips reprinted from the reports made 
by the Secretary of the Society in the Boston Transcript. As here 
presented, the papers are printed in full, and the discussions are 
not only much fuller than in the weekly reports, but, where it 
appeared necessaiy, have been carefully revised by the speakers. 

The Committee on Publication and Discussion take this oppor- 
tunity to repeat what they have before stated, that the Society 
is not to be held responsible for the certainty of the statements, 
the correctness of the opinions, or the accurac} 7 of the nomencla- 
ture in the papers and discussions now or heretofore published, all 
of which must rest on the credit or judgment of the respective 
writers or speakers, the Society undertaking only to present these 
papers and discussions, or the substance of them, correctly. 



O. B. Had wen, ^ 



Committee on 



William H. Hunt, l Publication and 



Francis H. Appleton. 



Discussion. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



fffmat fawrtte got taltol gf mt tg* 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 2, 1886. 

A duty notified stated meeting of the Society was holden at 11 
o'clock, the chair being taken by the retiring President, John B. 
Moore, who delivered the following address : 

Address of President Moore. 
Ladies and Gentlemen of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society : 

It has been the custom of the retiring President to say a few 
words to you in relation to the condition of the Society, and its 
past work. 

I may congratulate the Society upon its prosperity, and in no 
year has it been more marked than in the year 1885. With the 
means at command, with their large and valuable library for in- 
struction and reference, with the improved and perhaps more 
scientific methods of culture adopted by the members, they ought 
to have made and certainty have made a great advance in horti- 
culture from the time of founding this Society. This can be 
observed in the character and beauty of our exhibitions. 

Among the causes of this prosperity are the lectures, essays, 
and discussions conducted by the Society ; which have been of a 
high order, and have given new ideas to our members, and to the 
public, who have free admission to the lectures and may take part 
in all the discussions. The character and ability of these papers 
and discussions have given the Society a high standing, both at 



6 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY". 

home and abroad. Much credit is justly due to the Committee on 
Publication and Discussion for their efficiency in this work. 

The finances of the Society were never in' a more prosperous 
condition. Although the amount appropriated for prizes in 
1885 was $1,800 more than in 1884, and notwithstanding extra- 
ordinary expenditures for improvements in the building, and for 
insurance we have, after allowing for the payment of the prizes 
now due, invested in bonds nearly $20,000 ; and there is some- 
thing more which has already been earned that may be added. 

This prosperity is due amoug other causes to the good judgment 
and care of the Finance Committee and the Treasurer ; and also 
to the Committee of Arrangements, who have successfully directed 
the exhibitions for which admission fees are taken. 

The building is in better condition than a year ago ; the reports 
of the various committees are all in ; and, with the aid afforded to 
the Secretary, the Transactions, which were much clela3*ed, are 
now published up to the present time, and bear upon their face 
that correct and perfect finish for which our Secretary has so long 
been distinguished. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — With my best wishes for the continued 
prosperity of this Society, I have the honor to introduce to you 
the President elect, Dr. Henry P. Walcott. 

President Walcott, on taking the chair, delivered the follow- 
ing inaugural address : 

Address of President Henry P. Walcott. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

At this first meeting of the new year, in obedience to an honored 
custom, it becomes my dut}* as your official representative to briefly 
recall some of the events of the past year, to invite your attention 
again to the more important recommendations of the standing 
committees, and to add the few suggestions that occur to me as to 
our future polic} T . 

Of our former associates who have died in the past year, three 
at least should be named, — Mr. P. B. Hovey, who joined this 
Society in 1829, and was for some years a Vice-President and 
Chairman of one of our most important committees ; Mr. Hervey 
Davis, for four years Chairman of the Fruit Committee, and a 
constant exhibitor; and Mr. Charles O. Whitmore, who freely 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT HENRY P. WALCOTT. 7 

gave to this Society the great benefit of his financial ability, with 
results far surpassing the mone} 7 value of the beautiful statue 
with which he adorned this building. In this Hall, so largely the 
result of his untiring energy, he will be long and gratefully re- 
membered. 

Let me turn for a moment to one* among the living, whose active 
concern in this Society has spanned, saving a few months, the 
whole of its existence. Venerable leader of us all — old only by 
the written record, young in } T our enthusiasm for our captivating 
art — long may you be spared to us and to this world of flowers 
and of fruits. 

Two only of the original members of the Society are now liv- 
ing, — Henry A. Breed, of Lynn, whose presence we gladly wel- 
come on this occasion, and John B. Russell, for some time resident 
in another state. 

The finances of the Society appear to be in a very satisfactory 
condition. The Treasurer has not yet made up his final report, as 
the accounts of the Proprietors of Mount Auburn Cemetery will not 
be ready till later in the month ; but, assuming that we receive the 
same sum from Mount Auburn that we did in 1885, and this is 
probable, the gross receipts for the year are (including the balance 
on hand Januar}' 1, 1885) in round numbers $34,330 ; total expen- 
ditures $17,723. Of the balance, $16,607, $6,376 have been 
added to the sinking fund, leaving a balance on hand January 1, 
1886, of $10,231. 

In September last the American Forestry Congress met in this 
city. In recognition of the necessary and intimate relations be- 
tween Forestry and Horticulture, this Society gave to the Con- 
gress the use of these halls ; and also appointed a Committee for 
the purpose of showing such attentions to the visitors as were 
within the power of the Society. The courtesies thus offered were 
warmly acknowledged. 

The Committees on Fruits and Vegetables report respectively 
exhibitions of interest fully equal to those of preceding years. The 
latter committee call attention to the influence of prizes as superior 
to that of gratuities in a certain class of awards, and it seems to 
me that this conclusion may very properly be extended to awards 
made at an}? of the exhibitions. A prize to be awarded for some 
well-defined, well-understood quality in plant, flower, fruit, or 

*Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

vegetable, will, b} T awakening a sharp competition, be much more 
likely to bring out the best skill in gardening than the simple 
"gratuity,*' however large. 

Fruits and vegetables have been objects of competition through 
so mairy years that any improvement in them must be the result of 
unusual skill. A former President publicly expressed the hope 
that grapes in this country, cultivated under glass, might be brought 
to equal the highest results of European culture. The general 
opinion, as well as the judgment of the Committee, upon the un- 
usual merit of some grapes shown at the Annual Exhibition fore- 
shadows the realization of that wish. 

Our exhibitions have throughout the year attracted the attention 
of the public to a greater. degree than ever before — the total re- 
ceipts therefrom reaching the very considerable sum of $3,540 ; 
to this general success the Rose Show (owing to unfavorable 
weather) makes the sole exception. Yet even then the Presi- 
dent of the Society compelled the reluctant elements to yield to 
him his w T onted prizes. The Annual Exhibition was one of the 
most successful ever held by the Society, and perhaps the best. 
The receipts of the Chr\ T santhemum Show — nearly equalling those 
of the main exhibition of the year — are an evidence of the in- 
creasing interest in this flower, possibly somewhat influenced by 
fashion, but with a real foundation in the fact that its blooming 
comes at the dullest season of the floral year. The generous prizes 
offered for Bulbs at the Spring Exhibition, brought out specimens 
and collections of exceptional merit; the same wise liberality will, 
undoubtedly, secure a success at least equal the coming spring. 

The almost priceless collections of plants which have made so 
important a part of our displays in past seasons have been again 
placed at the service of the Society and the public with the gener- 
osity of former years. The Flower Committee express the belief 
that the increased competition is a direct result of the larger prizes 
of the past }'ear ; and, very properly as it seems to me, they urge 
the importance of bestowing the great prizes upon specimen plants* 
rather than upon miscellaneous collections of cut flowers. 

The Committee on Gardens, in addition to the usual report upon 
the condition of the various private gardens visited, have given 
well-deserved and appreciative notice to two subjects of unusual 
importance. The first of these is the movement for the establish- 
ing of a Great Natural Park in the Middlesex Fells. Past efforts. 



ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT HENRY P. WALCOTT. 9 

in this direction, notwithstanding a general interest on the part of 
the public, owed much of their vitality to the untiring, unselfish 
work of the late Elizur Wright. It is to be hoped that some one 
may succeed to his place, able as he to attract the attention of the 
public, and equalty willing to make some sacrifices for the general 
good. Whatever help the influence of this Society can give will, I 
doubt not, be lent to a plan that offers, not to this generation 
alone but for all time, the educational advantages of a great wild 
garden, unequalled in extent or variety. The second subject 
treated is fortunately a fact accomplished, — the Arnold Ar- 
boretum, — endowed by an Honorary Member of this Society ; car- 
ried to its present stage of success and abundant promise for the 
future, through many and perplexing difficulties, by our honored 
associate, Professor Charles S. Sargent. 

The treasures of this collection, already known to a few, can 
only be properly appreciated when the Director's plans for final 
planting are fully carried out ; but the advantages of a collection 
of trees and shrubs, hardy in this climate and correctly named, 
have already been felt. 

The Library Committee and the Librarian report a continued 
increase in the number of our books, in the use made of them, and 
in the facilities offered for their use — but also the old and well- 
grounded complaint of insufficient shelf accommodation. 

A member of this Committee until the present year, I heartily 
agree to all that is said in this and preceding reports, and will 
again call your attention to a few points that appear to have occu- 
pied the minds of some of our members during the past year. The 
great value of this collection of books is admitted ; it is the best 
horticultural library in this country, and I know of none in Europe 
to equal it, either in the possession of a society, or of a private 
individual ; it is a collection rich, not alone in books of scientific or 
literary value, but in all that can be found of a distinctly practi- 
cal character. The Chairman of the Committee, probably more 
familiar with the contents of these shelves than any other member 
except our Librarian, has made a practice of consulting book- 
notices, catalogues, and advertisements ; from the titles thus col- 
lected the Committee has made selection, for immediate purchase, 
of those books most likely to meet the general want. The more 
valuable works of a scientific character, including Floras, and Ke- 
ports of learned Societies, have been purchased as occasion offered 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and our funds permitted. The conveniences for using the library 
have, notwithstanding our crowded condition, been much improved ; 
the increased though still very insufficient shelving has made books 
more accessible ; the presence of an accomplished Librarian has 
helped the inquirer for knowledge to the more direct and shorter 
roads ; the card catalogue of plant pictures, thanks to the chair- 
man's perseverance, has also been of material service. 

As the result of these improvements, there has come an enlarged 
use of the books. This ma}' be seen in two ways ; by the greater 
number of books recorded as borrowed, and by the more numerous 
readers here. The record-book (though it does actually show in 
the past year more books taken out) is not a conclusive test, for 
the following reason, to which I think all familiar with great 
libraries will assent : — that an increase in the conveniences for con- 
sultation will diminish the number of books taken out. Most of 
us come here to obtain information upon some limited subject, — the 
identity of a specimen, the question of a name, — if we can ascer- 
tain these facts without taking a large and costly volume home 
with us, we are glad to do so ; and care very little if the register 
does not show that we have been here ; and observation does show 
this increase in the number of readers. It is also said that there 
are books not taken from the shelves from one year's end to an- 
other. Possibly this is so ; and yet these very books, when wanted, 
may be of the greatest service. It is one of the functions of great 
libraries to store the books that the individual cannot afford to 
keep. It is also true that many books are in foreign languages. 
With regard to these I will quote Lord Bacon's saying — Wk Some 
books also may be read by deputy " — and I am very sure that 
any information so gained will, in this Society at least, come to 
the surface for the benefit of us all. 

The Committee of Arrangements, to whose judicious and active 
care so much of the success of the exhibitions has been due, state 
forcibly the necessity for larger floor accommodations.; and I feel 
sure that all present at the Annual Exhibition will agree with 
them. It was much to be regretted that the finest collection ever 
brought together by the Society should not have been more suit- 
ably displayed. A slight experience has brought forcibly to my 
attention the labor, the expense, and, more than all, the injury to 
plants, caused by the carrying of them to the upper hall. It can 
easily be understood, then, what serious damages an exhibition in- 



APPROPRIATIONS RECOMMENDED. 11 

volves in the case of the extremely valuable plants shown by a 
number of our prominent exhibitors, — losses that can only be made 
whole by the fairly earned consciousness of a great public benefac- 
tion, gratefully acknowledged. ^ 

With regard, then, to our building, we find that the accommo- 
dations for our books are quite insufficient, that two at least of 
our exhibitions have outgrown the floor space of the halls, that 
social and business changes have rendered difficult, if not impos- 
sible, the earlier and more acceptable use of them ; and I therefore 
urge upon the Society the immediate and careful consideration of 
what seem to me to be the most important questions now before 
us ; the alterations, if any are necessary, and the future uses of 
this building. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — You have elected me to this your 
highest office. 

I approach its many duties with diffidence, knowing full well how 
much will be expected of him who follows the many eminent men 
who have filled this place ; but confidently trusting in 3 our contin- 
ued good will, I shall do all that is in my own power to protect and 
advance the interests of the Societ\\ 

On motion of Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, the thanks of the So- 
ciety were unanimously presented to the outgoing and incoming 
Presidents for their interesting addresses. 

On motion of C. M. Hovey, it was voted that a committee of 
three be appointed to take into consideration the suggestions made 
in the President's address. The chair appointed as that Committee 
Charles S. Sargent, C. M. Hovey, and F. L. Ames. 

The appropriations recommended by the Executive Committee 
on the 7th of Novenber and the 26th of December were unani- 
mously voted, as follows : — 

For Prizes and Gratuities, — 

For Plants and Flowers ($200 of this amount 

being for gratuities during the winter months) $2,800 

For Fruits 1,700 

For Vegetables . . . . . 1,000 

For Gardens . 300 



Total for Prizes and Gratuities . . . $5,800 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

For the Library Committee, for the purchase of 
magazines and newspapers, binding of books, 
and incidental expenses of the Committee . 300 

For the same Committee, to continue the Card 

Catalogue of Plates . . . . .100 
; For the Committee on Publication and Discus- 
sion ........ 250 

For the ^Committee of Arrangements, — this sum 
$o sCQver f|l extraordinary expenses of said 
Committee . . . . . . . 300 

jFor £he saw© Committee, to cover the deficiency 
jin th$ appro p s rfa|}ions for the years 1884 and 
1.88.5 ,,,..... 94.80 

The Secretary rea(| a letter from Mrs. Mary E. Whitmore, ac- 
knowledging the receipt of £he resolutions passed by the Society 
in memory of her husbanql, $fre late Charles O. Whitmore, and ex- 
pressing the gratification of the .farnily therewith. 

The Secretary also announced tfeat the Schedule of Prizes for 
1888 was ready for distribution, 

The Chairman of the Committee on Publication and Discussion 
announced that the series of meetings for discussion would com- 
mence on the next Saturda}^ with a discussion of " New Fruits of 
Promise;" to be opened by E, W, Wood, Chairman of the Fruit 
Committee. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 9. 



BUjSJireSS MEETING. 



Saturday, January 9, 1886. 

An adjourned rneeting of the Society was holden at 1 1 o'clock, 
President Walcott in the c^air.. 

On motion of Edward Iy, Beard it was Voted, That the Com- 
mittee charged with procuring a portrait pf fte Hon. Francis B. 
Hayes, late President of the Society, l?e re^uesfced to perform tne 
same duty with respect to ex-President Moore. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 16. 



A TRIP TO THE TROPICS. 13 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Owing to a severe snow-storm, but a small number of persons 
were present, and the meeting was adjourned for one week. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 16, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
President Walcott in the chair. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Publication and Dis- 
cussion was read by O. B. Hadwen, Chairman, accepted, and or- 
dered to be placed on file. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 23. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

A Trip to the Tropics. 

By Joseph H. Woodford, Newton. 

Our Committee on Discussions having learned that I lately 
returned from a voj'age to Central America, and being desirous 
that others should know more about this wonderful country than 
can readily be got from books, have prevailed upon me to relate 
nvy experience while engaged in this trip ; and this I will now pro- 
ceed to do in as brief a manner as possible. 

The voyage commenced on the 3d day of October of last year, 
with a thick fog and a head wind. We were compelled to put out 
to sea immediately to escape the fog, and then laid our course in 
a straight line for the Bahamas, considering that a straight line is 
the shortest distance between two points. It may be so in most 
cases, but one u can't 'most always tell " if this is the case on a 
voyage ; particularly if the ship is having sea mountains to climb 
all the way, and finding the steepest ones at the end of the straight 
line, in the " roaring forties." Lady Brassey's descriptions of the 
seas around the Bahamas are very interesting and truthful, and I 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

refer you to her account of her trips in the " Sunbeam" for par- 
ticulars of very interesting voyages in those waters. 

While on the voyage, at times when the weather is pleasant, one 
often recalls the words of the old song, — 

"A life on the ocean wave, 
A home on the rolling deep," — "* 

and under auspicious circumstances it seems beautiful, and one 
can see a vast deal of comfort and enjoyment in it, but when we 
get on shore and away from the haunts of men we recall the other 
good old song which says — 

" Some love to roam 
O'er the dark sea foam , 
But a life in the woods for me,V 

a life which seems to me, as compared with a life on the ocean 
wave, much more suggestive of the acme of human enjoyment in 
this world of ours. 

As we approach the coast of the tropics, we are pleased to notice 
the great difference in the forests from those we are accustomed to 
see. All along the coast the cocoanut palm rears its beautiful head, 
and on nearer approach we notice an abundance of its fruit in all 
stages of ripening. The forests are unlike any we are familiar 
with in our own country, presenting a different foliage, and a more 
dense appearance down to the water's edge. 

Our first landing was at Balize, in British Honduras, the most 
important city on the coast, and probably the most enterprising. 
The principal portion of the inhabitants are Spaniards, negroes, 
Hindoos, and the native Indians, which, with all sorts of interme- 
diate strains, make up a motley population peculiar to this coun- 
try, and not such as we are accustomed to see at home. Our stay 
at Balize at this time was limited, and we therefore had no chance 
to study the people, but learned afterwards that they are in gen- 
eral lazj', indolent, and very fbncl of intoxicating drinks. The 
hire of an able-bodied man is $1.25 per day ; but it is worth more 
than that to get a claj's work from some of them. 

The next port we made was Livingston, in Guatemala. The 
town consists principally of a considerable number of mud huts ; 
all thatched with palm leaves. As it sits on quite an eminence, it 
presents the appearance of a thrifty little town, and this idea is not 
dispelled on landing. Livingston is situated at the mouth of the 



A TRIP TO THE TROPICS. 15 

Rio Dulce, a watercourse which extends from a large lake in the 
interior of Guatemala to the Caribbean Sea. There are several 
small steamboats plying on this river and lake, making regular 
trips up and down, and I have to regret that I was unable to make" 
a round trip in one of them. 

The river after we get over the bar at the mouth is very deep ; 
and as it comes down through a lofty range of mountains, densely 
wooded to the water's edge with tropical forests, it presents to the 
lover of inland navigation a most beautiful and enchanting scene. 
Just back of Livingston and on the Rio Chocon, Mr. William T. 
Brigham, who read a paper before this Society in 1884, has estab- 
lished a Tropical Products Company, and is -very largely engaged in 
growing sugar cane, coffee, India rubber, and in fact all the best 
productions of a tropical country, and as Mr. Brigham is present 
he will tell us of his success. 

The great drawback to the navigation of all the rivers in Cen- 
tral America is the presence of sand bars accumulated at their 
mouths, so that ships must lie out in the bays, from a half-mile to 
one and a half miles from shore, while loading. This is rather 
awkward in a rough sea, and often detains ships beyond their time 
and at serious expense. 

While walking through one of the streets of Livingston I came 
upon a man and woman who were building a house. The frame 
consisted of some poles set in the ground, and to each side of 
these were tied strips of the midribs of leaves of palm, and these 
were also tied together, at regular intervals, with some very tough 
vine from the woods. I did not see a nail used in the whole struct- 
ure. Alongside of this house an excavation had been made about 
two feet deep, and in this the soil which had been taken out was 
being kneaded into mortar b}' the feet of the man and woman. 
After the mud had become adhesive and was of the proper consist- 
ency for handling, a small tray full of it would be taken out, and 
the process of building up the sides of the house by filling in be- 
tween the posts would go on till the house was complete. The roof 
is always finished before the sides, so that the mud is protected from 
the rains, and in due course of time it dries and makes a durable 
house. I was told that from ten to fifteen years would pass before 
the house would require rebuilding. The roof is a thatch, generally 
of the fronds of the Cohune palm ; this is preferred, because it does 
not readily take fire. The fronds are split the whole length through 



16 MASSACHUSETTS IIOItTICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

the midribs and then tied to the rafter poles. They are laid on 
quite thick, sufficiently so to make the roof proof against leakage, 
and to protect the inmates from the fervent heat of the sun. I 
was told by one of the English merchants, who was having his 
thatch relaid, that it was better than any other kind of roof, as it 
r kept the bungalow cool and dry. About seven feet of rain is the 
annual fall in that country, and you will readily see that the roof 
is a very important factor in the sum total of one's happiness. 

From Livingston we proceeded to Omoa, a picturesque little 
village situated in a beautiful indentation of the coast, and at the 
foot of the Omoa Mountains ; which rise immediately back of the 
village to the height of 9,000 feet, and are wooded with beautiful 
shrubs and trees to their very summits. Nothing can be prettier 
than the view of this village and the surrounding scenery, from the 
deck of a steamship ; but as I did not land at this point I cannot 
speak of the inhabitants from personal observation. 

Our next stop was at Puerto Cortez, one of the most important 
points on the coast, being the terminus of the only railway in 
Spanish Honduras. The bay makes a good harbor, and at one 
time while our steamship was there five others lay at anchor along- 
side. Some were loading mahogany and cedar for Europe, while 
the others were taking bananas, cocoanuts, and any other produce 
procurable, for the United States. 

Puerto Cortez is situated on a tongue of land running out into 
the sea, and forming one side of the bay ; and on the centre of this 
tongue of land is the railway track. There is no other street in 
the village, and the houses and stores are set on posts on either 
side of this street or track. The land is very low, and in the rainy 
season is all submerged except the railway track. Vegetation is 
of very quick growth and decays as easily as it grows ; therefore 
this place is very unhealthy, everybody being subject to malarial 
fever. We had not been there more than a week before half our 
crew were under the doctor's care, although our ship was a half- 
mile from shore. I did not get the fever, as I was careful not to 
drink the water of the country. 

The other terminus of this railway is San Pedro, a snug inland 
village, thirty-seven miles from Puerto Cortez. It was proposed 
when this railway was begun to extend it across Honduras through 
the capital city, Tegucigalpa, to the Bay of Fonseca on the Pacific 
Ocean side ; but after the work was under wav, and bonds to the 



A TRIP TO THE TROPICS. 17 

amount of thirty millions of dollars had been negotiated in Europe, 
it was thought best to have an insurrection and overturn of the 
government, so that those who had obtained the money might 
retire on a competency without accounting for what the} T had 
received. This was accomplished, and today Honduras is in 
consequence the poorest of the Central American States ; with a 
railway of onl}- thirty-seven miles in length, and a debt that will 
never be wiped out. The railway with its rolling stock and work- 
shops is now leased for $1,200 per year, and the trains run as often 
as employment offers. We chartered a train of three cars and an 
engine to go to San Pedro and return — we taking coal from the 
ship to run the engine — and even with this precaution we were 
seven hours on the way to San Pedro. However, we were well 
repaid for the trip, as the line went through a region of the most 
beautiful foliage I ever saw. Banana orchards and cocoanut and 
Cohunc palms extend for miles along both sides of the track, and 
when these were passed forests of unexampled luxuriance greeted us 
on every side. All the trees around here have a most curious for- 
mation at the ground, as their roots seem to commence far up the 
trunk and gradually spread out into huge buttresses ; which afford 
the breadth requisite for supporting their enormous growth in the 
soft ground of the tropics. This base has not only to support its 
own superstructure, but also innumerable vines and creepers, 
affectionately clinging to the trunk and gaining strength as they 
grow, even to the very top. Often the usurping vine grows with 
such an overpowering vitality as to completely smother its support. 
The branches of nearly all the large trees are covered with all 
sorts of orchids and other epiphytal plants, clothing them so pro- 
fusely that in some instances, when completel} 7- soaked with moist- 
ure, the mass becomes too ponderous to remain where it grows, and 
often there falls at once to the ground a quantity sufficient to stock 
a large orchid house. In fact, vegetation is so very rampant in 
this country that whenever a seed happens to lodge on a tree, it 
almost immediately germinates and begins to grow, and then comes 
the struggle as to which will survive the longest, the horse or the 
rider. I have seen trees completely covered and smothered by 
others of quicker growth, and they presented a wonderfully 
peculiar appearance. 

To a person not accustomed to tropical vegetation, I think the 
most striking trees are the Palms. The Cocoanut is the most 
2 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

familiar, as this always grows along the coast, and often with its 
roots in the salt water ; where it appears to thrive about as well as 
on a sweeter soil. Palms of various kinds, some with smooth 
trunks, some covered with spines, and some with a fibre suitable for 
making into cordage, are to be found in all the forests of Central 
America. The most beautiful of the large-growing palms is the Atta- 
lea Cohune. This resembles in general appearance a young cocoanut 
palm, but the trunk never becomes so elongated as it increases in 
age. The trunk of the Cohune palm is thicker and more sturdy ; 
and at the base of its leaves is found the hempen fibre used for 
cordage, together with several bunches of nuts. I think that for 
beauty and magnificence of foliage it is the most wonderful of the 
Palm family. It grows, well only on very rich soil in the interior ; 
and as portions of Honduras are extremely fertile this palm in 
those sections attains its highest perfection. I have seen the 
fronds thirty feet in length and four feet broad on miles of trees, 
and intermingling overhead in most wonderful luxuriance of 
growth ; creating in the mind of an enthusiastic horticulturist a 
desire that all other admirers of the beautiful might behold the 
same magnificent scene. 

This Cohune palm bears at the base of the fronds great bunches 
of nuts, exactly resembling huge clusters of grapes ; and I have 
often wondered, when looking over the old family Bible, whether 
the artist who made the picture in it usually supposed to repre- 
sent two men carrying a bunch of grapes on a pole between them 
was not acquainted with the Cohune palm, and whether, in his 
desire to perpetuate the memory of this beautiful and useful tree, 
he had not depicted this fruit on its way to the crushing mill — there 
to be made into the very finest and best oil either for culinary or 
mechanical purposes— instead of grapes to be made into wine. 

The woods are full of vines and creepers, in most places so 
numerous and luxuriant as to make the forest impenetrable for 
man till he cuts his way through with the ever present machete 
(a sword-like knife about three feet long). Sarsaparillas, Dipla- 
denias, Bignonias, etc., etc., run wild and in confusion, the useful 
and the ornamental all mixed together. 

Our next stopping place was at the mouth of the River Ulloa, 
and if there was ever a place which made me think of Pande- 
monium this was it ; as it was inhabited principally by monstrous 
sharks, alligators, mosquitoes, and negroes. The negroes seemed 



A TRIP TO THE TROPICS. 19 

to be on good terms with all their neighbors, for they were not care- 
ful about getting into the water, but they cautioned us to be careful 
about getting overboard, as the sharks and alligators were waiting 
for a change of diet. 

Mahoganj', cedar, rosewood, and fustic are floated down this 
river and taken alongside ships in rafts, from which the logs are 
detached and hoisted on board. The mouth of this river is con- 
sidered a very dangerous place for ships to lie, as it affords no 
shelter from hurricanes, which sometimes arise very quickly on 
this coast. 

After loading what timber we could comfortably take, we re- 
turned to Balize, touching at the various ports on our way. As 
we were to be detained a day here, I made arrangements to go into 
the woods and collect some plants. A donkey, a cart and driver, a 
long handled chisel, and a machete completed our equipment, and 
we started on the principal street leading out of the city past the 
Governor's house. After going about three miles, the road 
became choked and nearly impassable, and we turned about, and 
made our collection on our way back to the city. The cart was 
loaded to its full extent with as many epiphytal plants as the 
donkey could draw, and when I packed them on the wharf pre- 
paratory to sending on board I found I had nine quite large cases 
full. There might be among them many of no value, but I took 
what there was within my reach, knowing that when we have the 
plants growing we can easily find out whether they are of any 
consequence. Some of the Tillandsias, Billbergias, Orchids, 
Cacti, and Aroids collected are very curious, and I was well repaid 
for my investment of five dollars in the excursion. I was told by 
some of the merchants that at a distance of about thirty^ miles 
inland, up among the mountains, I could obtain very much choicer 
varieties of orchids, and in quantities sufficient to load a ship ; 
which statement I have no reason to doubt. 

It would be impossible to enumerate the names of the trees, 
shrubs, and plants I saw in the forests, as I had no time for criti- 
cal examination ; but I can heartily recommend the country as a 
rich field for botanists or collectors of plants — a region in which 
they can fairly revel in nature's voluptuousness. 

Its inhabitants are laboring under serious disadvantages. They 
have no incentive to any labor beyond that which will pro- 
duce their daily bread, as there are no enterprises into which ihey 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

can put airy surplus earnings. This makes them lazy, unambi- 
tious, and careless ; and consequently but small areas of land are 
cleared for cultivation. The small farms when once subdued and 
planted yield crops all the year round, therefore the husbandman 
has continually at hand food for the subsistence of bis family. 
The currency of these countries is silver, and is at a depreciation 
of nearly thirty per cent, so that every ship that goes there for 
trade always goes provided with the monej' current in the country, 
to pay for produce. This money can be bought of any of our 
bankers at seventy cents to the dollar. The products of the 
country are not dear, if one has a near market in which to dispose 
of them. When I was there bananas were worth fifty cents per 
bunch, cocoanuts ten dollars per thousand, oranges fift} r cents per 
hundred, and lemons, limes, and pineapples were equally cheap ; 
and, as these fruits are continually maturing, a ship can be loaded 
along the coast at any time. New Orleans, which is but five days 
sail by steamship from this coast, is the only large market avail- 
able for this perishable fruit. 

This counUy offers an abundant field for the exertions of an 
enterprising population ; for well directed labor, continuously 
applied, is sure to meet with a bountiful return in the natural pro- 
ductions of the country. Yet still it remains the lazy man's para- 
dise, and probably will until the enthusiasm of the live Yankee 
fills the land with homes such as we have in New England. 

We completed our return voyage without incident, having been 
about six weeks on the trip. 

Discussion. 

William T. Brigham, the President of the Tropical Products 
Company, was called on by the Chair, and said that since he last 
had the pleasure of telling the Society what he thought could be 
clone in Central America he had again visited that country and 
purchased a tract of twenty square miles, of which three hundred 
acres was cleared and planted with cacao, coffee, India rubber 
(Castilloa), figs, nutmegs, and oranges, from the Botanic Garden 
of Jamaica. They did not intend at first to plant oranges, which 
bring only two and a half cents for half a bushel of the finest 
quality. The Castilloa yields at five years from planting eight 
gallons of milk, which will make sixteen pounds of rubber. The 



A TRIP TO THE TROPICS. 21 

rubber trees are planted to shade the cacao and coffee, which will 
not endure the full rays of the sun. The Erythrina is commonly 
used for this purpose ; but it is of no value otherwise. Until the 
cacao and coffee plants are two feet high they are shaded with 
mats. They also planted bananas and plantains between their 
cacao and coffee plants, and had twenty thousand bunches of ban- 
anas, for which they expected to get twelve thousand dollars, but 
when these were nearly ready for market floods came and swept 
some of them away. When the trees were cut down the trunks, 
some of which were a hundred and fifty feet long, were left to rot, 
as they would do in two years, but the flood lifted them so that 
they acted as scythes and cut clown the bananas. They got rid of 
the logs, but in an expensive manner. The}' had four varieties of 
sugar cane from Jamaica, which was planted in the roughest pos- 
sible manner, — the Caribs made furrows with hoes, in which the 
canes were laid down, and chopped into lengths of two feet as they 
sprout onl} r at broken joints ; they were then covered with the hoe 
about six inches deep. In nine months they grew nine feet high, 
while in the Hawaiian Islands it would take eighteen months to 
get that growth ; and the cane was soft and juicy. In Hawaii and 
Cuba the cane has to be replanted ever}" five years, losing one 
3 7 ear, but here it does not. He believed sugar could be produced 
here at half what it would cost in Cuba ; but they had no machinery, 
and with the high duty and low price in the United States it would 
not pay. Suitable machinery would cost eighty thousand dollars. 
They purchased a large number of pigs, which they fatted on 
sugar cane. Their greatest want was a skilful propagator to take 
care of their seeds before and after germinating. The seed of the 
India rubber tree is very difficult to grow ; only about ten seeds 
out of three thousand sent by the Guatemalan Government ger- 
minated. The only way to preserve it over a fortnight is to plant 
in boxes and water three times a day. He thought an India rubber 
tree nursery would be a good enterprise. Not anticipating the 
effect of the sun, they selected the dryest land for planting, and 
in the dry season it was almost dried up ; so that they will have to 
bring water for their bananas and plantains. In Louisiana the 
planters are giving up cane, and planting rice as more profitable. 
In Central America the upland rice when sown broadcast grows 
six feet high, whereas in Louisiana the speaker had never seen it 
more than eighteen inches or two feet high in the swamps, or fifteen 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

inches on upland. The Central American rice is of far better 
quality than that produced in the United States, but there is no 
hulling machine in the country. Figs grow rapidly, and the foreign 
grapes thrive admirably. 

There are in the woods many beautiful timbers for cabinet work 
that we know nothing about ; but they are hard to get out, for the 
soil is so soft that oxen sink in it almost to their bellies. Many 
are so heavy as to sink in water, but sometimes rafts are built of 
mahogany and these heavy woods are placed on them and so floated 
down. There are also many valuable drugs, saps, and juices un- 
known to us ; one tree when cut down exudes a natural paint. 
The Simaba Ceclron, found in the southern republics, is reputed a 
specific for serpent bites., 

The states of Central America are almost all burdened with 
debts. In one of them a loan of $27,000,000, negotiated in 
Europe for building a railroad, yielded only $5,000,000 for that 
purpose, the remaining $22,000,000 being swallowed up in the 
commissions of the negotiators ; and a similar case occurred in 
another state. The railroad which was built was of narrow gauge ; 
and the sleepers sink in the soil and are eaten by insects and soon 
break, so that there are only three miles where they dare to run a 
locomotive. The road is used for the transportation of fruit ; 
which in thirt}^ miles of such travel is damaged more than by a 
long sea voyage. 

The inhabitants are reacly to welcome all foreigners except 
Chinese. The duties on imports are very high ; at Puerto Cortez a 
dozen cans of tomatoes were charged with a duty of $9.67 ; and a 
cooking stove which would cost $26 here cost $140 in Guatemala 
Cit}'. The grant to the Tropical Products Company includes a 
free port of entry, which in a country where duties are so heavy 
is a very important concession. The government has kept its word 
with the Company. The physique of the natives is fine and labor 
is plenty. The merchants deal principally in aguardiente and 
gambling implements. 

The Company sent to the Southern States of our nation for 
negroes, but without success, and then used Caribs, who at first 
wanted pay in advance but afterwards they did not want their 
pay at all. The government encourages intemperance because it 
is a source of revenue ; the natives drink pure alcohol and lie down 
in the gutters. The native laborers must not be induced to lay up 



A TRIP TO THE TROPICS. 23 

money, for if a man accumulates ten dollars he is provided for as 
far as he can see. The Compan}^ had been obliged to provide and 
sell them lanterns for lighting their houses, and shoes for their 
feet ; to induce them to buy sardines, lobsters, etc. ; and to 
encourage the women to use mirrors, beads, ribbons, etc., so that 
the\^ might spend their money and go to work again. The labor- 
ers find that work does not hurt them but improves their appetites. 

Negroes from Alabama planted cotton and could pick it every 
day in the year ; it grows to a tree in that climate, and it must be 
pruned to keep it within reach of the pickers. They had to encour- 
age their laborers to raise food, for, though a man could raise 
sufficient food for his family with very little labor, they would beg 
of countrymen. 

In answer to a question how long it took for cotton to grow into 
a tree, Mr. Brigham said that in six months it grew so high that he 
could not reach the lower branches, and the stem was eight inches 
thick, and a ladder was required to pick it. This was in latitude 
15° on the Atlantic. 

The rain} T season lasts about nine months ; every night during 
that time it rains so heavily that an umbrella is of no use. The 
dry season is not like that of California, where the dust is six or 
eight inches deep ; but there are several showers every week. The 
highest range of the thermometer was 86°, which is not so uncom- 
fortable as 76° in Boston ; and the lowest was 70°. There is no 
summer and no winter, and you can plant so as to have crops 
come into use every day in the year. If pineapples are ripe in 
January this year, they will not be ripe at the same time next 
year, but in nine months from the preceding crop ; and the case is 
the same with bananas. The pineapples average five pounds in 
weight, and the whole interior is eatable. Some bananas form seeds, 
but in most varieties the seed is abortive. When sprouting they 
look not unlike crocuses. The stem of the banana is cut down as 
soon as it has borne its fruit ; it contains a fibre between hemp and 
silk in character. 

The greatest drawback to settling in the country is the absolute 
isolation ; the natives are no society. There is malaria, as there 
is in all countries where forests are being cleared, but it is probably 
not anj'thing like as troublesome as colds are here. His son had 
been there three years and was as healthy as any man in Boston. 
There is a difference in the character of the coasts ; the low land 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HOETICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

is bordered by a fringe of lagoons where mangroves grow, and the 
roots collect a scum which corrupts in the tropical sun ; and such 
places are exceedingly unhealthy. On the Pacific Coast it is very 
unhealthy for white men. Near Livingston .there are limestone 
mountains, and the surf rolls in in the afternoon ; and though the 
breezes which cause it are uncomfortable for navigators they are 
good for health. Aguardiente will kill a man quicker there 
than here. Calcutta is said to be unhealthy, but if men take care 
of themselves and eat vegetables and fruit they can preserve their 
health. In such hot climates meat can be kept but a very little 
while, and in Central America when a cow is killed the)* blow a 
conch shell to inform the dwellers in the vicinity that beef is to be 
had ; and the meat is cut in long strips and roasted on skewers. 
They have baked beans superior to any in Boston ; the beans are 
black and are seasoned with delicate peppers, called chilis, and 
tomatoes. In Spanish Honduras there are high valleys with mag- 
nificent pasture land, where one can live infinitely better than in 
New England. 

In answer to an inquiry whether vegetables could be cultivated 
in Central America, Mr. Brigham said that cabbages grow five feet 
high and pineapples can be got any day. There are no annuals 
like turnips, etc. Where the refuse of pineapples is thrown out it 
grows and forms an impenetrable thicket. The banana is like the 
bread-fruit in never forming seeds ; pineapples sometimes form 
seeds ; the banana will not bear fruit in the shade. Small corms 
of bananas require eighteen months to produce fruit. In the 
East Indies there are soils where cultivation has been carried on 
for thousands of years. The speaker had seen on his plantation 
vegetable mould fourteen feet deep. In Costa Eica there is a 
deposit of volcanic sand of great fertility. The climate varies be- 
tween the eastern and the western coast ; when it is wet in one it 
is dry in the other. 

Jackson Dawson remarked that cotton is always shrubby in the 
tropics. Sea island cotton grows from fifteen to twenty feet high 
in St. Helena. 

Fruits that Promise Well. 

The discussion of this subject, which was assigned for the pre- 
ceding Saturday but prevented by the storm, was here taken up. 
E. W. Wood, Chairman of the Fruit Committee, who had been 



FKUITS THAT PROMISE WELL. 25 

appointed to lead, remarked that the transition from the glowing 
accounts of tropical vegetation to the common fruits of our own 
country was great and sudden, especially after the extremely 
severe weather which we had just endured, yet perhaps the lat- 
ter subject is more interesting practically. It is difficult to con- 
fine the subject to new fruits, for many that are new in one place 
are old in another. A change is not so easily brought about in 
fruits as in some other things ; a machine ma} 7 show its value in 
a single year, but it is only by long continued experience that 
we decide what varieties of fruit are best. Most fruits are best 
in the place where they originated, and deteriorate when they go. 
awa} 7 from it, but there are exceptions, such as the Wilson straw- 
berry and the Gravenstein apple. 

Probably as many good apples have originated in Massachusetts 
as in any place of equal extent, and our winter apples possess so 
mairy good qualities that it is difficult to surpass them. The Bald- 
win grows well, bears early, and is of good size and color, and it 
will probably be long before airything will be found to displace it 
as a market apple. Worcester count} 7 presents some good apples, 
among which is the Palmer Greening or Washington Royal ; a 
late keeping variety, green changing to yellow when ripe, and of 
excellent quality, bringing from fifty cents to a dollar per barrel 
more than Baldwins. It originated in Leominster. The Sutton 
Beauty has been longer introduced, but is not as well known as it 
deserves to be. It is of good size, excellent quality, and hand- 
some, and has other good points. A seedling apple sent to this 
Society in 1884 by John F. Jones, of Contoocook, N. H., is large 
and of solid dark red color and as attractive as the Fameuse. The 
Chenango apple is little known here ; it is large, handsome, of fine 
quality*, and valuable for family or market. 

Among the newer pears the Frederick Clapp has been sufficiently 
tested to show that it is of superior quality and a good grower and 
bearer and should be in every amateur's garden. The President 
Clark, a seedling raised b} 7 the late Francis Dana, is of the highest 
quality, but is not yet disseminated. The Keiffer has been well 
written up and well paid for, but there has never been a specimen 
shown here that could be considered of fair qualhry as a dessert 
fruit. 

Perhaps there has been more improvement in grapes in recent 
years than in any other fruit. The Worden and Moore's Early 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

have been adopted in general cultivation ; the former is probably 
the best of the many seedlings from the Concord. The Cottage, 
raised by Mr. Bull, the originator of the Concord, and the Early 
Victor, a native of Kansas, are desirable "early kinds. The Niag- 
ara ripens with the Concord ; it is a vigorous grower and bears 
abundantly, and is a valuable white grape. The Hayes grape has 
been tested hy most of the members of the Society ; in quality it 
is superior to the Niagara. When the Fruit Committee visited 
Mr. Moore he set before them wine made from this variety, which 
experts thought the best wine they had ever tasted from a native 
grape. The Prentiss, which is said to be a cross between the 
native and foreign, is of fine quality ; but has not fulfilled the hopes 
entertained of its vigor and productiveness. We shall have to 
look to pure natives for these points, which we may hope to com- 
bine with the best qualit}*. Rogers's Hybrids, to the number of 
forty or fifty, were introduced under the most favorable conditions, 
but during the last season, although it was a remarkably favorable 
one for grapes, onty thirteen dishes were shown at our exhibitions. 

In plums, owing to the destruction of trees by the black 
wart and of fruit b} T the curculio, almost all the varieties may be 
said to be new. The Green Gage is unequalled in quality, but 
there are many better growers. The Jefferson, McLaughlin, 
Washington, Bradshaw, and Niagara are among the best. 

In strawberries a change is brought about more quickly than in 
any other fruit, and we have seen more new varieties ; meanwhile 
some old kinds have deteriorated and gone out of cultivation. Kinds 
that did well ten or fifteen years ago have become almost obsolete. 
The cultivation of the Hovey was continued until it ceased to pro- 
duce good crops, and the same was the case with the Brighton 
Pine. The Triomphe de Grand has not been shown here for three 
years. Among the newer kinds which have become established as 
excellent market berries are the Charles Downing, Miner's Prolific, 
Sharpless,and Cumberland. The Wilson and Crescent are exceed- 
' ingly productive, but of inferior quality. With amateurs the Her- 
vey Davis, Wilder, and La Constante are favorites for their fine 
quality. Among the newer kinds not yet fully proved, but which 
promise well, are the Bidwell, Manchester, Belmont, and Jewell. 
Some have complained that the Bidwell does not carry out its fruit, 
but perhaps higher cultivation will obviate this. The Manchester 
is very prolific and of good size. The Belmont has been grown 



FRUITS THAT PROMISE WELL. 27 

very successfully by the originator ; it is most productive and the 
quality is from fair to good — about on a par with the Sharpless. 
It is a late variety, with fine flesh, and keeps remarkably well. 
The Jewell is perhaps a little better in quality than the Belmont, 
and the size compares favorably with that of the Sharpless, while 
the form is better. Judging from the plants shown here last sum- 
mer, it is very prolific, and it makes very strong runners. 

Of the newer raspberries the Cuthbert is most popular and is 
becoming generally cultivated. The only new currant is Fay's 
Prolific, which in vigor and size of fruit does not compare favor- 
ably with the Versaillaise. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder said that we live in an age of enter- 
prise and progress in originating and introducing new fruits ; and 
though many of them prove of little value the spirit which leads 
to this work is commendable. Many kinds once popular have dis- 
appeared or are disappearing, and their places must be supplied. 
In New England the interest in collecting pears has been so great 
that forty years ago A. J. Downing called it a mania. Over a 
thousand kinds have been tested ; many have proved of no value, 
but from among these collections have come the fine kinds which 
stand out like stars in American pomology. Some supposed new 
kinds have turned out to be old ones ; like the Baronne de Mello, 
a variety of high quality, which was discovered last season by 
persons who thought it new. Among other fine varieties which 
have not been appreciated are the fimile d' Heyst and the Water- 
loo ; the General Warren, supposed to be a seedling of the late 
Francis Dana, proves to be identical with the latter. Mr. Wilder 
suggested that premiums should be offered for the resuscitation of 
fine old varieties. He considered the Washington Strawberry 
apple fully equal in beauty to the Gravenstein, and only second 
to it in quality. He could not agree with Mr. Wood in regard 
to the Rogers grapes. The Barry, Wilder, and others succeed 
with him almost as well as am T varieties except the Concord and 
Moore's Early. Charles Downing preferred the Wilder to any 
other native grape. The Lindle}^ is superior even to the Delaware ; 
he showed it to eleven connoisseurs, nine of whom pronounced it 
best. It is a variety which we cannot dispense with. In some 
seasons the Rogers hybrids may mildew, but in others they do not. 
The speaker said, however, that his grapes have a veiy favorable 
location. He admired Mr. Wood's good taste in retaining the 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Hervey Davis and Wilder strawberries, the former of which is 
a seedling from the latter. He commended the Jewell as a very 
remarkable variety ; one plant had fifteen fruit stems, averaging 
ten berries to a stem. The Prince is probably a parent of the 
Jewell ; it is as high flavored as any variety, makes a large stool, 
.and bears an abundance of fruit. The Triomphe de Gand continues 
to grow with him as well as any other kind ; a neighbor culti- 
vates half an acre and has no other. The Parry is promising. Of 
raspberries the Souchetti, imported thirty 3 r ears ago, took the first 
prize last year, and is perhaps the most valuable kind for family 
use. The Marlborough is a most remarkable grower; he had ex- 
hibited here a cane nine feet in length. It is not of the highest qual- 
ity, but is very productive and seems perfectly hard}*. It pro- 
duces a host of suckers — sometimes fif ty to a stool — which must be 
kept down or the crop will fail. The Caroline, which is a true 
hybrid between the Brinckle's Orange and a Blackcap, is haixty and 
valuable. 

O. B. Had wen. Chairman of the Committee on Publication and 
Discussion, remarked that all present had been interested in the 
discussion, and had learned from the practical experience of those 
who had spoken, and perhaps from long observation of their own, 
that new seedling fruits are necessary to take the place of those 
which have gone out. He announced for the next Saturday a paper 
on the u Cultivation and Transplanting of Forest Trees " by Wil- 
liam C. Strong. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 23, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
Vice-President Benjamin G. Smith in the chair. 

On motion of Francis H. Appleton it was unanimously Voted, 
That the State Board of Agriculture be requested to consider the 
desirability of requiring that every incorporated agricultural so- 
ciety, receiving the State Bounty, shall include the subject of For- 
estry in their annual discussions at their Farmer's Institutes. 

Adjourned to Saturday, January 30. 



THE FOREST INTERESTS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 29 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The Forest Interests of Massachusetts. 

By William C. Strong, Newton Highlands. 

It is a prevailing impression that the climate of Massachusetts 
has changed since the cla} 7 s of its early settlement. But it is to be 
noticed that this impression is vague, and takes form in conflicting 
opinions, with the changing seasons, as they may chance to be 
either hot or cold, wet or dry. 

However trivial may seem the value of such fluctuating and con- 
flicting opinions, it is not to be disputed that certain very material 
changes, both in the climate and in the soil, have taken place in 
this State. The descriptions of early writers concur in showing 
that the country was originally covered with a heav}' forest growth, 
from the mountains to the very brink of the sea ; except where in- 
terrupted by the salt marshes, the meadows along the shores of 
rivers and ponds, and occasional open upland spaces where the 
Indians planted their corn. The scouting party sent out from the 
Mayflower reported even of Cape Cod that it was " all wooded 
with oaks, pine, sassafras, juniper, birch, holly, vines, some ash, 
walnut ; the wood for the most part open and without under- 
wood, fit either to go or ride in. " (Mourt's Relation, 1622.) 

In Wood's " New England Prospect, " printed in 1634, the is- 
lands in Boston Harbor are described as covered with " good tim- 
ber to repair their weather-beaten ships. Here also may be had 
masts or yards, being store of such trees as are useful for the same 
purpose. " 

And in regard to the qualit} T and productiveness of the soil, sim- 
ilarly enthusiastic descriptions are given. In 1629 Rev. Francis 
Higginson wrote, "The aboundant encrease of corne proves this 
countrey to bee a wonderment. . . What will you say of two 
hundred fould and upwards? . . Our turnips, parsnips, and 
carrots are here, both bigger and sweeter than is ordinary to be 
found in England." 

In the same year Master Graves describes the luxuriance of 
vegetation as follows: — "Thus much I can afflrme in generall 
that I never came to a more goodly country in all my life, all 
things considered. If it hath not at any time been manured and 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

husbanded, yet it is very beautifull in open lands. . . No place 
barren but on the tops of the hills ; the grasse and weedes grow- 
up to a man's face ; in the lowlands and by fresh rivers abundance 
of grasse and large meddowes without any tree or shrubbe to 
hinder the sith. I never saw, except in Hungaria, unto which I 
always parallel this countrie, in all our most respects ; for every- 
thing that is heare, eyther sowne or planted, prospereth far better 
then in old England. " 

It is to be regretted that no accurate statements are made of the 
3 7 ield per acre of the various products of the soil. But, judging 
from these and many similar general statements which the limit 
of time forbids me to cite, we have every reason to believe they 
were far beyond the average crops of the present day under like 
culture. It is true we read of their occasional failure by reason 
of droughts ; and it is certain that droughts occurred then as well 
as now. But in judging of their frequency and intensity we are to 
bear in mind that the plowing of early days was the merest scratch- 
ing of the surface, that little or no retentive manure was used, and 
that at the present day and under such conditions our crops 
would prove uniform failures. It is safe to say that, with the ad- 
vantage of a virgin soil and with the conservation and more uni- 
form distribution of moisture afforded b}> the forests, our ancestors 
had good reason for making glowing comparisons with the fertile 
soils of Europe. 

Turn now to the aspect of our State at the present day, and we 
are compelled to admit a might}' change. We except, with pleas- 
ure, the alluvial spots around our cities, which receive special en- 
richment and high culture. We point to these with pride, as yield- 
ing products largely exceeding those of the past. But the fertilit} T 
of these gardens serves to make the barrenness of the surrounding 
hills and plains only the more conspicuous. 

These outlying fields have been laid bare for a century or more, 
and subjected to the influences of our clear, hot sun, of sweeping 
winds, and of washing rains. To a large degree the organic deposit 
of ages has been exhausted by continued cropping ; or dried and 
blown, or washed, away. So exhausted have many sections be- 
come that they are abandoned for tillage and are now neglected 
pastures, or are left to a straggling and miscellaneous forest growth. 
It is a well known fact that there are, and have been for years, 
numerous farms for sale in all parts of the State at a price scarcely 



THE FOREST INTERESTS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 31 

sufficient to cover the value of the buildings connected with them. 
There is a well understood significance in the term " land-poor," 
as applied to a man even in this good old Commonwealth, which 
is so prosperous in commercial and manufacturing enterprises, and 
furnishes ample markets for all farm products. But the naked 
truth is that the lands are not productive ; the fertility is gone, and 
to keep them in heart requires about as much expenditure as the 
value returned by them. Of course it is evident that land will be 
wanted in the vicinity of our cities and thriving manufacturing 
centres, both for homesteads and also for cultivation, without re- 
gard to the question of profit. And there are special lines, as 
for example the production of milk, where there is an encouraging 
prospect of remuneration. Indeed, we may say that, with capital, 
improved machinery, improved methods, near and excellent mar- 
kets, and a large amount of energy and brain, most of our 
farms may be made to pay, — still the very statement implies that 
the lands are now in a low and exhausted state, and are suffering 
from neglect. The same causes which have operated to change 
Palestine and other countries of the old world from lands fct flowing 
with milk and honey " to regions of extreme sterility have been, 
and are now, operating in our own land, and we are sitting by as 
idle witnesses. 

It is, indeed, an ungracious task to report the poverty of the 
land. But the fact stares us in the face, and it is folly to shut our 
eyes upon a situation so serious. And especially is this so, if by 
wise effort it is possible, in a good degree, to ameliorate this condi- 
tion. It is true we have a long and difficult problem, in attempt- 
ing to change not only the soil, but also the very climate of a 
State. But a reversal of the processes which have caused the 
changes in the past would surely , if followed for a sufficient time, 
restore the original condition of both. If left in undisturbed 
possession Nature would, herself, in the course of ages bring 
back the stately growth of the forests, and restore the pristine 
richness of the soil. But, obviously, this is not what we seek. 
No one desires to reduce Massachusetts to the condition of a 
howling wilderness. What we do desire is to restore a fair 
balance between field and forest, — to devote certain sections, 
which are unfit for other purposes, to their own legitimate end. 

There are thousands of acres of rough hills and of barren coasts 
and sand}' plains in different parts of the State, which are unfit 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

for cultivation, and which should be judiciously planted with trees 
adapted to the situations in which they are placed. Such trees, 
wisely planted and cared for, would in time yield a better return 
than could otherwise be obtained from the soil, while at the same 
time this growth would confer an important benefit upon the sur- 
rounding country. 

I need not dwell upon the influences of forests. You all recog- 
nize their protection as wind-breaks, the fertilizing effect of their 
shade and annual deposits upon the soil ; their power of detaining the 
rainfall for a slower descent into the streams ; their radiation 
of heat in winter, and absorption of it in summer, and other like 
beneficent influences. At our last meeting Vice-President Smith 
mentioned that his thermometer was always a few degrees higher 
than his neighbors', stating also that there were a few evergreen 
trees not far away, which he presumed had some modifying effect. 
In a deep forest we do not need the aid of a thermometer to notice 
that the modifying effect is very great. 

But if the effect of forests is so beneficent, and if, withal, they 
are profitable, why then are the}- not more generally planted? 

We have time only in the briefest way to state a few prominent 
reasons. 

First. With most land-owners, this is an untried industry ; the 
processes of planting and of culture are unknown; examples of 
success are wanting. 

Second. The danger from forest fires is serious ; the risk deters 
in many cases. 

Third. The benefits of forests extend to adjoining regions, but 
the cost is borne only by the planter. 

Fourth. But, chiefly, the spirit of the age is against such long- 
investments . 

The main discouragement lies in the last mentioned con- 
sideration. 

There are a few noteworthy examples of gentlemen of wealth 
who take pride in the permanent improvement of their estates, and 
who can well afford to disregard early returns. But these cases 
are comparatively few. The bulk of our land does not remain in 
families from generation to generation, like the entailed estates of 
the old world. The tendency is to make real estate, like all other 
property, easily transferable and available for present use. 
Hence an investment which defers adequate returns for a score or 



THE FOREST INTERESTS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 33 

two of years, offers a prospect too remote to be inviting. True, 
there will be thinnings from the plantation ; which may perhaps be 
taken in eight or ten years. But these will scarcely exceed in 
value the cost of proper care of the forest. And the average land" 
owner really cannot afford to await such distant returns, with the 
constant risk of losses by fire. 

There are other discouragements, — such for example as the 
absence of saw-mills and other machinery for the manufacture of 
wood ; which are not now to be found, because the industry has 
been abandoned . 

Is it then strange that next to nothing is done in forest culture? 
Can we reasonably hope for any marked progress so long as 
present conditions exist? 

It may be said in reply that we are actually improving ; that the 
number of acres in wood is greater than it was fifty }'ears ago. 
This is doubtless true. But the very statement rather serves to 
prove to what an extreme we had drifted. The wood lots which 
have grown up during the past fifty years have in the main sprung 
ui> on wholly neglected lands ; very few have come from judicious 
planting. Many a neglected field, having ceased to yield profit- 
able crops, has been seized b} r the white birch and other miscel- 
laneous growth ; the result being that we are getting a certain kind 
of increased growth, but one of comparatively little value. There 
is also an increase of shade trees along our road-sides, and of trees 
for ornament in the vicinity of our homes, which are a real gain. 
But the result, taken as a whole, is anything but creditable to the 
State. And so long as the discouragements continue to be so 
many and so serious, it is not reasonable to expect any material 
progress in the restoration of the forests. 

But we may not rest here. It becomes us seriously to inquire 
what can be done to remove or to alleviate these discourage- 
ments. 

I am persuaded that this is an industry which requires and 
deserves the fostering care of the government. It is an industry 
which vitally affects the common weal; which if prosecuted 
largely vvould indirectl} T confer great public benefit yet must be 
done at private costj — but cannot thrive without encouragement. 
Our legislature has recognized these conditions, and has to some 
extent enacted statutes favoring forest planting. But these laws 
are meagre in their provisions, and as we have seen have not, thus 
3 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

far, produced any marked result. We also need stringent statutes 
respecting forest fires. 

Most of our fires are the result of sheer carelessness ; some, 
perhaps, of malice. Strict laws, rigidly enforced, would prevent a 
large proportion of these. The evil is not confined to the amount 
of direct loss occasioned by these fires, enormous though this is, 
hut the constant risk is a standing menace against all enterprise 
in forest culture. Our statutes should afford the amplest possible 
protection in this respect.* 

In addition to this, it is time that our legislatures should 
consider the expediency of offering bounties for lands devoted 
systematically to the growth of trees. We now have a statute 
which, under certain restrictions, exempts from taxation low-priced 
lands, — lands which are planted to forest. But this is only a 
negative encouragement, and so trifling in comparison with the 
conditions imposed that it is doubtful whether it has had any 
appreciable effect. Another statute, passed in 1882, is intended 
to encourage cities and towns in the formation of wooded parks, 
giving authority to take lands and providing for their control by 
the State Board of Agriculture. Here, again, the aid is meagre 
and remote, and is not likely to produce any marked results. 

On the other hand the offer of even a moderate graded bounty 
would arrest the attention of farmers, and probably lead to numer- 
ous efforts in planting. 

And there is surely a warrant for such a subsidy. The whole 
State is receiving direct benefit from every acre of forest main- 
tained. Whenever these widespread benefits are enhanced by 
forest planting at individual cost, should not the State contribute 
its portion? A moderate amount of bounty, it is believed, would 
prove a sufficient stimulus to arouse our farmers out of theirpresent 
habit of slovenly neglect. 

There remains one other way by which the State could promote 
the interests of forestry, and that is by example. We are familiar 
with the extensive work done by European governments in the cul- 
ture of forests, and the revenues and satisfactory results which 
follow. So well-recognized is the public welfare involved in forest 

*A stringent statute in regard to Forest Fires has since been enacted by 
the Legislature of Massachusetts, in accordance with a petition presented by 
a Committee appointed by this Society. 



THE FOREST INTERESTS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 35 

preservation, that private owners of wood are not allowed to cut 
upon their own lands without government supervision. 

The State of New York has recently appointed a Forest Com- 
mission, and made other provision for protecting the Adirondack 
region as the source of supply for the waters of the Hudson, the 
Mohawk, the Black, and other rivers, upon which the prosperity of 
the State so essentially depends. Can we doubt the wisdom of 
such a protective policy? 

It is a practical question for Massachusetts to consider how far 
she can encourage the growth of trees on her western mountain 
slopes, and on the waste stretches of her eastern coast-range ; and 
also how far she can cooperate with her sister States in protecting 
the sources of the Merrimac and the Connecticut. 

Still nearer to us and of very pressing importance is the ques- 
tion — What is her duty in respect to the Middlesex Fells? Here 
is a rugged, broken region of four thousand acres, unsuited for 
cultivation or for building purposes, yet in close proximity to the 
homes of one-third of the population of the State ; a region ad- 
apted by nature for a wild forest park, where a large and regular 
water-supply might be maintained ; where, after a very few years, 
timber might be cut, sufficient in value at least to cover all the 
cost of maintaining the park ; and where, best of all, a noble ex- 
ample might be given of fostering care over an important industrj 7 , 
with proof of the feasibility of forest culture, and of the vast ben- 
efit of such wild tracts to the neighboring cities. It is a fact so 
well recognized that I need not now dwell upon the admirable ad- 
aptation of this tract for the purposes indicated. It is a piece of 
great good fortune that, though in the immediate vicinity of the 
large cities of Lynn, Boston, Cambridge, Somerville, and Maiden, 
yet, owing to its natural conformation, it remains to this day com- 
paratively unoccupied. And still, though unsuited for ordinary 
improvement, it cannot long remain in its present condition. Un- 
less secured at an early day it will be invaded by scattering settlers 
and the opportunity to take it will be gone. 

Here then is an enterprise in which the whole State is inter- 
ested. The State should therefore assume it. But the nearer 
cities and towns are more largely interested than the more remote 
portions. The principle of betterment assessments should there- 
fore apply to these neighboring places. But this should not be 
made a heavy burden. It should be most distinctly and emphati- 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

cally understood that these Fells are to be in no respect like the 
adorned parks of most of our cities. Such costly ornamentation 
would defeat the very purpose of the enterprise. The charm of 
the place should for all time consist in its simple, rugged natural- 
ness ; while, at the same time, many practical lessons in forest cult- 
ure might there be taught. In how many and varied ways would 
tlie influence of such a project be most wholesome, — an honor to 
the State, and a source of sure and abundant recompense ! 

In my judgment, Mr. President, the time has come when the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society should throw the weight of its 
active influence in favor of forest laws in general, and of legisla- 
tion for the Middlesex Fells in particular. 

I may acid, in closing, that at the last session of the Forestry 
Congress, two of the members of this Society were appointed, with 
two gentlemen from each of the other New England States, as a 
Committee to promote appropriate legislation by these associated 
States in regard to forests ; and that this Committee now holds 
the subject under consideration. 

Discussion. 

Francis W. Brewer thanked the Society, in behalf of the Ameri- 
can Forestry Congress, for the use of the Society's Hall for the 
meeting of the Congress, last September, and for other courtesies 
shown the Congress at that time. He had listened with very great 
pleasure to Mr. Strong's paper, the subject of which is of great 
and growing importance — more so than most of us have yet real- 
ized. The laws thus far enacted in aid of forestry are wholly in- 
significant ; the laws of Connecticut provide for a bounty of ten 
cents for each tree at the age of three years, and there are similar 
laws in Massachusetts. These are worse than none, for they are 
made an excuse for not passing better laws. It would be much 
easier to begin anew. Organized action is better than individual 
effort, and it would be of great service if this society should urge 
the passage of a law offering a bounty for judiciously planted 
groves. But pending the improvement of the statutes all who 
have a bit of waste land should begin planting trees. It is sur- 
prising how much land there is in this State of which farmers could 
make no use so good as by planting with trees. This would 
allow them to concentrate their labors on better land. A few 



THE FOREST INTERESTS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 37 

days' work in spring and autumn would give them deciduous and 
evergreen trees which would afford a storehouse of lumber, besides 
great enjoyment to themselves and their families. 

John G. Barker spoke of the loss sustained in the death of 
Elizur Wright, who was one of the most earnest promoters of the 
Middlesex Fells project, and who had promised to the Garden 
Committee (of which the speaker is Chairman) a brief history of 
the Fells. The Committee were surprised at the beautj^ and variety 
of scenery in the Fells, and Mr. Barker endorsed all that the 
essayist had said in commendation of the project. If set apart as 
a park it would not take many years to produce timber enough to 
pay all expenses. We are apt to think it takes a longer time to 
get returns from tree planting than it really does. Mr. Barker 
spoke of a recent visit to the estate in Lynn planted by the 
late Hon. Richard S. Fay not a great many years ago ; where the 
larch trees had to be thinned out, and a great number were sold 
to the telephone company for poles, and smaller cnes were sold for 
fuel. He was surprised at the returns made in so short a time. 
He also spoke of a visit to the estate of Major Ben : Perley Poore 
in W T est Newbury, by the Garden Committee, who could bear 
witness to what had been done in restoring a growth of wood to 
what was once a barren hill. The growth of wood gave evidence 
that land now unproductive can be made profitable by tree plant- 
ing. A pond on the top of this hill, which was formerly dry, now 
always has water in it. In Lynn, where the speaker resides, they 
have a Forestry Society which was formed with the purpose of 
purchasing and holding on to natural forests ; the society has now 
not far from a hundred acres, some of which has been donated to 
it, and in other cases the owners have met the Society generously. 
These things show that people are becoming aware of the impor- 
tance of forest planting, and the speaker hoped this society would 
take part in the movement. In Pine Grove Cemetery, of which he 
is superintendent, there is a stratum of the best loam under rocks, 
and it is not much work to remove some of these and plant small 
trees. Near the cemeteiy there is a piece of ground producing 
birches, which if it had been planted fifteen years ago with 
larches would before now have paid an income over the taxes. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder commended with all his heart every 
effort for the planting of forest or other trees. Mr. Strong's essay 
was a most able and instructive paper, and the speaker approved 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HOETICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

of asking for government aid to forest planting. The thought that 
every farmer could have a little forest of his own, on land now use- 
less, should be impressed on all. He knew a farmer who reserved 
a portion of his land, which grew up to trees that when of proper 
age were cut off, and now another growth is coming up. The 
Hon. William Foster owned a part of the Middlesex Fells, and 
the project of reserving it as a natural park was a favorite one 
with him. 

H. Weld Fuller said that it is a matter of vital importance that 
we should have health preserved and homes fit for civilized human 
beings, and forestiy strikes at the very root of the subject. All 
Europe is alive to the importance of forest planting ; in Austria the 
forest area is increasing. Here, until recently, we have had too 
many trees, but we are now awakening to the importance of re- 
placing some of those which have been cut off. There is no doubt 
that some of our waste lands can be made profitable by planting 
with trees ; they are not like annual farm crops, which require 
continual care. He had himself planted trees which are now six 
feet in circumference. 

O. B. Hadwen, Chairman of the Committee on Publication and 
Discussion, said that while the committee had endeavored to give 
a horticultural phase to the programme of these meetings, he 
knew that the welfare of the State depended largely on the awak- 
ening of public interest in the subject discussed today. He had 
had an opportunity to learn the importance of forest planting, both 
from others and from his own experience. Forest fires have been 
a great hindrance to planting trees, especially in the vicinity of 
towns and cities. They are caused to a great extent by careless 
boys and men. At present you cannot convict unless you can 
prove malicious intent, and he wanted the law so amended as to 
include negligence on the part of persons above twelve or fourteen 
years of age ; and he would like a committee to look into the 
question whether taxation on forests should not be lessened if 
owned by persons who have little means of support. Taxes 
should come from other sources. 

The most important forest tree is the White Pine, which is 
adapted to all soils — on hilltops and in valleys. It grows rapidly, 
especially with a little encouragement ; where liberally treated he 
has seen a growth of four feet in a year. He would transplant 
seedlings from the nursery ; wild pines are not worth a tenth part 



THE FOREST INTERESTS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 39 

as much. They must be judiciously pruned ; it will not do to trim 
up a young tree too closely, but the limbs should be cut off six 
inches from the trunk. The stump will then die and can be 
knocked off the next year ; and in this way 3^011 will get clear pine, 
worth from four to six times the value of that from knotty trees, 
where small limbs have been cut close. The Black Walnut, if 
pruned, will be of great value . The Chestnut grows well all over the 
State, and always makes good timber. The Larch is a very useful 
and rapidly growing tree ; the speaker planted some for ornament, 
and twenty-six years after wanted twenty sticks, to square eight 
inches by ten and thirty feet long. He could not get them without 
resorting to his ornamental trees, and so he cut out alternate trees ; 
some of which showed annual rings three-quarters of an inch in 
thickness. The larch holds its size well, and makes stiff timber 
which cannot be sprung. There are many other trees that will 
grow on waste land. Farmers say that tree planting does not 
pay, but they who plant will see their account in it, and they or 
their heirs will reap great benefit from it. 

Francis H. Appleton said that the present laws in regard to 
forest fires refer onty to malicious or wilful injury, and if the law 
were made to include fires set carelessly or negligently the judges 
could use their discretion in regard to young persons brought before 
them for that offence. 

E. W. Wood thought that the statements of the essayist in re- 
gard to barren lands were perhaps true. Among the early set- 
tlers, the farmers had so much land that they could not cultivate it 
all. Within the last twenty-five years so much land has grown up 
to wood, that we have more wooded land now than we had before 
that time. Then the farmers got an income from old wood 
lots, but now the wood is largely a new growth. There is not 
one-fourth part as much wood used for fuel now as there was 
twenty-five years ago. Then there was not a ton of coal used in 
the native town of the speaker ; now the fires are all of coal. The 
locomotives were all run with wood then. We are likely to have 
enough firewood to supply the demand, but not enough timber. 
Much of the land where it has been recommended to plant forest 
trees is adapted to apple trees ; strong land on rough sidehills is 
the best in the world for them, and they will bear full crops in ten 
or twelve 3'ears, and bring in quicker returns than forest trees. 

Mr. Brewer thought we might be in danger of losing sight of the 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

fact that the argument is not in favor of cherishing the wild growth, 
or of producing firewood, but of systematic planting of trees for 
timber. 

C. L. Allen of Garden City, Long Island, said that a friend of 
his who has a farm on Long Island' of two hundred and forty 
,acres, one hundred and forty of which is rough land, unfit for 
agricultural purposes, thirty or forty years ago cut off all the wood 
except the chestnut from the latter portion and planted locust ; and 
this is now the most profitable part of the farm. He goes to his 
wood to get money to pay his taxes ; in fact the rough portion of 
the farm brings in more money annually than the arable land, with- 
out labor other than cutting and carting the timber, and without 
manure. The speaker has on his own farm fifty acres of white 
sand — as poor as any soil can be — where a former owner planted 
a portion to ailanthus trees, which are nearly as valuable as the 
locust, and which will make timber fit for mechanical uses in 
fifteen years from the time of planting, and yield a large revenue 
on the investment. 

William H. Hills of Plaistow, N. H., said that he was a member 
of a committee to investigate the effect of forests on the rainfall 
and the tendency of removing them to produce drought in his 
State, and it was found that cutting off forests did not affect the 
rainfall, but did produce drought ; the snow melting much more 
quickly, making the floods greater in the spring, and the rivers 
lower in summer. In regard to reforesting, if he were a young 
man, he would like no better speculation than growing and plant- 
ing seedling forest trees. It is easily done. Nature is coastantly 
doing it. He has planted Scotch Larch and Norway Spruce trees 
which are now two feet in diameter and are stocking up all his 
neighbors' pastures. Seedlings can be bought of nurserymen at 
an exceedingly low rate. One can also easily stock his land with 
oaks and nut-bearing trees. He has white birches which sprang 
up from seed as thickly as rye, and are now six feet high. The 
statutes thus far enacted in New Hampshire to prevent forest 
fires are of very little value ; no one has ever been convicted under 
them. He lives near the line between New Hampshire and Mas- 
sachusetts, and many people come over there from the latter State 
.and either wilfully or neligently set fire to the forests, and it is 
difficult to detect them in the act, but hundreds of acres are burned 
over. The land is being stripped rapidly by portable saw mills, 



THE MOST DESIRABLE VARIETIES OF FRUIT. 41 

and in a few 3'ears there will be little heavy timber left. He 
agreed with Mr. Wood that apple trees are more profitable on side- 
hills than forest trees, if the soil is suitable. 

Professor L. H. Bailey, of the Michigan Agricultural College, 
said that there is more beauty in the Middlesex Fells than in 
thousands of acres laid out according to the rules of landscape 
gardening. People here do not appreciate their good fortune in 
having such a picturesque place near their own doors. In Michi- 
gan, where the land is all arable, less attention has been paid to 
forest planting than here, and it is almost impossible to make 
farmers believe in the necessity of preserving trees ; but it will be 
only a few years before timber will be scarce, even there. The 
sources of rivers and creeks should be protected by preserving the 
trees and shrubs around them. The land around the Ohio river is 
flooded every year, and is now not lived on. Dunes and knolls 
should be planted with trees. The speaker looked to the Eastern 
States for examples of judicious and beneficial forest planting. 

Edmund Herse} 7 said that every one who is in love with Nature 
will be in love with the subject under discussion. What forests 
we have may be turned in that direction where they will be of the 
most value. The object should be, not to raise trees for firewood, 
'but for timber or for ornament, and in both these directions we 
might make great progress. In cutting wood we often leave the 
poorest trees, and those of least value for timber, to seed our land ; 
we should pursue the opposite course. We should never cut off 
all the trees, but should leave enough for seed. If our fathers 
and grandfathers had done this, we might be reaping the benefit 
now. Nature grows many trees that are not desirable. If an 
effort had been made two generations ago to encourage the growth 
of the chestnut, which is much more desirable than the birch, our 
woodlands would be much more valuable than they are now. 
Always save those trees which are most noted for their good 
qualities. 

The subject of the most desirable varieties of fruit was here 
taken up, and Hon. Marshall P. Wilder spoke in continuation of 
his remarks on the preceding Saturday. There are many valuable 
old varieties not now cultivated, and so little known that the} 7 
might be introduced as new and promising well. He had done 
well by holding on to a good many old varieties. Among cherries, 
the Windsor is a new and excellent variety — fully equal in tree 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and fruit to the Black Eagle. It originated at Windsor, Canada. 
Of sixty varieties that the speaker had proved, the Red Jacket is 
one of the most valuable. The Briton Blackberry (formerly the 
Ancient Briton) is more hardy than the Dorchester, which he 
formerly esteemed above all others, exceedingly productive, and 
-should be more generally cultivated. A great object with those 
who cultivate for market is to produce the fruits that bring the 
most rnone} 7 . Among pears of this character are the Clapp's 
Favorite and the Boussock. The former must all be picked by the 
20th of August. The latter makes one of the most elegant pear 
trees ; in Belgium, where it originated, there are trees sixty feet 
high. He begins to pick them the loth of August, and they 
yellow up and are all of good qualit} 7 . The Bartlett may be 
picked about the first of September. He has a Buffum pear tree 
which bears a crop of twenty bushels or more ; he begins to pick 
them the 20th of September. The Merriam is exceedingly valu- 
able ; he begins to thin these also about the 20th of September. 
They turn yellow with a brown cheek. Beginning early and pick- 
ing a part of the fruit before it is fully grown promotes the growth 
of that which is left. The Bosc is always good and there are 
neve/ so many in the market as are wanted. The Paradise of 
Autumn and Hardy are valuable for market. The Anjou, which 
was introduced here about fifty years ago, succeeds throughout 
the country, and will be as popular as the Bartlett. The Lawrence 
and Langelier come in later. These are all valuable for market. 
The dates given for gathering are before they ripen ; all pears 
ripen better in the house than on the tree. 

There has been most astonishing improvement in grapes in our 
day. His vineyard is in a favorable location, and he has, but little 
mildew. Of black varieties he recommended the Concord, Wor- 
den, Wilder, and Barry as kinds which cannot be dispensed with, 
either for market or by amateurs. Of red grapes the Lindley, 
Brighton, and Delaware are best ; the Lindley is best of all. Of 
white grapes the Niagara makes a vigorous, health} 7 vine, and is 
very productive. The Pocklington always ripens with him. The 
Duchess is of superior quality ; the bunches are large but the 
berries are small ; the vine is vigorous and a little tender, but he 
always covers it. The Prentiss has disappointed -expectation ; 
though the fruit is excellent the vine is not as robust as could be 
wished. The Jefferson and Lady Washington are a little late ; 



THE MOST DESIRABLE VARIETIES OF FRUIT. 43 

the latter is a fine, vigorous grower, and such an enormous bearer 
as to require severe thinning. The time is fast approaching when 
we shall produce as fine grapes out of doors as under glass. 

In strawberries he has to settle down on the Charles Downing, 
Kentucky, Seth Boyden, Cumberland, and other old varieties. 
The Jewell is coming into a like estimation ; it is one of the most 
promising new kinds. The Prince is of high flavor and vigorous 
growth. 

Mr. Hills said he was glad to know that the Jewell is so promis- 
ing. He spoke of the deceptive character of the advertisements 
of horticultural novelties ; new fruits are sold at two dollars per 
dozen plants, or perhaps two dollars each, and after paying these 
prices in two or three years you find they are of no value. It is 
amusing to see the statements, in catalogues, that the accounts of 
new varieties are accurate. Last winter he crossed a large num- 
ber of strawberries in the greenhouse ; fruit on a pistillate plant is 
sure to be a cross. Probably he would get nine hundred and 
ninety-nine not as good as the parents, but he might get one 
better. 

Mr. Wilder said that the seed of cross-fertilized strawberries 
might be. sown immediately, and the fruit could be tested in six 
months. 

Notice was given that on the next Saturday Rev. J. B. Harrison, 
of Franklin Falls, N. H., would speak on "Forestry." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, January 30, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

Edward L. Beard moved that the Committee on Publication and 
Discussion be authorized to employ a person to make abstracts of 
the papers read at the meetings for discussion, on the day when 
read, and prepare copies in manifold for all the daily papers in the 
city. The motion was unanimously adopted. 

Charles N. Brackett, Chairman of the Committee on Vegetables, 
announced the decease of George W. Pierce, a member of that 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

committee, and moved the appointment of a committee to prepare 
memorial resolutions. The motion was carried, and the chair ap- 
pointed as that Committee Mr. Brackett, Warren Heustis, and 
George Hill. 

Mr. Brackett also moved the appointment of a committee to 
nominate a successor to Mr. Pierce ; which motion was carried, 
and William H. Spooner, C. H. B. Breck, and J. D. W. French 
were appointed as the Committee. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder moved that a committee be appointed 
to prepare a memorial of the late Henry P. Kidder. The motion 
was carried, and H. Weld Fuller, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder and 
Francis H. Appleton were appointed as the Committee, Mr. Wilder 
declining to serve as chairman. 

William C. Strong moved that a committee be appointed by the 
President to cooperate with other committees and organizations 
for the purpose of obtaining more efficient legislation for the plant- 
ing and protection of forests in Massachusetts, and particularly of 
the tract known as the Middlesex Fells. The motion was carried, 
and Charles S. Sargent, William C. Strong, John Robinson, 
William H. Spooner, and Francis H. Appleton were appointed by 
the President as the Committee, — Mr. Strong being at his own 
request excused from serving as chairman. 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 6. 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Forestry. 

By Rev. J. B. Harrison, Franklin Falls, N. H. 

The primary thought, when we consider the formation of a 
forest, is of a vast sponge of vegetable matter which holds back 
the water falling upon it, and increases the area of swamp grounds. 
This condition of the soil formerly prevailed in Great Britain, but 
great changes have attended the advance of civilization, so that 
there are few areas of this character left, but instead we have a 
progressive desiccation. 

Likewise in this country, when first settled by white men, forests 
covered the whole face of the land, and in consequence the streams, 



FORESTRY. 45 

swamps, and springs were much more plentiful and well supplied 
than now ; the forest not only retaining the water like a sponge, 
but furnishing for the soil a shelter from drying winds and scorch- 
ing suns. Then trees were regarded as the enemy of man, for 
they were the great obstacle to his gaining a subsistence ; and the 
forest was cleared and burned with tireless energy, and children 
were educated to think of it as something to be destroyed. This 
went on for several generations and the momentum of the same 
feeling continues, and people instinctively destroy forests, when 
the necessity for doing so long ago ceased and they ought to 
preserve instead of destroying them. Here in America we are 
steadily and rapidly going on to the same catastrophe that has 
befallen older countries. 

There is an unfortunate tendency in the American people to 
make money in the present, without much regard for future con- 
sequences ; and so we have gone on, in a careless, selfish belief that 
if we destro}^ all the lumber we shall somehow find a way to re- 
place it, until we have come to a point where every intelligent 
lumberman knows just what supply is left. In a very few years 
more we shall come to the extinction of the magnificent white pine 
forests of Michigan and Wisconsin, and then a stop will be put to the 
settlement of the treeless plains of Dakotah and other territories 
by people of moderate means, on account of the scarcity of material 
for building, which will all have to be brought across the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Until recently, no means have been used to diffuse information 
on this subject, but, depending on our hopeful instincts, we have 
felt that in America even-thing is bound to come out about right, 
and that there is no waste that cannot be supplied. It is true that 
we can do many things that others cannot, but we must remember 
that the limitations of human nature exist for us, and that there 
are some things that cannot be replaced. Animals have become 
extinct because the conditions under which they lived have passed 
away. 

Within our own time the careless habits of the hunter have made 
the bison almost extinct, and he can never be restored ; and the native 
forest is disappearing with him. Lands once endowed with extreme 
fertility, with as fine forests as ever grew, and having important 
relations to civilization, have, through loss of the forests, become 
entirely changed in character. In the State of New York vast 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

regions once fertile have become thus blighted, and now show 
league after league of rocky, seamed, and scarred desolation, as 
irrecoverable as the desert of Sahara ; and it is now too late to do 
much towards preserving what remains. We go on cutting timber 
because it is profitable, and fire soon comes in among the brush and 
debris left, and the soil, being largely composed of vegetable mat- 
ter, is to a great extent consumed. The first fire makes it easier 
for the next, and soon there is no soil left on sloping grounds, but 
it is washed down, choking streams and destroying springs, until the 
barren waste that remains is a pitiful sight. Saw-mills are de- 
serted, having neither water nor logs to. keep them working. There 
are in the Adirondack region the ruins of many saw-mills where 
one wonders that a saw-mill should ever have been built. In New 
Hampshire the water supply is found to fail ; and when the cause 
is inquired into it is found that the springs were at the heads of 
ravines covered with forests which the farmers cut off, burning the 
dry rubbish. As a result the surface became disintegrated and 
too dry for further vegetation, and soon th?re was the beginning of 
a vast chasm. Whole farms have thus been destroyed, and the 
sand creeps over them. There are in that State many plains 
formerly covered with white pine, but which, since the forest was 
cut off, have become deserts of shifting sand. People lament 
this result, but they^ are responsible for it. 

How to prevent this destruction and replace our forests is one 
of the most important questions of the day. The first step must 
be to educate the public to a sense of the urgency of the case. 
There has been much agitation of the subject, and much has been 
published in the journals of the day ; various agricultural and hor- 
ticultural societies are now debating the subject with interest, and 
doing much in the right direction, — yet thus far we have not suffi- 
ciently protected an acre of forest, or stayed the lumberman's axe 
at the foot of a single tree. The State of New York has a forestry 
commission which last year presented to the Legislature three bills 
designed for the protection and renewal of forests, but it w 7 as im- 
possible to persuade politicians of their necessity, and only one 
was passed, and that was first shorn of its most useful parts. The 
result was worse than if nothing had been done. One of the mem- 
bers of this commission was a lumberman. 

It is a question how far we can depend on the means hitherto 
used to awaken interest in this subject ; probablv we have about 



FORESTRY. 47 

reached the limit of what can be clone in this way, and other 
measures must be tried. Older regions of the globe, once fertile, 
now subsist only a nomadic population ; and by continuing the 
course which has been pursued there we shall arrive at the same 
result. To prevent this calamity we need first to arouse popular 
feeling and awake popular attention. We need to compare what 
is done in various locations. We need a National Forestry Com- 
mission, armed with large powers for making experiments and 
investigations ; and composed, not of politicians who will make it a 
source of scandal, but of men who will devote themselves to the 
study of the subject, and prepare measures for the action of Con- 
gress, presenting a comprehensive plan for the management of 
National and State forest lands. We need a change in the temper 
and spirit of the people, and in bringing this about we have a vast 
educational work before us. 

We need a National School of Forestry, with ample resources, 
where young men shall be educated in all the various methods 
used abroad, and taught how to apply them here, so that they shall 
be qualified to manage forests in every part of our country — such 
a school as shall make its pupils feel that thej- have a career before 
them, as much as if educated at the military school at West Point, 
or the naval school at Annapolis ; for the objects of a school of 
Forestry would be quite as important as those of the others. 
Such schools exist in European countries, though yet unknown 
here because their necessity is not yet perceived ; but we shall have 
to modify our ideas to suit the changed conditions of our times. 
Before much can be done in protecting forests, the average 
American will need a good deal of instruction in regard to the im- 
portance and necessity of surrendering some of his private rights 
for the public good. We need a periodical to discuss the subject 
of forestry, which shall be devoted to persistent education of the 
people, not by elaborate aesthetic essays but by short, sharp, and 
incisive articles, with iteration and reiteration. What we are doing 
now is far from being adequate to the necessity of the case, and 
we must be prepared to do a great deal more, or to give up 
altogether. 

In connection with the protection of forests, thought should be 
taken for the promotion of the higher landscape gardening — the 
highest art that we have anything to do with in this country. The 
genius which produces great pictures and statues is worthy of ad- 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

miration and respect, but there is no higher work of art than that 
done by the man who takes a tract of wild, unfertile ground, and 
forms in his mind a picture of what may be made of it in fifty or 
a hundred years, and works to realize that ideal — patiently laying 
the foundation of what he will never see completed. Such men 
we have here now ; there is one in the employ of the Cit} T of 
Boston. 

All our problems are complicated, -and we must recognize the 
fact that our environment is peculiar, and we must educate the 
people to recognize it. They must realize that private interests 
are not the highest objects. We might make attractive forest 
places near the cities, preserving the sources of water. Here in 
Boston, is the fittest place for a journal devoted to this work. 
No method of prosecuting it can be completely adequate which 
does not include and provide for an advance in civilization. 

Discussion. 

William C. Strong fully agreed with the previous speaker as to 
the importance of the subject so eloquently presented by him. The 
time for talk has passed, and it is time for our own State to take 
action. Our statutes are inadequate; they profess to encourage 
forestry, but do not. Low priced land is exempted from taxation . 
if planted with trees, but not a tree has been planted as the result 
of this exemption. Our present laws on this subject are so meagre 
and scattered that no one can tell much about them, and they 
should all be repealed ; and a code should be enacted giving effect- 
ual encouragement to forest planting, and more effectually pre- 
venting forest fires. 

Francis W. Brewer thanked the Society for devoting two meet- 
ings to the subject of Forest^, which is now becoming recognized 
as of vast importance to all classes of people. But, however able 
may be our essays and discussions, the wave of progress set in 
motion by them soon dies out without further work. All who see the 
importance of the subject should be prepared to act intelligently, 
for the impetus given will not perpetuate itself. He believed that 
such a committee as was proposed would be most useful, and it 
would have the more weight from combining its action with that of 
other organizations. The Committee of two from each of the 
New England States, appointed by the American Forestry Con- 



RESOLVE CONCERNING SURPLUS FUNDS. 49 

gress to draft laws in relation to forestry, will prepare a draft 
founded on the latest and most progressive legislation for its 
encouragement, and legislators will be glad to have an agreement 
in regard to such legislation on the part of those who ask for it. 

Notice was given that on the next Saturda} r William E. Endi- 
cott would read a paper on "Gladioli." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, Februar} r 6, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

The Annual Report of the Treasurer was read by the Secretary, 
accepted, and ordered to be placed on file. 

John B. Moore presented the following preamble and resolve : — 

Whereas, The report of the Treasurer shows that there are in his 
hands bonds to the amount of twenty thousand dollars, held by 
the Society" as an investment of surplus funds ; and 

Whereas, There is a debt of the Society represented by a mort- 
gage upon its real estate, the principal sum of which falls due 
within three years : 

Therefore, it is Resolved, That the amount of funds in the 
treasury, now represented by the before-mentioned bonds, be made 
a sinking fund, to apply upon the payment of the mortgage debt 
when due, and to be placed in the hands of the Finance Committee 
as trustees for the purpose aforesaid. 

The motion was referred to the Finance Committee. 

H. Weld Fuller, Chairman of the Committee appointed at the 
last meeting to prepare a memorial of the late Henry P. Kidder, 
presented the »follo wing report : 

A few days ago, the death of our distinguished and honorable 

associate, Mr. Henry P. Kidder, was announced, and on every 

hand the evidences of deep sorrow and affliction have appeared. 

He was well known to the community as a genial, generous, and 

4 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

philanthropic citizen, and for nearly a quarter of a century he was 
a valued member of this Society. We cannot, therefore, permit 
this occasion to pass without placing on record some expression of 
our appreciation of his virtues, and our high respect for his char- 
acter and memory. Whereupon, it is 

Resolved, That this Society is deeply sensible of the great loss 
which we, in common with many other associations and the public, 
have sustained by Mr. Kidder's decease. His sound judgment, 
sagacious counsels, expansive benevolence, and heart}' cooperation 
in whatever tended to elevate, purify, or gladden the lives or 
homes of the people were recognized and appreciated by all who 
knew him. Whoever would protect the young, or improve their 
habits, tastes, or condition, found in him a willing helper. Grate- 
fully recognizing the goodness and bounty of God, he gave freely 
to His cause, and contributed to spread the beauties of His floral 
kingdom for the enjoyment of all. 

Many who experienced his kindness will long cherish his 
memory; and, like us, will plant his honored name upon their 
hearts, and surround it with ever-growing "Forget-me-nots." 

Resolved, That these resolutions be placed on record, and that 
a copy be transmitted to the family of the deceased, with the assur- 
ance of our warm sympathy in their great affliction. 

H. Weld Fuller, ) 

Marshall P. Wilder, > Committee. 
Francis H. Appleton, ) 

Mr. Fuller added that the time would not be misspent if he said 
one word more. It is due to ourselves that some notice should be 
taken of the departure of Mr. Kidder, as an incentive to the 
young to follow his example. He was known as a man of gener- 
osity, and an almoner of the bounty of God. Doubtless he was 
such in many instances unknown to us. 

Hon. Marshall F. Wilder affirmed the truth of all that was said in 
the resolutions in eulogy of Mr. Kidder. He knew him from a 
very young man, and he was always modest, genial, and unpre- 
tending, with a heart full of desire to promote the best interests of 
the community/ 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted by a rising vote. 
The following named persons, having been recommended by the 



THE GLADIOLUS. 51 

Executive Committee for membership in the Societjr, were on 
ballot duly elected : 

Oliver E. Robbins, of Weston. 
Stephen P. Sharples, of Cambridge. 
Jacob Hettinger, of Belmont. 
Francis W. Brewer, of Hingham. 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 13. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
The Gladiolus. 

By William E. Endicott, Canton. 

The genus Gladiolus as defined in the " Genera Plantarum " 
contains about ninety species ; found for the most part in South 
Africa, though a few species exist as far north as the equator, and 
a few others are natives of Southern and Central Europe. 

The varieties which are so conspicuously ornamental in our gar- 
dens in August and September are the progeny of three or four 
of the South African kinds, hybridized with each other ; the hybrids 
being crossed among themselves so extensively that the sorts now 
in existence must be over three thousand in number. The first 
hybrid sort, said to have been the offspring of G. psittacinus and 
G. cardinalis, was raised in Ghent and was therefore named G, 
Gandavensis ; and the great bulk of the varieties since naised are 
called " Gandavensis Hybrids." 

It is unnecessary for me to dwell upon the beauty of this flower 
as it now exists, upon its excellence for purposes of decoration, 
upon the length of time a cut spike will last, etc. I will pass on 
at once to a consideration of the modes of cultivation and propaga- 
tion ; premising that I shall describe only the methods which I have 
found satisfactory in my own practice, and that I am quite ready 
to believe an equal success may be attained in other ways. 

The bulbs — horticulturally speaking we may call them so, though 
botanicallj r they are corms — may be planted as soon as the frost is 
well out of the ground, — say by the 15th of April, in light soil with 
a good exposure, if the planter prefers to do it at that time : still 
there is nothing to be gained by doing it so early, for though the 
plants will be perf ectly healthy their progress will be very slow 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

until the soil is well warmed, and the flowers will not open earlier 
than if planting had been deferred for a month. Unless the month 
of May is likely to be so taken up that time cannot then be spared, 
I should not advise April planting. My own practice is to plant 
between the tenth and fifteenth of May. 

The best soil for the gladiolus is a well drained loam, better 
light than heavy, for I have observed that where the rows have ex- 
tended into moist land the bulbs there planted have neither blos- 
somed nor grown as well as they should have clone ; and that the 
bulbs have been smaller when taken up than they were when 
planted. The plants will not be likely to suffer from drj T weather, 
however light the soil may be. Three years ago the drought was 
of unprecedented severity in Canton, so that from about five hun- 
dred plants of dahlias I had only one flower, but the gladioli, 
growing in the same field, bloomed as well as ever. The soil, 
whatever its nature, must be well loosened and pulverized if the 
best results are to be attained. I used formerly to grow a few glad- 
ioli in my flower garden, where the only way of loosening the earth 
was by the spade or digging fork, but I soon found that they were far 
behind those planted in ploughed land ; so that now all are grown 
side by side with corn and potatoes and please me much better 
than they ever did before. 

The fertilizer I have found best is that sold by the Bowker Com- 
pany for root crops. The furrows having been made with the plow, 
thirty inches apart, the fertilizer is sprinkled therein at the rate of 
a gill to about twelve feet of the row. I use none at all except in 
the row, because I do not believe that the roots extend more than 
five inches in each direction. The bulbs are put as nearly four 
inches apart as I can easily do it. I drop them from a basket or a 
box as I walk along the row, there being no need of stooping to 
put them in place because, the earth being soft and loose, they stay 
where they strike, and seldom roll. It makes no difference how they 
lie. I have examined the subject carefully by experiment, and 
find that if the bulbs are laid with their tops down and the base 
up they will come up as soon, blossom as well, and make as good 
bulbs for next year's planting as if they had been placed with the 
tops uppermost. It is very fortunate that such is the case, for it 
would be a most irksome task to plant a large number if each had 
to be carefully put in place ; whereas it is easily clone by taking a 
half-bushel basket full on one arm and dropping them with the 
other hand as you walk along. 



THE GLADIOLUS. 53 

Those who grow them for sale, having thousands of a kind, per- 
haps, cover them with the plough ; but where there are few of a kind 
it is better to use the hoe, as the plough would be likely to displace 
the labels with which the several kinds should be marked. If the 
soil be not extremely light the bulbs should be covered only four 
inches. A week after planting the whole ground should be hoed 
lightly or raked ; this will destroy a host of just sprouting weeds 
and will not interfere with the growing shoots, which in a week 
more will appear above ground, and will grow enough better to pay 
for the extra hoeing. The after cultivation is much like that of any 
other crop, and maybe summed up in three sentences, "Keep the 
ground loose ; Keep the weeds down ; Draw an inch of soil to the 
plants." The last operation is designed to give the plants greater 
firmness to resist wind and rain, which are so apt to beat them 
down when in blossom. 

Few flowers will appear before the tenth of August, but for eight 
weeks from that time you will have a brilliant display if you have 
as many bulbs as you ought to have and can have at a very small 
expense. 

It is very interesting to observe the different habit of growth in 
different kinds. Some will have bright green foliage, others blu- 
ish or grayish or yellowish green ; some kinds have it narrow, 
others broad ; in some it is erect, in others fan-like, in others 
drooping ; some kinds bloom early, others late. With me, a crim- 
son sort called Couranti fulgens is invariablv the first to blossom. 

If you have many bulbs it is useless to try to support the flower 
stalks in any way. If you are determined to do it, you can drive 
a few stakes and stretch a wire along, to which to tie the stalks ; 
but it is better to cut such as are top-heavy. In the future, possi- 
bly, no gladioli will be grown which are not rigid enough to resist 
wind and rain. It is a good plan to prevent the maturing of seed 
except when you want it for sowing ; both because seed bearing is 
always exhausting, and because if the stalks be cut off as the 
flowers fade the rows will have a neater and more pleasing appear- 
ance. 

When the frosty nights begin no more flowers will open, and it 
will be time to think of taking up the bulbs. We read a great 
deal in the English gardening journals of the importance of let- 
ting the plants stand until the tops shall have died down. Not 
only is there no need of this, but doing it will increase the labor of 



54 MASSACHUSETTS HOETICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

u lifting" fully eight-fold ; for instead of having a good handle to 
each bulb } T ou will have to grope about in the soil to find it. My 
plan of "lifting" is to have a man go along the rows with a spade, 
thrusting it in under the bulbs ; not raising them out of the ground, 
but only loosening the soil. I follow, taking the stalks in my hand, 
as many as I can grasp, pulling up the plants, to which very little 
earth will adhere, and leaving each kind by itself with its label 
near it. 

This labor is very light, for me at least, and the task is quickly 
done. The stalks are cut off the same day, as closely as possible 
to the bulbs ; which are then gathered up in boxes and put into a 
place out of reach of the frost, where they stay until Decem- 
ber, when the dry roots, the old withered bulbs, and the bulblets, 
are taken off; the clean bulbs are then removed to my cellar, 
where they remain until the tenth of May comes again. As I aim 
to lift the bulbs as near the tenth of October as possible, it will be 
seen that they are out of the ground seven months in every year. 

Propagation. — There are three ways of propagating the gladio- 
lus in its special varieties, and one way of raising new kinds. 
The first way to be mentioned is merely a curiosity of propaga- 
tion, and of no practical use. The flower stalks of most kinds 
have a leaf on the lower end, — if the stalk be cut below the leaf 
and inserted into moist sand, a small bulb will usually be formed 
in the axil of the leaf. 

A second way is by cutting the bulb into pieces. If a 
bulb be stripped of its husks, there will usually be found 
two large buds at the top and smaller ones in a line down 
each side. Just as every bud of a grape vine may be made into 
an independent plant, so every bud of a gladiolus bulb may 
be made to grow, and form a bulb. Some of the buds are 
double or triple and will make two or three bulbs. Nevertheless 
it takes so much care and attention to make the smaller buds 
start that, practically, it is not advisable to cut a bulb into more 
than two pieces. Care must be taken in peeling the bulb not to 
break off such shoots as may already have started. If the bulb 
be left uncut, it is not often that more than one bud will grow, 
though some kinds will increase very rapidly without cutting. The 
two species psittacinus and dracocepJialus will usually yield three 
or four bulbs for every one planted. 

The only way of propagation, however, that can be called rapid, 



THE GLADIOLUS. 55 

is by the little bulblets, or " spawn," which form about the base 
of the large bulbs. These will start readily enough in the spring 
if the hard covering be peeled off, or if it be simply cracked by , 
pressure between the fingers. 

New kinds, of course, are only to be had by raising seedlings ; 
which every one who gardens for pleasure ought to do. Unless 
some special object be aimed at, good results will be obtained by 
using the seed of any good sort. Most who raise seedlings, how- 
ever, will prefer to cross the best kinds only — at any rate the seed 
of poor kinds ought never to be used. If you prefer to use seed 
of your own growing, you will find the latter part of the day bet- 
ter than the morning for the purpose of cross-fertilizing your 
flowers, for the pollen then is dryer though less abundant. As 
the instrument, I think a wooden toothpick, cut to a wedge-shaped 
end, is better than a camel's hair brush. The three parted stigma 
should be operated upon when spread partly open, but not too 
broadly. It is well to protect in some way the flower fertilized 
from the visits of bees and humming-birds, which are usually busy 
the whole day among the blossoms. 

In Rand's treatise on bulbs, full directions are given for rais- 
ing seedlings, — directions which should be studiously disregarded. 
The seed should be sown in boxes or seed pans, about the first of 
January. As much of it will be poor and as the true seed is very 
small in comparison with the broad flake which contains it, it may 
be sown so thickly as to cover the surface of the soil. One-fourth 
of an inch of covering will be enough. In about twenty days the 
seedlings will be up, and must be kept clear of weeds and grass. 
They will grow until October ; and the boxes or pans should then 
be put away in some perfectly dry place. The seedling bulbs will 
be found to be from the size of a pea to that of an acorn, and 
are to be put into the open ground at the next planting time. A 
large part of them will blossom before frost. 

Nothing in the whole art of horticulture yields more pleasure 
than raising seedlings ; and, although the poor ones will outnum- 
ber the good ones many times over, the latter will more than repay 
the trouble. 

As for the gladiolus disease, of which we hear so much, I know 
nothing of it. I have never seen it, though I have had a very 
large number of bulbs for many years. The only insect that is at 
all troublesome is a black, soft-bodied one that eats the bios- 



56 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

soms. It is the same that is found on golden-rod, and that is 
so destructive to asters. It prefers the light flowers ; and is a 
nuisance for a little while, but is soon gone. 

Slightly altering the words of an old writer, I may say — "All 
your labor, past and to come, about a collection of gladioli is 
lost unless you label well." It is impossible to keep up a collec- 
tion without labels. I have sometimes given my neighbors col- 
lections of gladioli with labels and been told — "■ I don't care for 
the names if the flowers are good." From year to year they have 
saved the largest bulbs for the next year's planting, and, as the 
1 argest bulbs are always those of One or two sorts, I have been 
frequently told that the bulbs had degenerated, and that most of 
the kinds had changed, so that they were now of only one or two 
kinds. 

The best way of labelling that I have found is to have strips 
of zinc five inches long by an inch wide. On these the names 
are written, and by means of a wire the labels are fastened to 
cedar sticks fourteen inches long and two thick. The reason for 
having labels and sticks so large is that there is clanger that a 
careless man might displace a smaller one, with hoe or cultiva- 
tor. The boxes in which I keep my bulbs are long enough to 
hold the label, stick and all, so that, with two hundred and thirty 
named sorts, the trouble of keeping them true to name is very 
trifling. Another safeguard against confusion is to make a list 
of the kinds, in the order in which they were planted. This ought 
to be done as soon as planting is over. 

Some 3'ears ago when G. purpureo-auratus was exhibited here, 
Mr. Spooner, for the Flower Committee, remarked that although 
it was not very striking in itself, it might be of great use in hy- 
bridizing. The event has remarkably fulfilled his prediction, for 
by using this species a new strain has been produced of a- bril- 
liancy and beauty equal to those of the Gandavensis tribe, while 
yet very different in aspect. Lemoine was the first to introduce 
these hybrids to the public, and they are frequently called after 
him the " Lemoinei strain." As yet, few of these make a fine 
spike, their beauty lying chiefly in the individual flowers. 

I am sometimes asked whether these hybrids are really hardy as 
stated. The question cannot be answered in one word. One 
parent, purpureo-auratus, is perfectly hardy, and I have seen it 
naturalized in mowing-fields ; the other parent, Gandavensis, is not 



THE GLADIOLUS. 57 

hardy, though a bulb or two will frequently live through a favor- 
able winter. Their offspring partake of the nature of both, and 
are hardy or not according to the predominancy of one or the other, 
parent ; but, while many are hardy enough to survive the winter, 
not one will bloom if left out one-half as well as if taken up in 
autumn. 

There are man}* other species of which I should like to speak, 
were this paper not already so long. I hope they will be noticed 
in the discussion. 

The gladiolus is not as much grown as it ought to be. Few 
people, comparatively, know anything of the finer sorts, and I have 
been told, upon excellent authority, that there is very little sale 
for named kinds. It is not unusual to find in catalogues the 
statement that excellence and high price do not necessarily go to- 
gether ; that some of the cheapest are as good as some of the 
dearest. There can be but little incentive under such circum- 
stances, to buy high-priced bulbs ; this is one obstacle to the ex- 
pansion of gladiolus culture. Another is in the prices themselves. 
Although novelties, if they are really fine, may properly be set at 
a high rate, there seems no good reason for putting old kinds at 
$3, $2, or $1. It is a pity that some dealer could not make a be- 
ginning in this matter by pricing them according to their excel- 
lence and not putting them too high. This, however, is a matter 
beyond my province ; it is likely that good reasons for the present 
practice exist. Another unfavorable circumstance is that people 
will not buy small bulbs, though some of the best kinds never make 
large ones. 

I have heard the remark made that no further progress with 
this flower seems likely — an ill-considered statement. We have 
not a single really good yellow }~et ; all are defaced with dull 
purple stains. There is then a whole series in prospect, ranging 
from sulphur to orange, not one of which is yet attained. Then 
in the dark shades not much has been done ; though probably we 
ma} r yet see a gladiolus as dark as a black pansy. New and odd 
styles of coloring may yet be obtained : I have had one or two 
hints among my own seedlings. For instance, a flower came last 
year which was grained all over with yellow on a red ground — an 
unpleasing combination ; but a white ground similarly grained with 
scarlet would be fine indeed. Another flower consisted of three 
scarlet and three pure white petals placed alternately ; — a striking 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

flower, but too violently so to be altogether pleasing. But these 
are hints only and show that new things are yet in store. I do not 
think it impossible that we maj 7 } T et have blue ones. Improvement 
may also be looked for in length of spike. Shakspeare and Mej'er- 
beer are perfect in form but not long enough in spike ; some of 
,the newer kinds have twelve or fourteen flowers open at once, and 
we should not be satisfied until flowers are produced of such sub- 
stance that the first shall still be good when the twentieth opens. 

There is no use in winding up with a select list of kinds ; two 
persons lately gave lists of the best twenty-four : only one appeared 
in both lists. There are too man} 7 kinds for any one to name the 
best twelve or twenty-four. Nevertheless it may not be out of 
place to name a few that are undoubtedly of excellent quality, 
though others ma} 7 be better. 

Meyerbeer.— Brilliant orange scarlet with darker blotch ; perfect 
shape. 

Shakspeare. — White, flamed rosy-pink with deep rose blotch. 
This flower is thick and waxy, and of unsurpassed shape. 

If these two varieties made longer spikes I think they would 
stand at the head of all known kinds. 

Bernard de Jussieu. — Does not usually make a good spike, but 
the cherry-purple flowers have a tint of blue which makes the var- 
iety distinct and desirable. 

Citrinus. — The best of the many } T ellows I have tried. 

Colbert. — Deep cherry with white stain on the lower petals. 

Conde. — Much resembling Meyerbeer, but lighter and a little 
larger. 

Jupiter. — Tall spike of dark red flowers flamed with mahogany 
brown. 

Mary Stuart. — Old but not yet surpassed among white-and-rose 
varieties. 

Milton. — Very fine, with thick, waxy petals ; white marbled with 
rose. 

Norma. — White, tinged with lilac. 

Rebecca. — A tall spike with large flowers ; pure white, with car- 
mine feathering on the lower petals. 

Vivien. — Very much like Rebecca but with thicker petals, and 
therefore a little better. 

Schiller. — A Shakspeare with creamy yellow ground. 



THE GLADIOLUS. 59 

Talisman. — A very fine kind, making a tall spike of flowers 
which are cherry, bordering on violet, and with a white throat. 

Thomas Methven. — The most vigorous sort I have seen. Flowers, 
reddish purple with white throat. The whole flower has a bluish 
cast. 

Sir Brasidas. — Very light salmon throughout ; wholly unmarked. 
The only one of its color. 

Baroness Burdett-Coults. — Very large and fine ; rosy lilac. 

Ball of Fire. — Well-named, being of the most vivid, glowing 
crimson imaginable. 

Africaine. — Deep, dull crimson marked with white ; peculiar and 
striking. 

Victory. — A low-growing sort ; intense crimson flamed with 
black. 

Jordanus. — A tall-growing kind ; color, a soft crimson. This 
has sometimes fifteen flowers open at once on the same spike. 

Abricot. — Very large flower, apricot color, slightly tinged lilac. 

Col. Benton. — Brilliant scarlet and golden yellow, — a very fine 
showy sort, which always attracts attention. 

The variety which took the first prize for a single spike last 
year, Ambroise VerschafTelt, is an old kind which may be bought 
for fifteen cents. 

Discussion. 

William H. Spooner said that about twenty-five years ago he 
grew twenty-five thousand bulbs of Gladiolus Brenchleyensis ; which 
produces an enormous number of bulblets, thereby increasing very 
rapidlv. He supplied seedsmen and florists ; and this perhaps led 
to the growth of a taste for the cultivation of the gladiolus in 
this country. He succeeded in producing many fine kinds by hy- 
bridizing ; in doing this he found it necessary to cover the flowers 
with gauze, to keep out bees and humming birds. The species 
purpureo-auratus will yet be the parent of new and novel kinds. 
Mad. Vilmorin produces enormous bulbs — as large as turnips. He 
gave up raising gladioli on account of the rust. 

Professor Wolcott Gibbs spoke of the possibility of producing 
hybrids with Gladiolus papilio, which is a native of South Africa 
or Abyssinia. It is closely allied to 67. purpureo-auratus, and he 
thought it might give us a new strain. There is too much same- 
ness in the hybrids of G. purpureo-auratus ; they all have a dull 
purple tint, and brighter colors are wanted. There has been no 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

great advance in these hybrids since Lemoine began. The best yel- 
low gladiolus is Pactole, and the best white is Diamant. At 
Newport, R. I., where Professor Gibbs cultivates his gladioli, the 
autumn continues two weeks later than at Cambridge, and although 
it is cooler early frosts are rare. 

Mr. Endicott said it is true that the hybrids of purpureo-auratus 
do have a good deal of purple, but it is possible to get brilliant 
colors. G. Gandavensis is not likely to cross-breed with purpureo- 
auratus without assistance. G. dracocephalus never makes any 
pollen whatever in his grounds. 

Robert T. Jackson said that he had a few bulbs of G. dracoceph- 
alus which grew to enormous size ; he had one six feet high. 
The colors are very fine and show the possibilities of better; there 
are blood red, light red, black, bright yellow, and silveiy. The 
bulbs of hybrids increase with great rapidity, and he has had four 
spikes of flowers from one bulb. The kinds which increase rapid- 
ly are more desirable than those which do not, and gardeners 
should note which they are. 

Mr. Endicott said that the bulbs can be cut into as many pieces 
as they show eyes, either at the time of planting or earlier, with- 
out danger of rotting. If cut with the spade in lifting they will 
keep through the winter. He keeps them in boxes in an ordinary 
cellar ; any cellar where potatoes keep well will answer ; it should 
not be too damp, nor too dry. In Christmas week he has found his 
boxes half full of water ; he turned off the water and dried the 
bulbs for convenience, but they do not need careful coddling, and 
these grew perfectly well in spite of the soaking. 

Some of the species are excellent pot plants for winter or early 
spring flowering ; the}' should be potted in October or November, 
and grown, slowly at first, in a cool greenhouse. 67. ramosus and 
67. ringens are eligible for this purpose. The ramosus section never 
flowers but once if poi-grown. G. nanus has the trimaculatus 
blood. G. papilio is extremely beautiful as a pot plant. 67. rin- 
gens grows from twelve to fifteen inches high and has round foli- 
age ; the flower is blue and very small. G. tristis if planted in 
October will flower in April ; it is very fragrant part of the day ; it 
was crossed with 67. Gandavensis by Herbert. G. Milleri is light 
yellow. G. segetum and 67. Byzantinus are hardy and flower best 
when left in the ground ; if potted the} T grow to a certain height 
and then rot. The Ghent varieties are not good to force in pots, 



THE GLADIOLUS. 61 

but can be forced in a bed of earth, and can be left in the green- 
house 3 7 ear after 3 r ear. Forcing G. Colvillii albus or The Bride has 
not been successful, but a neighbor of the speaker has been giving 
them strong bottom heat from the beginning and his are looking 
well.* G. nanus should not be forced to flower too e&r\y — May or 
June is early enough. Mr. Charles A. Putnam has been success- 
ful with this species b} T planting in raised beds, in the autumn, — the 
flowers appearing in June. G. carneus succeeds under the same 
treatment. 

Edward L. Beard said that his experience with G. Colvillii has 
been the same as Mr. Putnam's, who has grown it as a hardy bulb ; 
it is not satisfactory to force, but succeeds in the open ground if 
lifted after flowering and before making a second growth. The same 
treatment is applicable to Ixias and other Cape bulbs, which require 
a period of rest. They sometimes grow a foot high before frost, 
and this is the critical period ; to prevent this they shuld be dug 
up as soon as the foliage begins to decay and kept dry and planted 
again before the ground freezes, thus giving a season of enforced 
rest, which is what this class of bulbs wants. The speaker has 
from five to seven hundred bulbs of Gladiolus Colvillii in a heavy 
soil. Mr. Putnam's soil is light and he has wintered Ixias and 
similar bulbs successfully. 

Gladioli' will not succeed permanently in heavy soils; they 
will lack vigor and will not perpetuate themselves ; they like a light 
soil well cultivated. The large English growers alternate them 
with potatoes. He approved the essayist's plan of ploughing ; and 
would let the ground rest in winter. G. purpureo-auratus repro- 
duces itself freely and is very ornamental in the open ground. 
They multiply freely by bulblets, — sometimes twenty-five from one 
bulb, and should be grown in quantity instead of pelargoniums, 
coleuses, etc. Many English varieties are very uncertain in our 
climate, being feeble and lacking in vigor. He would like a list 
based on the vigor, strength, and freedom of multiplication of the 
varieties. 

Such varieties as Colvillii if ready for planting when received 
would be injured by keeping out of the ground. They will make 
shoots an inch or two in length in winter. He covers all his bulbs 
with about six inches of well rotted manure in winter. The best 
protection is that which will shed water, which is very destructive ; 

* These all failed to flower. 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

— as is shown by the success of Mr. Putnam, whose ground is slop- 
ing and well drained so that water never stands on it. Lilium 
auratum needs the same soil. 

Mr. Endicott said he gave his ^gladioli plenty of room, so as to 
run a cultivator between them, but they can be planted more 
closely. He had seen Brenchleyensis only four inches apart, and 
the bulbs apparently must almost have touched each other. Those 
who will take the pains can have a great number in a very small 
space. The}' will grow well at a distance of three by six inches 
apart ; but it is more trouble to take care of them than where they 
have plentj' of room. If his space were limited he would plant 
them closely. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder spoke of the practical and sensible 
character of the essaj'. The Gladiolus Natalensis was introduced 
here more than fifty years ago, and a colored plate of it was pub- 
lished b\ T CM. Hovey in 1834 in the first volume of his maga- 
zine. In considering the improvement of the gladiolus, hybridiz- 
ing appears in a very favorable light ; we see that it opens a bound- 
less field. It ma} r be applied to every family of vegetables. He 
could remember when not a tree paeonj' had a shade of red in it, 
when all at once came Elizabetha, for which he paid about three 
hundred francs. There is no end to variety when the species once 
" breaks," and we may get a blue gladiolus. He would not be sur- 
prised if some of those present should live to see a blue rose. 
Professor Gray was not surprised when the speaker told him of his 
success in crossing the Lilium lancifolium with Gloriosa superba. 
He had seen a statement in the " Gardeners' Chronicle" that the 
strawberry and raspberry had been crossed ; he could not credit 
it, but it might be possible for all that. The blackberry has been 
crossed with the raspberry. Mr. Wilder concluded b}' urging those 
present to go on in crossing fruits and flowers, and thej- would 
produce varieties which would cause their names to be remembered 
with gratitude. 

O. B. Had wen said that the essa} T was most satisfactory and in- 
structive. The gladiolus will keep a long time in water in the 
house ; he had kept them good two weeks, and over ; when start- 
ing on a journey he put a vase of gladioli in the car, and at the 
end of the journey, which lasted twelve days, the flowers were in 
good condition. Its colors are fine and happily blended. He 
had indulged in cultivating a large number of varieties, and had 



THE GLADIOLUS. 63 

now come to a point where he was willing to weed out ; twenty- 
five varieties would satisfy him. He mentioned the following 
twelve kinds as having been satisfactory in his garden : 

Africaine. Jupiter. 

Baroness Burdett-Coutts. La Perle. 

Celimene. La Vesuve. 

De Lesseps.t Mary Stuart. 

Eugene Scribe. Meyerbeer. 

Horace Vernet. Shakspeare. 

John B. Moore spoke of the importance, in crossing gladioli, of 
strong robust kinds that do not grow high but will support them- 
selves, so as to bring about a change in habit similar to that which 
has been produced in phloxes. The finest growth of gladioli that 
he ever saw was on Cape Cod ; he dug down to see what they had 
to feed on, and found them heavily manured with decomposed 
cow dung. He would depend on that, but if he used phosphate 
would want more than a gill to twelve feet of a row. Others 
might not start with so good land as the essayist, and the plants 
must have food. He did not approve the essayist's plan of drop- 
ping, though it might answer, but it is difficult to drop them six 
inches apart, and it would not be much more work to throw them 
in hap-hazard and then place them regularly. He had pursued 
this method in planting seed onions, of which he had raised acres, 
and found that if turned on one side they will grope round before 
growing up. He likes to see straight rows, and the cultivator or 
weeding hoe can be run much nearer to the plants. 

Mr. Endicott said that he had used even less than a gill of fer- 
tilizer to twelve feet, and the plants did very well. In his method 
of planting the} r are in tolerably straight rows, though he did not 
sa} r it is the best way. He thought it not fair to compare the glad- 
iolus with the phlox, which makes a spreading head that you must 
look down upon, while the gladiolus looks straight at you. 

Mr. Wilder here introduced to the meeting the Hon. James 
Grinnell, a member of the State Board of Agriculture, who was 
deputed by the Board to attend the exhibitions of the Society 
during the past 3 T ear. Mr. Grinnell said that his own operations 
had not been so much in the wa} r of cultivating those things which 
beautify life as those which are useful. It was a pleasure to him 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to be appointed to represent the Board at the exhibitions of the 
Society ; he made his report to the Board the da} T before, and he 
could not find language to sa} T more in it than he did, and truth 
would not allow him to say less, He regarded the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society as the most important institution of the kind 
in the countiy, and these meetings as the best source of informa- 
tion on the subjects discussed. 

Mr. Jackson said his experience had been that it is easier to 
hybridize species of gladioli than to cross the Gandavensis va- 
rieties. He plants in rows a foot apart and six inches apart in the 
row, four rows forming a bed, with a space of thirty inches between 
the beds. He uses cow manure, but had found hen manure to give 
a very vigorous growth. He had seen Mr. Endicott's rows, and 
the} 7, were very straight, and the plants were tall, with magnificent 
spikes. 

Mr. Spooner said that he had found hen manure apt to produce 
warty roots on roses. The Richard Cceur de Lion and Mary 
Stuart are admirable Irybrid gladioli. 

Mr. Jackson had found no injurious results from hen manure, 
but he would mix it with the soil more carefully than other ma- 
nures. 

Mr. Moore said that hen manure agreed with his roses. 

John G. Barker said that if fift}' or a hundred gladioli were 
planted quite thickly in a bed, and the ground between carpeted 
with mignonette or sweet alyssum, it would produce a very pleas- 
ing effect, and for small gardens such an arrangement would be 
preferable to coleuses, etc. Edward S. Rand, Jr. had excellent suc- 
cess in cultivating gladioli at Glen Ridge, where the soil was quite 
sandy ; he used plenty of decomposed barn-yard manure. He had 
a row of Gandavensis varieties in the vine border, which were left 
there when it was covered with manure in autumn, and when un- 
covered they were found to be uninjured. 

Notice was given that the paper for the next Saturday would be on 
" Bulbs and Tubers for Outdoor Culture," by Mrs. T. L. Nelson, 
the subject being partially a continuation of that of today. 



MEMORIAL OF GEORGE W. PIERCE. 65 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 13, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
President Walcott in the chair. 

William C. Strong, from the Committee appointed January 30 
to obtain more efficient legislation for the planting and protection 
of forests in Massachusetts, submitted the draft of an act for the 
prevention of forest fires, and the following vote : 

Voted, That the Massachusetts Horticultural Society approves 
of the proposed act entitled " An Act for the Protection of the 
Forests of the Commonwealth," as presented by its Committee, 
and directs the Committee to urge the passage of the same. 

The vote wa.j unanimously passed. 

Charles N. Brackett, Chairman of the Committee appointed on 
the 30th of January to prepare a memorial of George W. Pierce, 
reported as follows : — 

The Committee on resolutions in memory of George W. Pierce, 
report the following : 

Whereas, It has pleased the All-wise Disposer of events to re- 
move from us, by death, our fellow-member and associate, George 
W. Pierce, therefore — 

Resolved, That we therebv sustain the loss of one of our most 
useful and respected members, whose interest in this Society and 
its objects was deep and abiding ; one who, as a member of Com- 
mittees, has for many years rendered it valuable service, and dis- 
charged his duties with promptness and fidelity ; and one for whom 
his fellow-citizens testified their confidence and esteem, bv fre- 
quently calling him to positions of honor and trust. 

Resolved, That as a testimonial of respect for our deceased 
friend and co-laborer we desire to record our appreciation of his 
worth ; and that we shall alwaj's miss his valued counsel, kindly 
words, and cheerful, whole-hearted work in our midst ; and that 
it will be our privilege to cherish the memory of one who by his 
genial nature, courtesy, and social qualities won the respect of 
those whose privilege it was to associate with him. 

Resolved, That the above resolutions be entered on our records, 
5 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and that the Secretary be requested to transmit a copy of the 
same to the family of the deceased, as an expression of sympathy 
in their afflictive bereavement. 

C N. Brackett, ^ 

Warren Heustis, [• Committee. 

George Hill, ) 

The resolutions were unanimously passed. 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 20. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
Bulbs and Tubers for Out-door Culture. 

By Mks. T. L. Nelson, Worcester. 

Again it has pleased j t ou to ask me to open the day's discussion ; 
whether you have chosen wisely the result must decide. As I 
recall the instructive discussions that have been here conducted, 
I am anxious rather to listen to your words of wisdom and expe- 
rience ; and can only hope that what I am able to offer may serve 
by way of suggestion to set your thoughts in motion. A small 
body dislodged from the mountain side causes the avalanche. It 
may be that I shall advance some idea which will open the way 
for and serve to start an avalanche of wisdom. 

One who did not know the enormous will-power and energy of 
the people of New England might wonder why such lovers of 
fruits and flowers do not seek a more genial climate. But the 
same spirit which brought their forefathers here bids them cling to 
the land of their ancestors' adoption. The frigid winters and 
scorching summers sometimes dishearten, but do not entirety dis- 
courage. True as the needle to the pole, the New Englander gathers 
up what is left from their ravages, and patiently as he can (for 
there is a limit to human serenity) repairs damages, replaces 
winter-killed plants, protects from the severe raj's of the sun, and 
leaves the result, as he must, with Him who sends the sunshine 
and the rain. 

There are, perhaps, three certain summer months, with a pos- 
sible fourth if there is no early frost. What, then, in this brief 
season, can we grow in the way of bulbs and tubers, that will give 
pleasure and profit? 

The subject of bulbs and tubers for out-door culture is a broad 



BULBS AND TUBERS FOR OUT-DOOR CULTURE. 67 

one. Much has been said upon it, and we have much still to learn. 
Experience, that best though sternest of tutors, is each day teach- 
ing us something new. Sometimes the lesson is dearly bought, 
but if the result is favorable we must not repine at the cost. But 
results are often very aggravating, as, for instance, after we have 
petted plants in the greenhouse or conservatory, if we find, by ex- 
perimenting, that they do better out of doors, — either bedded out 
or in a cold frame. 

There are no invariable rules for cultivating any plant, so much 
depends on the location and exposure. Two gardens may be 
found, growing side by side but where one only is sheltered from 
northerly winds, and these gardens will be in many respects en- 
tirely unlike. The gardener should select the best places, or what 
seem to be the best places, for his different plants, and if it proves 
that the} 7 do not thrive where placed, he must next year change 
the location. No amount of obstinacy will make a plant grow if 
it is not at home. I have changed plants, that did not thrive, 
several times, and until they seemed to grow as if, at last, they 
were exactly suited. There is no pleasure in growing a plant that 
simply drags out a miserable existence. 

It is well, as far as practicable, to change every year the loca- 
tion of many kinds of bulbs, and their kindred ; and of bedding 
plants as well. One plant will absorb the element that another 
has declined ; so that change is very beneficial. We must also 
take special note of the country from which our tubers, etc. come, 
and of its conditions of sun, soil, and climate. Some plants re- 
quire partial shade, others the unobstructed rays of the sun. 

The careful student of nature takes note of all these matters, 
and the result well repaj's him. I often hear one person ssly to 
another " I wish I were as successful in my garden as you are in 
yours," when I cannot help feeling amused, knowing how the 
plants have been set out, and how cared for, in the unsuccessful 
garden. I cannot think its owner intended to be negligent ; but 
on the other hand I know that the envied one is a more thorough 
student and more diligent in finding out how to make his plants 
grow. 

Bulbs, tubers, and conns (or hard bulbs as the last are com- 
monly called) are elongated root-stalks ; and are simply store- 
houses for the embryo plant, serving to nourish and sustain it un- 
til the roots start ; which is generally from the base. Bulbs enlarge 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and throw out bulbs from their sides and tops, and sometimes up- 
on the stem of the plant itself. Tubers increase in size and pro- 
duce eyes or buds, and can be divided into as many pieces as 
there are buds. Corms increase generally from the top of the old 
corm, which decays. 

r In speaking of different bulbs, tubers, and corms, I shall make no 
attempt to treat them distinctively, but shall use the word bulb to 
indicate all, as that is a term generally so used, and it would con- 
fuse man} 7 people to adhere to the more exact scientific terms ; 
moreover it is not of these store-houses that we propose to speak 
today, so much as of their contents and culture. 

It is not the quantity of suggestions that is valuable, in most 
cases, but the quality., Therefore it is better to discuss a few 
kinds of bulbs thoroughly than to touch on and treat superficially 
eveiy sort we can think of. No valuable knowledge is gained in 
the latter case, but only a jumble of shallow suggestions of no 
great use to an} 7 one. 

In the northern states we have quite a large number of indigen- 
ous Lilies, Arums, etc. ; but we cultivate very few of them, be- 
cause we like them best in their native haunts. If cultivation 
would improve them it would be worth while to transplant them to 
our gardens, but in most cases it is quite difficult to make them 
grow at all, and still more so to make them grow satisfactorily. It 
is best therefore, speaking generally, to forbear all cultivation of 
native plants and bulbs, unless we have places for them as nearly 
as possible like that from which they come ; although our native 
lilies, L. Canade7ise and L. superbum, do well in cultivation, and 
well repay the cultivator. 

As I understand, this paper and the discussion which is to fol- 
low are mainly for the bjenefit of members of this Society. There- 
fore let it be distinctly understood that we are speaking chiefly in 
reference to Massachusetts cultivators, and considering what can 
be of use in Massachusetts gardens. 

It would be of no present practical use to speak of Spring bulbs, 
since all that can be successfully cultivated are, or should be, 
already in the ground ; — the snowdrop, hyacinth, crocus, tulip, 
narcissus, — in short all that go to make up our habitual spring 
display. 

Our climate is so variable that we can never tell when we are 
out of the reach of frosts. Location makes a difference of a week 



BULBS AND TUBERS FOR OUT-DOOR CULTURE. 69 

or ten days. There may be a time when, in some sunny and shel- 
tered spots, we feel sure we might plant anything without fear of 
frost, while 3 T et, within a hundred feet, we may find the ground > 
frozen so hard that we could not expect to plant for ten days. 

There are some bulbs that will take no hurt if the ground freezes 
an inch after planting, and there are others that feel the slightest 
chill. I have planted gladioli early and had the tops chilled, } T et 
with no injury; but tuberoses must wait until the ground is 
thoroughly warmed and likely to stay so. 

Lilies are among our most trustworthy allies after the galaxy 
of spring flowers has passed away. Lilium candidum is one of the 
hardiest species, but it is also the most particular about the 
time of planting. The bulbs must be planted when they are in 
the dormant state ; which is the last of August or the first of Sep- 
tember. The bulbs start in the autumn, and the foliage remains 
green through the winter. The bulbs will not bloom if disturbed 
after they commence growing. L. longijlorum is not as hardy as 
many of the other varieties, from the fact that its bulbs are liab le 
to start in the fall if the weather is warm. It is best to cover early 
with leaves or light compost, as a hard frost after the bulbs have 
started almost invariably kills them. This lily is easily trans- 
planted. Several 3 7 ears ago some bulbs were sent me in the spring, 
from the west, which bloomed almost as soon as those wintered in 
my own garden. I have transplanted them while in full bloom, 
taking care to disturb the roots as little as possible, and the next 
spring they came up strong and vigorous. L. auratum is quite 
uncertain, even with the best of protection. I plant a few bulbs 
every year, and charge the cost to account of " bedding plants.' * 
I think they are worth growing if I get only one season's bloom 
from them. I do not mean it to be understood that I do not win- 
ter any of the bulbs of this species, but merely that L. auratum 
cannot be depended upon like L. candidum and L. speciosum. 
Last season my bulbs were extremely satisfactor}^, and flowered 
finely. One bulb produced two stalks with thirteen blossoms on 
each ; another eleven on a single stalk ; and several bore six each. 
Were I to get no more than two blossoms from a bulb, I would 
still grow them. 

All the varieties of L. speciosum are hardy. Album Proecox is 
a much finer white variety than Album. Rubrum, Koseum, Punc- 
tatum, Melpomene, and Purpuratum are all desirable varieties. 



70 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

L. pardalinum (sometimes called "leopard lily") is fine and 
hardy. L. excelsum, (bright buff) is one of the most beautiful 
lilies we have in cultivation. , L. Brownii is rare and costly ; and 
with its peculiar purple outside and the pure white, waxy inside 
presents a striking contrast to L. longijlorum and the varieties of 
4hat species. L. Leichtlini, L. monadelphum and L. Parryi are all 
fine yellow varieties. All the varieties of L. Martagon are good. 
L. Chalcedonicum (Scarlet Turk's Cap) is one of the best. L. 
tenuifolium, one of the earliest (if not the earliest) , is a lovely 
scarlet lily, with reflexed petals and very slender stems and foli- 
age. L. powponium, verum is ver} T much like L. tenuifolium, but 
is a little more robust and flowers a little later. There are many 
inexpensive species like Thunbergia?ium, umbellatum, and tigri- 
num and its varieties which are showy and perfectly hardy. I 
have not intended to give a complete list of lilies, and indeed have 
only mentioned those which I have myself grown. 

There is no special mode of cultivation : at least, there are no 
precisely uniform conditions of soil and exposure that are impera- 
tive. I have seen equally fine lilies grown on high and on low 
land. But on low land they will not thrive unless the soil is 
thoroughly drained, for water at the roots, or wet heavy soil, is 
fatal. Therefore drain the wet soil thoroughly ; and make it light 
and rich. Remember it is not the bulb that needs feeding, but the 
roots beneath it. If the soil is light, make it rich ; and between 
the bulbs plant annuals, or some light bedding plants, which will 
serve to keep the surface cool and moist. 

The Iris in its many varieties is one of the best of our hardy 
garden tubers. It increases rapidly and forms large clumps, and 
I believe all the varieties are hardy. This genus is widely repre- 
sented, many countries contributing. The English, Spanish, and 
German species form, as their names indicate, a European group. 
Japan contributes the best of all — I. Kcempferi. This iris has a 
very wide range of color, and some of the blossoms strikingly re- 
semble some varieties of valuable orchids. All of the genus are 
of the easiest culture, abundant moisture being the chief require- 
ment. Some soils that are fatal to the lily will suit the iris. Large 
quantities are annually imported from Holland, and many are 
grown in this country. Except for new varieties, the home grown 
are the most valuable. 

Herbaceous P^eonies are reliable garden plants. I say reliable 



BULBS AND TUBERS FOR OUT-DOOR CULTURE, 71 

because they never winter-kill. The} T bloom at different seasons, 
so that there is a succession of bloom all through the early sum- 
mer months. The whole family is very showy and especially ,, 
adapted to large gardens. The foliage is bright and attractive 
and perfectly free from insects. P. tenuifolia has tuberous roots, 
and the foliage is entirety different from that of other pseonies— ■ 
being, as the name indicates, very finely divided. The blooms are 
small, and of a clear bright red not unlike that of a rose, which it 
closely resembles also in form. 

Gladioli are by far the most valuable of all the summer bloom- 
ing bulbs. They are easy to grow, easy to keep, and exceedingly 
valuable for cut flowers. If a spike is cut when there is only one 
flower out, it will keep on blooming in water at least a week, and 
at a season, too, when most flowers would be entirely faded in two 
days at the most. I would not plant gladioli in beds for show ; 
but planted in groups, with low or medium low growing plants, 
they are very ornamental. The foliage must be allowed to grow 
in order to mature the bulb, or corm, which is forming at the top 
of the old one; and when grown, as advised, with other plants 
the ripening foliage is partially concealed and is not unsightly ; 
whereas a whole bed of gladioli alone, with the blooms cut off, is 
anything but attractive. 

Water is an essential requisite in the cultivation of gladioli. 
When the ground becomes dry, water well, so that the roots be- 
neath the bulb will be thoroughly wet. Sprinkling when the ground 
is dry is worse than no water at all. It is far better to stir the 
earth around the roots than to supply water to the plants merely 
on the surface. To water a dry bed or border thoroughly requires 
a great deal of patience, but no one ought to attempt to cultivate 
flowers unless blessed with a large stock of that useful commodity. 

If you wish your spikes to grow straight be sure and stake them 
early. A crooked spike of flowers, of an3 r kind, is unsightly. If 
one wants a bed for cutting, it is just as satisfactory and very 
much cheaper to buy a hundred or two of first quality mixed bulbs ; 
but if not many are wanted (as comparatively few have room for 
a bed made entirety of one kind of flowers) by all means get 
named varieties. If you look over some reliable dealer's lists of 
named varieties, for three or four successive years, you will find 
that each year a few new varieties are introduced at from four to 
six dollars each. The year after they are put out, you will observe 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

a marked reduction in the prices of some ; in others not much. 
The difference is generally due to the varying habit of the bulbs ; 
some being of robust growth while others are weak. The strong 
bulb will throw up from two to four spikes of bloom, and each 
spike represents a bulb forming. The weak grower will perhaps 
exhaust itself in giving one spike and will make a verj 7 small bulb. 
The strong variety will be cheaper because it increases so rapidly, 
while for some reason the weak grower is still retained, and its price 
keeps up. The prolific bulbs are the ones that are desirable ; some of 
the finest exhibition varieties are comparatively cheap, and many de- 
sirable sorts are very cheap. Eugene Scribe and Mary Stuart (pink), 
Meyerbeer and Phoebus (scarlet), Nestor and Pactole (yellow 
with colored markings), Martha Washington (clear lemon color), 
Beatrix, Shakspeare, and La France (white or nearly so), Lean- 
der and Baroness Burdett-Coutts (mauve), and Africaine (very 
dark) are some very fine varieties ; and none of them are very ex- 
pensive. One can form but very imperfect ideas of varieties from 
descriptions. The best way if you are uncertain is to visit an ex- 
hibition of named gladioli. There you will find both new and older 
sorts, and, as they may be assumed to be correctly named, you can 
select the kinds that suit you best. Old varieties, or those that 
have been shown before, will of course be true to name, but the 
very new ones will have to be taken on trust until their faces be- 
come familiar. 

Tuberous-rooted Begonias are very valuable in the garden. 
There are a great many varieties ; and here again, unless one 
wishes for a select few, mixed bulbs do very well in the border ; 
but if only a few are wanted get named kinds so that variety of 
color may be insured. I think the single-flowered stand the rain 
better than the double, for the reason that the single shut a little 
closer and the rain cannot penetrate the blossom. Those who have 
grown this class of begonias will remember that the blossoms keep 
closed in cloudy and rainy weather. I can tell pretty nearly 
whether or not it is going to rain by glancing at my bed of be- 
gonias. Sometimes the} T seem rather undecided and are about half 
closed, but generally it is one wa}' or the other. 

Mont Blanc is the best white variety that I have grown. Annie 
Laing is a very fine variety with large, pale pink blossoms of great 
substance. Countess of Kingston is a very large fine scarlet. 
Eobusta Perfecta (scarlet) and Robusta Perfecta Rosea are Ernst 



BULBS AND TUBERS FOR OUT-DOOR CULTURE. 73 

Benary's seedlings and are very fine varieties. B. Pearcei has 
beautifully marked foliage and bright yellow flowers. These bego- 
nias need the sun only part of the day and for that reason are, 
doubly valuable in the garden, where most plants require all the 
sun they can get. 

Dig the tubers late in the autumn and let them dry off in boxes. 
I think it does not hurt the roots in the least to let the tops freeze, 
as the tubers are already matured and ready for their winter's rest. 
Store them in a cool place and do not give them any water unless 
they get too dry, in which case they would shrivel without water. 
If the bulbs are kept moist they will decay, for they need absolute 
rest when in a dormant state. These begonias are easily grown 
from seed. The seedlings bloom the first year if the seed is 
planted early enough. The seed is veiy fine and must be lightly 
covered and kept moist by glass or paper. 

Gloxinias can be grown veiy finely in a cold-frame, either 
planted out or plunged. I grew them last summer in a temporary 
cold-frame with excellent success. The location should be the 
same as for tuberous-rooted begonias. 

My frame was left uncovered during several unexpected rains 
and showers. The first time I expected to see the foliage spoiled ; 
but before the sun came out I put on the sash and covered the 
glass with newspapers until the foliage was dry, and they were not 
injured in the least. Gloxinias are easily grown from seed, re- 
quiring the same treatment as begonias. In the greenhouse they 
will, if started early, bloom in August or September. Mine were 
planted in midsummer and, as there was no bottom heat, started 
slowly and did not bloom until the following season. If they do 
not bloom the first season the bulb will be of good size and easier 
to keep over winter. The bulbs of the gloxinia require to be kept 
dry when resting. 

Single temporary cold-frames are, I find, very convenient in the 
garden, as they can be put on a pile of leaves or earth ; and in 
man}- gardens this is a great advantage, more especially where all 
the ground has to be utilized. 

Agapanthus umbellatus is one of the few blue flowers that are 
really blue. Some people take the Agapanthus from the pot and 
plant it out in the border and it does well. 

Some of the summer-blooming bulbs are better kept in pots or 
tubs ; still they can be made very effective in the open border. 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Amaryllis lutea is a hardy species which blooms in early autumn, 
at a time when yellow flowers are scarce, and it is, therefore, very 
acceptable. A. Hallii is also hardy and is a lovely pink variety, 
blooming in August. A. Belladonna major, minor, and alba are all 
summer blooming bulbs. They bloom planted out in the border 
in August and September, and require entire rest after they have 
matured their foliage. A. formosissima is another bulb useful both 
for bedding and cut flowers. Its beautiful, velvety crimson blooms 
when arranged with fine white flowers make a charming combina- 
tion for a vase. Planted out when the ground is warm it soon 
starts, and throws up with the leaves a flower-stalk bearing one 
blossom. Shortly after, another blossom appears ; and then the 
bulb matures, and forms side bulbs. The foliage remains green 
until killed by the frost. Store the same as other dormant bulbs ; 
being careful not to cut the foliage close to the bulb, for the bud is 
formed in the top of the bulb. A. Johnsonii will bloom in the 
ground, and some reserve it for bedding out in summer, by keep- 
ing the bulb dormant through the winter. 

There are many places in the garden and about the house where 
a pot of Vallota purpurea is very ornamental. 

The Zephyranthes in all its varieties of pink and white is desir- 
able, and requires no care beyond planting out in the spring, lift- 
ing in the autumn, and storing in winter. 

Ismene calathinum is very beautiful in the garden. The plant 
is fine without the flower ; I think it much handsomer than many 
plants that are grown for foliage only. The leaves are lance- 
shaped, about two and a half feet in length, of a deep glossy 
green, and remain green until killed by the frost. The flowers 
are borne on a stout stalk about three feet in height, and are 
trumpet-shaped, about four inches long, of a beautiful white, and 
exquisitely fragrant. Strong bulbs produce two stalks, and the 
bulbs increase rapidly. They must be kept perfectly dry through 
the winter. Store them in sand, and start them by giving them 
water while in the sand. When started, plant them out where 
they can be kept moist. 

Choretis alba is easily grown and produces a cluster of pure 
white flowers not unlike some of the Pancratiums. The blooms 
keep in water several days. 

Pancratium calathinum has flowers very much like those of 
Choretis alba and they both thrive under the same treatment and 
in almost any soil. 



BULBS AND TUBERS FOR OUT-DOOR CULTURE* 75 

The Tigridias are all showy and worthy of a place in the garden. 
T. granch 'flora alba is beautiful in contrast with T. conchiflora 
and T. pavonia, the two old varieties so familiar to all. It is a 
dead white with deep crimson markings, and the three planted 
together form a very showy group. 

Milla biflora, is quite new. It has slender rush-like foliage and 
white, tubular, star-shaped flowers of great substance, about two 
inches across, borne on long, slender stems. Each flower-stalk 
has from two to five flowers. 

Caladium esculentum (related to the fancy-leaved Caladiums) 
is fine for specimen plants, for which large bulbs are best, or it 
may be planted in groups. The leaves are often eighteen inches 
across. 

Richardia albo-maculata is a very ornamental variety of Hichar- 
dia u^Ethiopica, our common Calla. The leaves are irregularly 
spotted with white and much smaller than those of the common 
Calla. The flower is proportionately small and has a violet throat. 

Amorphophallus Rivieri is a stately plant. The bulb grows to 
a very large size, and as it increases the plant enlarges in propor- 
tion ; the centre throws up a thick stalk, very curiously spotted, 
and the spathe unfolds like an inverted open umbrella. The fo- 
liage is as curious as the stalk, but is a beautiful green on the upper 
surface. It makes an elegant plant for the lawn. After the tops 
are killed by the frost, the bulbs should be stored like gladioli, and 
planted out in spring without starting. I have seen the plant 
potted in August and it did not wilt or appear in the least dis- 
turbed. Apparently as the plant had stopped growing the large 
bulb was abundantly able to support it, and it did not feel the 
change like a fibrous -rooted plant. The roots are fleshy, and have 
small tubers at the extremities. 

Tritoma Uvaria grandiflora is a very conspicuous plant ; the 
blooms look like spikes of flame, hence the name — "Red-Hot- 
Poker." It makes a great show in the garden at very little cost. 

Galtonia (Hyacinthus) candicans, a plant not unlike a giant 
snow-drop, with its spike of drooping greenish- white flowers, forms 
a striking contrast to the Tritoma. 

The Tuberose is as easily flowered in the ground as any other 
bulb. As it takes about four months from the time of starting to 
bring it into flower, it must be started either in a hot-bed or in a 
greenhouse. If you have neither of these, plant out the bulbs 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

in a sunny place, when the ground is thoroughly warmed, and 
after they have started give plenty of water. If there is no frost 
until late in autumn they will bloom in the ground ; but it is not 
best to risk it. When they are well budded, pot in good soil and 
let them stand a few days in the shade. Afterwards give them 
the sun and keep well watered. If the weather holds warm leave 
them out of doors, but in case of a cold snap take them in. We 
generally have a few chilly days with light frost earl} 7 in Septem- 
ber — just enough to chill tender plants, and then there follows 
warm weather. Tuberoses are very easily chilled, but if they are 
taken in during turns of cold weather they can be left out to 
bloom. 

A high bed of autumn leaves, with a few inches of soil on the 
top and a temporary frame with a sash, gives heat enough to start 
many kinds of plants in the spring, and tuberoses start readily in 
the gentle heat from such a bed. Place the bulbs in a shallow 
box close together in good soil, and you will soon find them finely 
started with a mass of roots, and ready to bed out. By getting a 
month's start in this way they will bloom in August. 

I shall touch lightly on the Dahlia, although it is a very impor- 
tant tuberous-rooted plant, and its glory continues until the frost 
comes and cuts it down. The only drawback is its requiring so 
much room to grow in. Still there are places where such plants 
are very much needed ; and the Pompons and single varieties are 
especially desirable. 

When we are complaining of our severely cold winters and hot 
summer's sun, we are apt to forget that we are mercifully spared 
some other evils. No earthquakes, tornadoes, or floods devastate 
our loved New England. Our hard winters make us long for and 
quicken our enjoyment of warm weather. Now — 

" Naked and lone the rosebush fair," 

reminds us of the time when — 

" The buds swell out in the warm May air." 

Only a little while and we may say — 

"Lo, the winter is past, 
The rain is over and gone ; 
The flowers appear on the earth ; 
The time of the singing of birds is come." 



BULBS AND TUBERS FOR OUT-DOOR CULTURE. 77 

Discussion. 

William E. Endicott said that the Amaryllis lutea spoken of by 
the essayist is now called by botanists Sternbergia lutea, and 
inquired whether it would stand out over winter. 

Mrs. Nelson replied that it would ; her plants were taken up by 
mistake, but her friends have left theirs in the ground, as they 
should be. It must be covered like Lilium longiflorum. 

Mr. Endicott said that there is a species of Agapanthus, A. minor 
var. Mooreanus, not so fine as the common kind, but it is decidu- 
ous and may be treated like the dahlia. The flowers are smaller 
and of a deeper blue than those of A. umbellatus. The flowers 
recommended by the essayist are mostly old varieties, to which many 
later kinds might be added. The Cypella is an excellent little 
flower, resembling the Tigridia. Triteleia unijiora and Milla biflora 
are perfectly hardy, but force easil}\ There is another white spe- 
cies of Ismene besides calathinum. Amorphophallus campanula- 
tus and A. bulbiferus are fine species much like the well known A. 
Rivieri. Tritonia aurea, from Caffraria, has a bright yellow 
flower. Montbretia crocosmarflora was orange colored in the type, 
but either it has sported or seedlings have given us varieties. 

Mr. Endicott urged the growing of dahlias from seed. They 
grow with great vigor, planted in the open ground like corn, and 
flower nearly as early as if tubers were planted. The seed of 
single kinds is sure to produce good varieties ; that of double 
kinds may give a good flower out of two or three hundred. He 
had sown seed of white Pompon asters, and got every type, the 
principle of variation being strong^ established. In saving seed 
the flowers should be cut when nearly withered, and hung in a dry 
place. Double Composite flowers make seed freely. 

Robert T. Jackson said that Mr. John Richardson, who is now 
eighty-seven years old, has raised dahlias for fifty years, and he 
always saves the seed only from within half an inch of the outside 
edge. 

Mr. Endicott said that he had found the Begonia discolor espe- 
o\&\\y valuable out-doors. He has plants under an apple tree 
which thrive well, and the foliage is ornamental. It is perfectly 
hardy, but it is better to take it in during winter because then it 
flowers more strongly. 

President Walcott inquired the experience of those present with 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Bessera elegans. With him it barely flowered the middle of Octo- 
ber. It was so extensively advertised by the New York florists 
that he thought it must do welL 

Mr. Endicott said that his' did not flower at all. 

Mrs. Nelson said her experience and that of her friends was the 
same as Mr. Endicott's. 

President Walcott had found Stembergia lutea hardy without 
protection ; it sends up leaves after flowering. 

Warren H. Manning recommended Amaryllis Hallii. 

E. H. Hitchings asked whether any one had cultivated an}? - of our 
native bulbs. 

Mrs. Nelson replied that she had tried Arethusa bulbosa and the 
Yellow and Pink Cypripediums. 

Mr. Manning remarked that the Cypripediums have fibrous 
roots. 

Mr. Endicott recommended Trillium grandiflorum. 

Mr. Jackson said that he had propagated Trillium grandiflorum 
by division of the root ; it makes but little seed. He succeeds 
with T. erytJirocarpum in moderate shade with leaf-mould and cow 
manure. 

Eobert Manning said that he had found the Trillium grandi- 
florum form seed freely, but he had not succeeded in causing it to 
germinate, though it is plump and apparently perfect. He has 
two plants which in May form hemispheres two feet in diameter, 
each having sixty of the large white flowers. He thought it the 
finest of all our native plants for garden culture, to which it sub- 
mits perfectly. When a boy he cultivated successfully Erythro- 
nium Americanum (Dog-tooth violet) which has a bulbous root. 

Mrs. Nelson said that a friend of hers has a plant of Trillium 
grandiflorum on a rockeiy, as large as a half-bushel. 

Mr. Hitchings said that a friend in Chelsea cultivates Trillium 
grandiflorum successfully, but has never succeeded with T. ery- 
tJirocarpum. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Discussion announced for 
the next Saturday a paper on " The Food Question," by Edward 
Atkinson. 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 79 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 20, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

The Librarian laid before the Society a complete set of the 
Transactions of the Norfolk Agricultural Society, presented by 
Henry O. Hildreth, its last Secretary, in remembrance of Hon. 
Marshall P. Wilder, for twenty years President of that Society. 

Mr. Wilder acknowledged the personal compliment extended to 
him in the terms of the donation. He said that he was glad to be 
remembered, and still more glad to have this valuable series of books 
in the Library to perpetuate the memory of the Norfolk Agricultural 
Society. At its meetings he made his first efforts in behalf of agri- 
cultural colleges ; which were seconded by some of the most re- 
markable Americans who have ever lived, — Daniel Webster, 
Edward Everett, Horace Mann, Robert C. Winthrop, Josiah 
Quincy, and others. Soon after, he was sent to the State Senate 
and elected President, where he made the first definite movement 
to promote agricultural education, presenting a bill which passed 
the Senate unanimously, but was lost in the House. He has, 
however, lived to see his views in regard to agricultural education 
carried out. He claimed no merit for these efforts, for he only 
followed the instincts of his nature and his sense of duty. 

The thanks of the Society were unanimously voted to Mr. 
Hildreth for his donation to the library. 

Adjourned to Saturday, February 27. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The Food Question. 
By Edward Atkinson, Boston. 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

I will not begin this address as I did when I spoke to the Farm- 
ers a few days ago, and said that I had been brought before 
them to show them what I did not know about agriculture. 

I will say that I am here, perhaps, to bring before you the 
reasons why the methods of horticulture should be in some meas- 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ure extended to agriculture. I am or rather I once was a good 
gardener — when I cultivated my own garden ; but when I became 
so busy as to find it necessary to give directions to a gardener, 
rather than to do the pleasant work myself, my garden gradu- 
ally deteriorated ; and now, when it has become apparently one 
of the obnoxious necessities of life to leave a pleasant country 
place and to go to the seaside in the middle of the gardening 
season, my last opportunity for practising horticulture has almost 
entirely ceased. 

The direction in which the production of food is or should be 
tending is toward horticulture, rather than toward agriculture, — to 
the intensive, rather than to the extensive, s}' - stem of production. 
If the tendency to horticulture or to the methods of horticulture 
shall help to substitute the use of the products of the garden, — 
vegetables and fruit, — for a part of the enormous consumption of 
meat, and especially of fat, I doubt not the benefit will be two-fold. 

With this tendency to the intensive system of cultivation is 
coming, or has come, the necessity for treating the soil as a labo- 
ratory, rather than as a mine. 

So far as I have been able to watch the progress of science in its 
application to the production of food, the principal attention 
seems first to have been given to the assumed natural fertility of 
the soil, rather than to its capacity to become fertile under intelli- 
gent treatment. It may be observed, by the way, that this method 
of treating the subject and of depending so much on the original 
fertility of land has led to what I believe to be some very serious 
errors in the science of political economy ; for instance, to the 
temporary adoption of the theory propounded by Malthus, that 
population tends to increase more rapidly than the means of sub- 
sistence. This dogma was published something less than a cen- 
tury ago ; since that date, whatever may come in the future, the 
means of subsistence have increased in vastly greater measure 
than the population of the world ; while modern science applied 
to the art of distribution has rendered the world almost a unit in 
its possibility of enjoying the abundant production of each and 
every section. 

When Malthus propounded this dogma, the value of a bushel 
of wheat was exhausted in from a hundred to a hundred and 
fifty miles of transportation even where there were good highways ; 
today wheat is carried b} 7 millions of bushels more than half way 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 81 

around the world at a fraction of its value, and live beasts are 
carried five thousand miles on their own hoofs. In the modern 
steamer the little cube of coal, which weighs one ounce and' 
which will pass through the circumference of a quarter of a dol- 
lar, will drive a ton of wheat and its proportion of the steamer 
two miles. Compare this economy of the force of fuel with the 
waste of coal in our cooking stoves and ranges, and you may get 
some idea of the margin for economy in the household applica- 
tions of science. 

Again, no man yet knows the potential of a single acre of 
land anywhere, in respect to its possible production of food. We 
may perhaps say that it must yet be quite impossible for a single 
acre to sustain more than a given number of persons ; but who can 
say what that given number of persons really is? And who can 
say how far the next discovery in the application of science to the 
use of land may increase that number — whatever it now is. 

One of the most interesting developments of this subject was 
conducted by the late Farish Furman of Georgia, a son-in-law, I 
believe, of Professor Le Conte, the chemist. 

After the war ended, being reduced to poverty, he first tried 
the law ; then he entered into politics, but becoming dissatisfied 
with both, he went back to the worn-out soil of an old Georgia 
plantation. 

At the time when he undertook to get his living out of this land 
it would produce only one-eighth of a bale of cotton to an acre, — a 
crop which would not pay the cost. He did not, I believe, at first 
study the chemistry of the soil, but he studied the chemistry of the 
cotton plant ; and he theorized a compost which, being put into 
the laboratory of the soil, would, he believed, increase the yield 
of cotton. 

He then looked around for the cheapest materials of which his 
theoretic compost might be practically made. He found them in 
the waste of the neighboring woods, in Stassfurt potash, in the 
phosphate beds of South Carolina, and in other materials available 
at moderate cost. 

He measured the quantities needed and the price ; and he applied 
this compost year by year to the worn-out soil of his paternal 
acres, until he achieved a crop of two bales of lint cotton to an 
acre; and thereby made himself a man of independent means. 
What had the original fertility of the soil to do with this ? He 
was a loss to the cotton country when he died. 
6 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

But he has not been alone. Others have taken a similar course ; 
and, supplementing the theory of the compost by an exact knowl- 
edge of their land (usually more fertile than that on which Mr. 
Furman did his work) many Southern farmers have achieved equal' 
or greater results. This is one of the beneficent results of liberty. 

The heaviest crop, of which I ever obtained a record, was raised 
near Memphis, Tennessee, by digging a hole with a post auger as 
if to set a fence post ; filling that with a well adjusted compost to 
sustain the tap-root of the cotton plant, and adding thereto a little 
surface manure to nourish the horizontal roots, which serve to hold 
the plant in position more than they do to feed it. 

Now let us turn from this example to other experiments (of very 
recent date, especially in this country) in which the nourishment of 
man in the cheapest and best manner has been the objective point. 
In this, as in all else that I may have to say to you, I speak from 
observation more than by personal knowledge ; and I shall only at- 
tempt to coordinate the respective lines of investigation, and per- 
haps to theorize a little upon the conclusions to which they seem 
to lead. I have not the least idea whether much of what I may 
have to say may not be very old and trite, or whether it will be as 
novel to you as it was to me when my statistics led me to consider 
other points of the food question. 

It is but a few years since the scientists of Germany and then 
those of England turned their attention to the food question, and 
attempted to reduce the requisite proportions of the different chem- 
ical ingredients of food to a scientific formula. Having established 
certain data in respect to the relative proportions of nitrogenous 
material or protein, of fats, and of carbo-lrydrates or starchy 
materials which are essential to the wholesome nutrition of work- 
ing people, — they next appear to have sought for the materials in 
which these several nutrients are to be found at the lowest cost in 
money. So important has this investigation become in Germany 
where a poor soil is called upon to sustain an over-dense popula- 
tion, and where, even if all men were productive units, there 
might not be enough for a good subsistence, and yet where one in 
about twenty-two (some authorities make it one in sixteen and a 
half of all men of arms-bearing age) is called upon to waste his 
time in a standing army, even during the condition of passive war 
which in Europe is called peace, while the labor of another one in 
every twenty-two must go to sustain himself and the idle soldier, — 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 83 

so important, I say, has this investigation become as to have induced 
the German government to undertake its completion, and to pub- 
lish dietaries, each of which gives the right proportions of the dif-, 
ferent kinds of food necessary to sustain a working man, according 
to the chemical formula established by Professor Yoit, together 
with the prices at which such food can be purchased. 

The tables of these dietaries have already been published in this 
country, having been translated by Professor William O. Atwater, 
of Middle town, Ct. ; who kindly furnished them to me to be in- 
cluded in the appendix to my address, lately given at the meeting 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, held 
at Ann Arbor, Michigan, in August last. Copies of that address 
I have not now available ; a new edition is about to be printed, 
but the same tables may be found in the Report of the meeting of 
the Chiefs of the Bureaus of Statistics, of which copies can prob- 
ably be obtained from Col. Wright, the Chief of the Massachu- 
setts Bureau. 

Following this line of investigation, other dietaries have been 
computed (if we may use that expression) by Sir Lyon Playfair 
and others in England, while a vast deal of most useful work has 
also been accomplished in the same direction by Professor At- 
water, of which the results are in print. 

These several dietaries of home and foreign origin are interest- 
ing, not only because they tend to reduce the nutrition of commu- 
nities to a science, but also because they furnish us a fairly adequate 
standard of comparison' as to the relative conditions of working 
people in German} T , in England, and in this country. They are 
suggestive of future political and social complications, of which 
the mutterings can be heard all over Europe. If you will com- 
pare the dietaries already given by Professor Atwater with those 
of Professor Yoit, you will observe how inferior is the subsistence 
which can be bought in Germany at a cost of about eighteen cents 
a da}f, even if it be theoretically sufficient, as compared to the very 
much more generous diet which can be purchased in this section 
of the United States at the same cost. 

Now let us consider the connection between the nutrition of the 
man and what we may call the nutrition of the soil. Human life, 
animal life, and plant life are but three names for the conversion 
of certain forces ; these forces, for convenience, we call protein, 
or nitrogen, the correlative of muscle ; fats, or the correlative of 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

heat; and phosphates, potash, starch or carbo-hydrates, the correla- 
tives of animal fat, and of bone and sinew, — when absorbed in the 
human system. 

The inherent fertility of the. soil may support plants for a little 
while without well-balanced sustenance. The plant may derive a 
part of its sustenance from other sources than the soil ; but with 
few exceptions the sustenance of the plant is held in correlation 
to the sustenance of the soil by bonds which cannot be severed. 
In a similar way the animal may live a little while on its own fat, 
if it shall have secured a supply somehow and somewhere ; but it 
also must be rightly sustained, if life is to be prolonged. 

The man must have a suitable proportion of each of these ingre- 
dients in order to attain full and mature development ; the soil 
must be supplied with the same ingredients according to its wants ; 
the beast, again, must be fed in the due proportion. All organic 
life seems to be capable of being put into a chemical formula, 
varying in proportion but not in its constituent terms. Eacli and 
all are sustained by much the same chemical elements, — each of 
course in different measure and in different proportions. Is not 
our problem that of balancing the forces without waste, alike with 
respect to soil, beast, and man? 

If, then, the scientist can tell the man what proportion of 
animal or vegetable food will suffice to sustain him in full vigor 
and strength, according to the proportion of nutrients, and can 
direct him in what proportions, and of what kind of food 
he shall partake, it may happen that ere long he may tell each of 
you exactly what ingredients to buy and to put into the laboratory 
of your gardens in order to support each kind of plant in full 
vigor at the lowest cost ; he may first ascertain exactly what you 
have in the soil or in the air which rests upon it, or in the water 
which permeates it ; and next what you must add for its deficien- 
cies, or in order to make the ingredients already present fully 
effective. Has this yet been accomplished? Have you not as yet 
more confidence in your own empirical method — j^our observation 
and the results of your own practice, than you have in agricultural 
theory ? Yet we know how much human food men waste — may 
you not be wasting plant food also ? 

It appears that if the man is fed only with starch and fat he will 
become feeble or starve, even if these are furnished in apparently 
ample measure. It also appears that if he is fed only with the 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 85 

nitrogenous portion of his food, while perhaps he may not starve, 
he may yet die for lack of heat or for want of some other element 
of life. 

Has the correlation of forces, thus illustrated, been considered 
fully either in agriculture or in horticulture ? Has not agricultural 
chemistry thus far consisted, to a great extent, in mere prelimi- 
nary investigations? Is it not, as yet, very greatly empirical in its 
application? And is not this in part the reason why the practical 
farmer so greatly despises the book farmer ? He remembers that 
almost all the scientists utterly condemned ensilage, while the 
skilful farmers, who tried it, have almost all doubled their silos. 

Are we not just at the beginning of the true application of 
science to the nutrition both of the soil, the plant, the beast, and 
the man? 

Let us consider a moment. Nitrogen is the most expensive and 
moreover the most necessary element of nutrition, so far as either 
soil, beast, or man is concerned. It is floating all about us. It 
constitutes by far the greater proportion of our atmosphere ; but 
no man has yet fully solved the problem of combining the nitro- 
gen of the atmosphere in a speedy and effective way. Whenever 
that is accomplished, the problem of plant and animal sustenance 
will have been' solved for centuries to come, if not forever. 

Now there are certain plants which are known as renovating 
plants. Why? Because in some way they serve as a link or 
medium by means of which nitrogen is gathered, somehow and 
somewhere ; either from the atmosphere, or, as one of the French 
chemists now believes, from the microbes which float in the atmos- 
phere. By means of these renovating plants, turned under in a soil 
already containing its necessary supply of phosphates and the 
like, the soil is stored with nitrogen, thereafter to yield up food to 
the plants which are not of the renovating kind, — such as wheat, 
r} 7 e, barley, and the like. 

Clover, buckwheat, beans, cow-peas, and a few other plants are 
well known as renovating crops, when turned under. But now 
comes the doubt. Our greatest crop is Indian corn. Is this 
plant, or is it not, a renovating crop? If it is, how shall the soil 
be enriched by its use ? Shall we turn it under as we do clover 
and buckwheat? By no means. We will presently consider how 
it may best be made use of, if it is the trap to catch the nitrogen. 
Prof. Atwater believes that it is. Sir J. B. Lawes has believed 
that it is not. 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Before Prof. Atwater was obliged to stop, for the time, in his 
investigations for want of adequate means (which I hope and 
believe will very soon be supplied to him) he had caused several 
hundred experiments to be made in raising Indian corn, with and 
without nitrogenous manure. The result of all these experiments 
in different parts of the East and of the West came to this : that, 
by the scientific application of phosphates and potash, which 
are now easily obtained at very low cost, crops of Indian corn 
were made averaging a little less than forty-two bushels of shelled 
corn to the acre, on what was called poor or exhausted land. 
Greater crops were made, of course, by the addition of nitrogenous 
manure ; but where this consisted of anything but stable manure 
which was on the premises, and reckoned at low cost, the addi- 
tional crop of corn did not pay for the cost of the purchased 
nitrogen. 

It has also been conclusively proved that by beginning with 
phosphates and potash, raising more and more stock, and then 
adding stable manure to the other ingredients, the crop of Indian 
corn could be steadily increased. 

Where, then, does the corn plant obtain its nitrogen? Where 
does the clover get its nitrogen? Where does the Southern cow- 
pea, which thrives on the poorest land in the South — land so 
poor that it is often said " that 'ere bit of land ain't even fit to 
grow pea-vines on " — where does the cow-pea get its nitrogen ? 

Is the Indian corn the missing link for New England? If it is, 
the future of New England agriculture is assured beyond a ques- 
tion, because by means of the corn plant we can, in my judgment, at 
this time within twenty-five miles on each side of the Connecticut 
river, within the State of Massachusetts, raise all the beef that the 
people of Massachusetts require annually; and perhaps at less 
cost than it can be procured in any other way. 

This seems as rash an assertion as a theorist can presume to make ; 
but it is no more rash than the word which I ventured to speak 
some years ago in an address that I delivered at the opening of 
the Manufacturers' and Mechanics' Institute, in which I made the 
following statement : — " If I were to say to you that, next to the 
abolition of slavery and the use of the railway and the steamship, 
the re-discovery of the method of saving green crops, called ensi- 
lage, will prove to be the most important event in its effect on the 
material welfare of the present century, you may suggest that a 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 87 

commission of lunacy be appointed to examine the condition of 
my brain ; and yet I venture to say so." This was on the 9th of 
September, 1882. I am now able to cite facts strongly corrobor- . 
ating the prediction then made. 

Mr. C. W. Garrett, of Enfield, N. C, ripens his corn, gathers it 
before hardening, and then cob verts the stalks, and leaves, still 
green and succulent, into ensilage at a cost of one dollar a ton. 
He used to buj r northern hay a few years since. He also makes 
ensilage of cow-pea vines, rich in nitrogen, at a cost of a dollar and 
a half per ton, and feeds his working mules upon it without any 
grain ; at the same time raising beef and feeding milch cows. 

At the recent meeting of the farmers who practise ensilage in 
New York, Col. Smith, of St. Albans, Vt., gave testimony to the 
effect that he had planted, harvested, and put into his silo more than 
six hundred tons of ensilage during the last year, at a net cost of 
seventy-seven cents per ton ; and he confirmed the evidence of 
others that two tons of ensilage, such as he makes, are equal in 
nutritive properties to one ton of the best hay. 

Mr. Powell, of the firm of Smiths, Powell, & Lamb, of Syracuse, 
N. Y., testified to the fact that his firm were feeding more than 
six hundred milch cows upon ensilage, and were making the best 
of butter, winter and summer. At a recent national competition 
they had taken the first prize for the best butter ; the second 
prize for the second best ; and the first prize for the third quality. 
I first ordered some of their butter for trial ; and have since made 
an arrangement for a monthlj 7 supply throughout the year. 

When the value of ensilage for milk production was questioned, 
a " silo" farmer in Connecticut, Mr. Strong, bore witness that he 
was supplying the Brunswick Hotel of New York with all the 
milk consumed in that house, and had done so for several years.* 

*The subjoined communication embodies important statements which are 
best presented in the writer's own words : — 

Saltville Stock Farm, Saltville, Va., \ 

February 9, 1886. j 

Hon. Edward Atkinson, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your valued favor of the 
2d instant, and also to thank you for the "Massachusetts Ploughman." I • 
have been very much interested in reading the discussion on the subject of 
the production of beef in New England and the East, and have long been of 
the opinion that it could be produced to better advantage, and with better 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The silo which Lord Walsingham built in accordance with the 
suggestion of my neighbor, Consul Henderson, whom I inoculated 
with the virus five or six years since, was the first of 1183 now in 
Great Britain, and the report of the Ensilage Commission of the 
Privy Council, of which Lord Walsingham was Chairman, bears 
witness to the success and importance of the matter. 

Accepting as a fact that the Indian corn plant in Massachusetts 
will secure its supply of nitrogen in some way or somehow from 
natural sources, wherever the soil it grows in is fertilized with 

profit, in the East than it could in the West — taking the price which it could 
be sold for, quality, etc., into consideration: and that it only needed the 
same kind of "brain and capital" that is engaged in the manufacture of 
cotton, to demonstrate the fact. 

In reply to your questions — I am like most farmers, I do not keep my 
accounts enough in detail to enable me to say accurately what any one prod- 
uct costs. The farm that I have has 10,500 acres; about one-half in grass 
and cultivation. I made a crop of tobacco last year of 60,000 pounds. I have 
2,800 sheep, 150 horses (mainly Clydesdales), and about 600 head of cattle, 
of which 450 are registered Short Horns, being the largest herd of registered 
Short Horns in the world ; the cost of all are so blended that I cannot give 
you the exact figures for any one product, though I can give an estimate that 
is satisfactory to my own mind, but it would be more satisfactory if I could 
give you the cost in figures, the same as you can the cost of a yard of calico ; 
but I will give you my estimate, the best that I can. 

Question 1st. — At what cost can you put good corn ensilage into the 
silo? 

Answer. I estimate that corn which will yield sixty bushels per acre, will 
make thirty tons of ensilage per acre ; and that it can be grown and put into 
the silo at $1.30 per acre [ton is intended]. 

Question 2d. — How many tons will carry a steer one year for green 
fodder? 

Answer. I think that forty pounds [per day] is a large feed for a yearling 
steer, and seventy-five pounds for a two-year old steer. 

Question 3d. — What do you feed with the green fodder? 

Answer. This depends much on the kind of cattle, and how they are to be 
handled. If they are to go on grass in the spring, good sweet ensilage will 
keep them growing all winter ; if they are to go to the butcher in say June 
or July following, I feed them all of the cotton seed meal and corn (ground 
with the cob), that they can digest. Cotton seed meal costs twenty dollars 
per ton at this depot. 

Question ith. — At what cost can you make a steer ready for the butcher, 
at twenty months old? 

Answer. Very much depends on the treatment and care of the feeder, and 
whether fed on grain and ensilage, or partly on grass, as in this part of the 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 89 

300 pounds of muriate of potash and 150 pounds of phosphate of 
lime at a cost of $7.50 per acre, — then the best speculation of the 
day may be to buy up the deserted hill farms lying each side of the * 
Connecticut River, within a range of thirty or forty miles, in order 
to convert them into beef factories for the supply of Boston. We 
will say nothing of milk, butter, and cheese. 

What then is needed in the application of science to the produc- 
tion, distribution, and consumption of food? Each acre of land 
may require a little different proportion of the nutrients, as each 
man may call for a little more or less nitrogen, a little more or less 
fat, or a little more or less starch ; or as different plants may vary 
in the same way. But has not the time arrived when, by means of 
close observation, and by the application of science, the ration due 
to the soil, the ration due to the plant, and the ration due to man 
can be measured and defined, and its cost ascertained, with exact- 
ness and certaint}^? — No one has, however, yet been able to 
answer the conundrum which I put about a } r ear ago: "What is 
the cost of making a pound of beef ?" 

The nutrients which are contained in the several standard 
rations of Voit, Playfair, and others vary somewhat in the relative 
proportions of the several ingredients ; but Prof. Atwater has re- 
duced them to "calories" or equivalents of heat, and by this 
standard they are all very nearly identical. The standard of each 
and all for one day's ration of an adult working man is a little 
more than three thousand equivalents of heat. The waste of some 
New England families is made apparent by the fact that Prof. At- 

country. A steer is simply a machine for making beef and fat; and you 
might as well undertake to run a large steam engine with little or no fuel as 
to make beef without plenty of food, and feeding it as carefully as you would 
feed an engine ; and it will pay for attention as well as an engine. I estimate 
that I can make beef here of the best quality at four cents per pound, live 
weight, and that it can be made in New England at five cents per pound, 
and that the steer should weigh from fourteen to fifteen hundred pounds 
at twenty to twenty-four months old. 

The making of beef is in its infancy in the United States, and in my opinion 
the Eastern States will hold their own with the West — and as soon as more 
capital and brains take hold of the matter, as they have of other manu- 
facturing interests, that large sums could be made, and a better return on the 
capital secured than in any other manufacturing business. 

Yours very truly, 

GEO. W. PALMER. 



90 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



water has reduced the actual rations which have been given him by 
Commissioner Wright and, in some cases, he finds that the food 
consumed or wasted yields 7800 mechanical equivalents of heat 
per man. 

The dietaries of a large number of mechanics, operatives, and 
working people in Massachusetts, gathered by Col. Wright, 
coincide closely with other figures and proportions of food con- 
sumption which I obtained in Massachusetts and Maryland. 
(The proportion of animal food, and its proportionate cost, are 
even greater here than in some rather startling statistics which 
I shall give you presently.) 

Average weight of food per person. lbs. 

Meat and fish ' . . . . . . .89 

Milk, butter, cheese, and eggs . . . 1.29 



Animal food . 
Vegetable food 

Cost of meats (average) . 
Milk, butter, cheese, and eggs 

Animal food . 
Vegetable food 

Nutrients, by weight. 

Protein .... 
Fat .... 

Carbo-hydrates 



2.18 
3.02 



5.20 



llcts. 
6 



17 

8 



lbs. 

.28 

.41 

1.17 



25 cts. 



1.86 



The excess or waste is almost wholly in the fat, of which .13 lbs. 
or less than one-third the average consumption noted would suffice 
according to Voit's standard ; which, as compared with Playfair's 
and those of two other authorities, is the highest of all. 

The ' ' calories " or equivalents of heat in the several standard 
dietaries of Voit and others range from 3031 to 3159. 

The corresponding units in our Massachusetts dietaries aver- 
age 4410 ; or about 600 above the standard of the German soldier 
when engaged in a forced march or in the most severe work of war. 
We may be thankful for the possibility of this abundance if it 
does us any good; but let us prate no more about the "greasy" 
German when we eat three times as much fat ourselves. 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 91 

This huge excess was not always to be had ; there was a time of 
short commons once in New England, and then our grandfathers 
had gumption enough to get the most out of the least money. 

In illustration of the way in which the process of natural selec- 
tion ma}?" go on without exact intelligence as to what is being done, 
it is interesting to observe that the oatmeal of the Scotchman is 
very nearly an ideal food. It contains the three nutrients which I 
have named, in almost the exact proportions of Voit's standard 
ration ; and we find the Scotchman, who has been brought up on 
oatmeal, a stalwart, vigorous, and effective laborer in every branch 
of work to which he applies either his muscle or his mind. 

Again, the fried fish balls or the brown bread and baked beans 
of New England are found to contain nearly the right proportions 
of nutrients required, according to Voit's standard. The pease 
porridge, seasoned with savory herbs, in which a little bit of pork 
is stewed, the common food of the French Canadian, is again con- 
sistent with Voit's standard. 

The macaroni and grated cheese of the Italian laborer again cor- 
responds to this standard, — the cheese, so much neglected in this 
country, furnishing the right proportion of protein. 

And, again, the hog and hominy of the Southern negro, in the 
proportion in which it is served — one peck of meal to three and 
one-half pounds of bacon for a week's supply — corresponds very 
nearly with the same standard. 

In all these cases, by a process of natural selection, people who 
have but little money to apply to the purchase of food, have 
found out how to get the largest value and the most adequate 
nutriment at the least cost. 

What we have now to do is to bring this economic practice into 
a scientific form, and to show how to get the same good subsistence 
in rations of greater variety and of more appetizing properties than 
those which are named, and yet at the same cost. 

1 can, today, at airy of our markets in Boston, buy the trim- 
mings of beef at one-half a cent to one cent a pound, and can con- 
vert them into bouillon in this little vessel which I have by me, 
and which I myself invented, by the use of a common kerosene 
hand lamp, as you see.* 

Adding to this bouillon, bread purchased at the price at which 

* During the delivery of the address, the process was in progress. 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the Howe National Bakery sells it in New York, to wit : three 
cents per pound, and perhaps a little dish made from skimmed 
milk with cheese stewed in it, I can make a full and nutritious 
daj^'s ration thoroughly cooked in this cooker, except as to the 
bread, with an expenditure 'of less than seven cents per day for 
as much as it is necessary or suitable for me to eat. What we 
need is the right direction of force. 

I have said that we should convert the waste lands of Massa- 
chusetts into beef factories, rather than misuse land and its prod- 
uct by the conversion of corn into pork. Here is a recent 
development, very novel to me and doubtless to most of you, 
brought out bv a chance remark of mine to Professor Atwater. I 
said to him, one day,< "I believe the Western men compute five 
pounds of shelled corn to one pound of pork." 

" Well," said he, " then they waste about four pounds of corn." 

I replied, " How is that? I have always looked upon pork as 
condensed corn." 

" Then," said he, " you have made a mistake. I will make a 
computation and give it to you." 

I will not weary 3-011 with the exact figures, but they show that 
Indian meal, although not quite so near to Voit's standard in its 
relative proportions of nutrient as oatmeal, is next to it in its 
nutrient value. 

Assuming that it takes 1000 lbs. of corn to make 200 lbs. of 
pork, we have in that corn nearly 900 lbs. of nutrients, well bal- 
anced. When this is fed to hogs we have wasted all the starch, 
a considerable part of the protein, and we have almost nothing but 
fat, — and only 180 lbs. of that. 

The general result of Professor Atwater's investigations, applied 
to the dietaries furnished him by Col. Wright from the statistics 
of Massachusetts, serves to prove that the great waste in New 
England is in the enormous excess of fat ; which we eat, but cannot 
properly digest and assimilate. 

Therefore beef rather than pork is the farmer's proper objective 
point ; because in the production of beef we obtain from the starch 
and fat of the corn plant a larger proportion of protein or nitrogen 
than can be found in pork, or, indeed, in most other kinds of 
animal food. 

The same remark applies to the production of milk and cheese 
(especially of skimmed milk cheese), provided it is stewed in such 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 93 

a way that it can be digested. One pound of skimmed milk cheese, 
if cooked in a suitable wa}-, affords more nutrition than three 
pounds of the best beef. 

"When I first accepted the invitation to give this lecture, I sug- 
gested to Mr. Appleton of your Committee that the title should 
be " Was Nebuchadnezzar so badly off, after all, when he went to 
grass." 

Nebuchadnezzar had lived on the fat of the land, as we do ; and 
when he went to grass, he went to a more wholesome food. We 
need more vegetables and less fat — more garden and less farm. 

No address of mine would be complete unless it contained some 
figures ; and I will now venture to repeat some figures upon food 
which I have given elsewhere, but which I am very sure will bear 
repetition, even if they weary you a little in their recital. 

I suppose that what has led to my being here today is, mainly, 
the fact that I have attempted to measure the price of life, and to 
determine, more exactly than any one has yet clone, the proportions 
and relative cost to working people of food, clothing, and shelter, 
under present conditions of life. 

My earliest investigations had for their objective point a deter- 
mination of the money value of the annual production of this 
country — an appalling problem, but one which I may believe has 
been solved with approximate accuracy, for the reason that many 
lines of similar investigation, which have since been pursued 
under the supervision of Coh Wright, Prof. Hadley and others, 
have led to almost identical conclusions. Not to wear}' you with 
incomprehensible figures of unnumbered millions, I will simply 
announce, as a fact appearing at the end of the whole investiga- 
tion, the following, viz. : that the average sum earned by, and so 
available for subsistence of, each adult person does not, as regards 
nine-tenths of our population, exceed forty cents per day. 

The working group (as distinguished from the family group) 
consists of three persons, i. e., each person, who is engaged in any 
kind of gainful occupation for which he or she is paid in money 
wholly or in part, sustains two others. The family group is a 
fraction under five persons. Ninety per cent of the people of the 
United States who are engaged in airy kind of gainful occupation 
are what may be called working people in the narrow sense of the 
word. I, myself, claim to be a working man ; but what I mean is 
that ninety per cent of the people of the United States are in the 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

position either of laborers, mechanics, factory operatives, domes- 
tic servants, or small farmers who work harder than their hired 
men ; or are clerks, salesmen, teachers in the common schools, or 
engaged in similar occupations, — people whose accumulated 
wealth consists merely of small savings, and whose daily bread 
depends substantially upon their daily exertion. 

With respect to this ninety per cent each one, upon the average, 
must be sheltered, clothed, and fed on what forty cents or less will 
buy each day, — profits and taxes having been previously set aside 
from the aggregate production. Here, in the East, where ma- 
chinery has been most effectively applied, the average income of 
each person in those classes may be rather more. In the South 
and West, where manual labor is applied in greater measure, it is 
certainly less. 

With respect to this class of persons, one-half the price of life 
is the price of food. Of each fifty cents which a mechanic in 
Massachusetts will expend for himself and his family, twenty-five 
cents on the average will be paid for food, supplying one adult per- 
son for one day. We may count two children of ten years of age or 
under as equal to one adult in their Consuming power. 

Of this expenditure of twenty-five cents, — if the subsistence 
of the factory operatives of New England and of the Middle States 
ma} T be taken as a fair standard of the whole (they being chiefly 
adult women) — the proportion of each kind of food is substantially 
as follows : — 

9J cents for meat and fish, — of which about three and a half 

cents is for beef. 
5 "for milk, butter, and cheese. 

J " for eggs. 
2J " for bread. 

2 " for vegetables. 

2 u for sugar and syrup. 

1 " for tea and coffee. 

1 "for fruit, salt, spice, pickles, etc. 

23J cents in all ; 1 \ cents may be added for sundries, making 25 
cents per day per adult. 

You will observe that three-fifths of this sum is expended for 
animal products, — meat, fish, milk, butter, cheese, and eggs ; and 






THE FOOD QUESTION. 95 

since food is one-half the price of life, it follows that three-tenths 
of the entire price of life for ninety per cent of the population of 
the United States is expended for animal products, provided peo- 
ple on the average live as well as the factory operatives of New 
England and the Middle States. I do not suppose that they do 
live as well ; but we may say, I think with certainty, that by so 
much as they eat less or poorer food they are inadequately served. 

This is not a high standard, — far from it; but all observation 
sustains Professor Atwater's scientific analysis. It consists too 
much of meat, and too much of fat. It is not a scientific ration. 
A scientific ration quite as nutritious, quite as varied, and much 
more wholesome can be purchased for from one-half to two-thirds 
the money. The women' in the Sherborn Prison are well nourished 
at about one-half the expense which I have given, to wit : at about 
thirteen cents a day ; and notwithstanding their customary bad 
condition when sent to prison, and though remaining for terms 
too short to admit of putting them in a condition of complete 
health, they yet gain both in weight and strength, almost in- 
variably. 

Computing by this standard of the factory operatives of New 
England and the United States, we reach results in millions, that 
are somewhat astounding. If each person in the present popula- 
tion of the United States (counting two children of ten years or 
under as one adult) is served in this proportion, the meat and fish 
ration eaten bj^ them costs each year . . $1,825,000,000 

The milk, butter, and cheese, at the rate of 
one-half to two-thirds of a pint of milk per 
day, one to one and one-fourth ounces of but- 
ter, and a scrap of cheese, cost, at average 
retail prices $912,500,000 

The eggs, at one for every other day, at 
twelve cts. per dozen, amount per year to 
over ........ $91,000,000 



$2,828,500,000 
Vegetable food, tea, coffee, etc., 1,825,000,000 



$4,653,500,000* 



*At the average of the ration of the working people of Massachusetts, 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The consumption of poultry and eggs, at retail prices, taken 
separately, comes to at least the value of $200,000,000 per year ; 
or more than the combined value of the product of the silver mines 
and the product of the pig-iron furnaces, with the entire wool 
clip added. 

These rations or proportions may well be considered when eco- 
nomic legislation is under consideration. 

The least conspicuous industries are the most important ; and 
the most aggressive and overbearing, like the silver interests (so 
called), are of the least possible consequence. The product of 
the hen yards, in eggs alone, is, as I have so often had occasion to 
say of late, more than double that of the silver mines. 

At three and a half cents to each person per day for beef, the 
value of the beef consumed within the limits of the United States 
would be in the neighborhood of $600,000,000 a year ; or more 
than the entire product of all our textile factories put together. 
How much more it is than three and a half cent's worth a day 
cannot be computed. 

I have thus brought before you in a hasty manner three separate 
directions in which the application of science has yet a vast and 
almost unexplored field : — 

First. Determination of the ration due to the land ; — science 
applied to the production of protein, fat, and starch in vegetable 
growths, in right proportions for the food of beasts as well as of 
man. 

Second. Science applied to the consumption of protein, fat, 

which I have previously given you, the consumption of the present popula- 
tion of the people of this country would be — 

Meat and fish, 11 cents a day, . . $2,007,500,000 

Milk, butter, cheese, and eggs, 6 " " . . 1,095,000,000 

Vegetable food, 8 " " . . 1,440,000,000 



25 $4,542,500,000 

Mr. David A. Wells estimates our liquor bill at about . 500,000,000 

Total, over $5,000,000,000 

This is too much, because we live better in Massachusetts than they do in 
many places, and our food costs more here than it does in the West. Yet I 
think |4,000,000,000 would not be too high. 

How much of it is wasted? 

How much is badly cooked? 

Can you bear to think of it? 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 97 

and starch by beasts, in the production of meat and dairy products 
at the lowest cost. 

Third. Science applied to the consumption of food by man. » 

To these must be added the most difficult problem of all — sci- 
ence applied to the retail distribution of perishable products. 

There is one street in Boston which I suppose is the most costly 
one to pass across that can anywhere be named. It is Commer- 
cial Street. On its eastern side good fish are often sold at whole- 
sale for one-half a cent per pound. On the western side of the 
street fish of the same quality are sold at from six to ten cents per 
pound. Why does it cost so much to carry fish across that street 
for distribution ? 

Here is Samuel Howe's bread. Three cents a pound for most 
excellent bread. Here is the bread sold hy a prominent baker at 
his shop in Boston which is nearest to the dwelling places of the 
poor. The price is nearly six cents per pound. The bread is no 
better than that made by Samuel Howe, if as good. Where is the 
Samuel Howe of Boston ? 

The meat in this cooking vessel is good meat, of which enough 
can be bought in Quincy Market every day to feed one thousand 
people — as I am assured by the market-men. 

Where is the measure of intelligence, on the part of those who 
need to save their money, which may enable them to buy this 
meat, and to cook it properly, as readily as I can do it? To be 
sure the price would rise a little if it were in demand for anything 
but rendering into fat — yet now it is all wasted. 

It has been in dealing with these subtle problems in economic 
science that I have gone so far afield in the treatment of matters 
of which I found myself very ignorant at the beginning, and of 
which even today I know but little if any more than yourselves. 
All that I can do is to urge upon you the vast importance of these 
matters, and to suggest to the members of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society that there is need of the application of right 
principles and accurate methods, like those of horticulture, in the 
production of beef, milk, butter, cheese, and eggs, as well as in 
the production of vegetables and fruit. 

When this shall have been done, the science of agriculture will 
perhaps be as far advanced as the science of floriculture and of 
fruit production has alread} r been through the efforts of this 
Society. 



98 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



What we most need is to save waste. We are wasting good 
land in New England by letting it lie idle for want of brains and 
capital ; laborers to work it are wanting. We are wasting hay by 
feeding it to stock when chopped corn stalks would serve as well. 
We are wasting food on every table — perhaps proportionately 
more on the tables of the poof than on those of the well-to-do. We 
are smothered in our own grease, and, like Nebuchadnezzar, 
we need to be sent to grass. 

But what if we saved all this wasted wealth — what should we 
do with it? Perhaps it would bring about the realization of the 
dream of the labor reformer — eight hours for work, eight hours 
for sleep, and eight hours for leisure. 

When we earn our leisure by saving waste we shall perhaps know 
what to do with it. The " Old Bohemian," in his Cookerj* Book, 
says that " leisure consists in the diligent and intelligent use of 
time." Whether the leisure which I have devoted to this lecture 
merits the second adjective in his definition, I leave to you to decide. 



The apparatus mentioned on page 91 as in operation during 
the lecture is shown in vertical section in the subjoined illustration. 

M @ 




THE ALADDIN COOKER. 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 99 

REFERENCES TO CUT. 

AAAAA — Box made of pine wood lj^ to 3 inches thick, according to size 

of cooker. v 

B — Lining of tin or tinned copper fitted with arm of copper B' B' through 

which the water circulates, and in which it is heated by the lamp L. 

This arm should be 3 inches broad by 1 inch deep. 
CC — Cooking vessel which may be of metal ; preferably of porcelain or of 

glass. 
DD — Felt lining to cover. 

E — Cord attached to perforated ears or rings F F. 
GGGGG — Water in circulation, heated by lamp L to about 200° . 
HH — Hood of tin around the arm B' B', to concentrate the heat upon it. 
I — Vent to tin hood for draft. 
J — Tin guard to keep heat from wood. 
K — Faueet to draw off water. 

L — Lamp with wick ^ to 1 inch wide, according to size of cooker. 
M — Orifice for thermometer. 

N — Orifice to cooking vessel, with screw cap for thermometer. 
Rounded corners are desirable inside for convenience in keeping clean. 

Begin with tepid or cold water if glass vessels are used. 

t 

The essay was also illustrated Iry samples of Samuel Howe's 
bread ; which was cut up and tasted b} r many of the audience with 
satisfaction — it was not quite so white as the Boston bread but was 
of excellent quality.* 

Discussion. 

O. B. Had wen said that he highly approved the essay. We are 
the most extravagant people on the face of the earth ; and the 
time is coming, and we are not far from it, when the principles 

* Since this paper was read, the author has supplied the following detailed 
directions and illustration, for constructing a cheaper form of this cooker : 

Take a common butter firkin or keg, marked AAA on the diagram. In this 
put a wooden pail, marked BBB, or an unpainted tin pail, so as to make a 
distance of about one inch between. Pack this space between the two with 
sawdust, CCC. Over the edges of the firkin and the pail, which should be on 
a level, place the annular tin cover, DD, to prevent water or grease getting 
into the sawdust. Cover the firkin with a wooden cover, E. Put also an in- 
side cover, E, over the pail. Inside the pail, with room enough around it 
for at least half an inch of water, place a porcelain jar or stone pot, F, in 
which put the food to be cooked. Insert two large corks, GG, through the 
wall of the firkin and of the pail, each pierced with a half-inch hole. In these 
holes place a tin or copper pipe, HIT, half an inch in diameter, packed water- 
tight; any other method of securing a water-tight joint maybe used. Fill 
the pail with water so as to cover both the orifices to these pipes. The water 



100 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



laid down by the essayist must be applied amongst us, as necessity 
has caused them to be in other nations. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder said that he could not allow the essay- 
ist to go away without an assurance of the great gratification we 
had derived from listening to his suggestions. B} T his wisdom he 
has given us food for thought/enough for the rest of our lives. The 

is marked WW. At the place marked KK, broaden the water pipe so as to 
get more heat. It should here be wide enough for the edges to project out- 
side the lamp chimney, with the under side concave, and then the condensed 
moisture will not drop upon the chimney and break it. Set the whole appa- 
ratus on the edge of a table. Underneath the tin or copper arm or pipe, HII, 
set the lamp /, on a chair or stool ., If a tin hood </, is put around this tin 
pipe a little way from it, the water in the pipe will be heated more rapidly. 
Light the lamp with the wick low at first, and keep it low until the metal hood 
is heated ; then put it up high, and after that it will not smoke. 





w 




,, " v/#W///s/////im* v/////////mm 



' iM^>^^^ 



Stale % Size 




C-7 



Since this form of the cooker was designed, I have had one made of two 
firkins — worth ten cents each — and about fifty cents worth of tin work. In 
a stone pot I have made most excellent beef bouilli ; and fricasseed chicken out 
of very ancient hens ; and have cooked half a ham, etc., etc. 

Meat may be cooked in its own juice or in water. After the food is cooked 
it will merely keep hot, and become more tender, as long as the lamp is kept 
burning. 



THE FOOD QUESTION. 101 

speaker hoped the essayist might have been able to give us infor- 
mation in regard to the kinds of fruit most desirable as food. He 
(Mr. Wilder) has it on his table every day in the year, mostly un- 
cooked, and has not had a serious case of dysentery in his family 
for fifty j T ears — an exemption which he attributed to the free use of 
ripe fruit. He concluded by moving a vote of thanks to Mr. 
Atkinson for his very useful and interesting lecture, which was 
unanimously passed. 

Mr. Atkinson said he knew the value of fruit, and most heartily 
concurred with what Mr. Wilder had said of its value. The great 
problem in regard to this as well as other perishable commodities 
is how to get them to the consumer without too great expense for 
packages, transportation, and distribution. They frequently cost 
the consumer two or three times the wholesale price. Bananas 
contain more nitrogen than any other fruit. He still recollected 
the taste of some dried bananas sent to his father forty years ago ; 
and he hoped to see this fruit become plenty and cheap. The 
economical side is the most serious part. The wheat of which the 
excellent bread shown here as sold at three cents per pound was 
made probably came from Dakota. One man can produce 5000 
bushels of wheat in 300 days, and this makes 1000 barrels of flour. 
The labor of one man puts the wheat into the barrel, the labor of 
one man and a half moves it from Dakota to New York, and one- 
half a man's time keeps the .entire machiner}' of manufacture 
and movement in order. The speaker estimated that the labor 
of seven persons would yield to a thousand men their proportion 
of bread. In Boston bread costs six cents per pound instead of 
three, and the largest part of this cost is in getting it from the 
mouth of the oven to the mouth of the consumer. In New York 
the price is three cents ; in London four cents. The hardest 
problem connected with the food question is the retail distribution 
of products. 

William C. Strong said that so many points had been sug- 
gested by the essayist that we hardly knew what to say. Mr. 
Cushman, of Plymouth County, says that he cannot afford to use 
hay to make milk, and has made other very positive statements of 
what he can and cannot afford to do. Mr. Atkinson's paper has 
opened a wide field ; the question before us is the maintenance 
of our men and women. 

President Walcott said it is certain that the most perfect condi- 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tions of physical life, in Massachusetts, exist in our penal institu- 
tions. The inmates of the prisons at Concord and Sherborn are 
better fed and clothed than the average workingman. If we 
should do as much for the law-abiding citizen, it will be a greater 
triumph than success in horticulture. 

Mr. Atkinson, in reply to an inquiry from a lady how to cook 
cheese, referred to Williams's " Chemistry of Cooking." He gave 
an account of an experiment of his own in making a cheese 
soufflee which proved delicious. He took a pound and a half of 
the skimmiest cheese (which he broke up with a hatchet), two 
loaves of stale baker's bread, two quarts of skimmed milk, salt, 
pepper (black and Cayenne), dry mustard, and about a salt 
spoonful of bicarbonate of soda. The mixture was kept simmer- 
ing over night in a water-bath ; and at breakfast the fish balls and 
brown bread were neglected for it. Though it was not indi- 
gestible, one who partook of it very freely was made sick, so much 
nitrogen and protein making it too rich. - One pound of skim- 
med milk cheese, which has sometimes been sold for a cent and a 
half per pound, if rendered digestible is worth as much as three 
pounds of sirloin beef, costing sixty cents — that is, it has as much 
nutritive value. Cheese is too much neglected as an article of food, 
in this country. The Parmesan cheese served with macaroni is 
a cooked cheese. In Italy it is common to serve grated cheese 
with vegetable soup, and he had had it thus served in New York. 
When stewed, or grated and cooked in soups or with macaroni, 
it is digestible and cheap food. 

In answer to an inquiry, Mr. Atkinson said that butter is only 
fat — it gives the element of fat required in a well balanced dietary. 
Oleomargarine when well made of good suet is a wholesome fat 
food ; and, if sold for no more than it is fairly worth, he saw no 
objection to using it. He thought the dairy people were making a 
mistake in fighting it. 

O. M. Tinkham, of North Pomfret, Vt., said that a person, near 
this city, has kept from six hundred to a thousand swine, which 
were fed on city refuse until it was thought to give them the 
cholera. These hogs were cooked in great vats, the fat floating 
at the top, and five hundred tubs of it were seen marked with the 
name of a person in New England who runs a creamery. 

President Walcott said that he had had as much to do with the 
execution of the laws in regard to oleomargarine as any one, and 



MEDALS FOR HYACINTHS. 103 

be thought the State amply protected ; there is no possibility of 
selling a pound of oleomargarine under any other name. 

Mr. Atkinson said, in pursuance of his previous statements/ 
that good bread can be made for less than three cents per pound. 
We need a capitalist who will seek his fortune in making bread. 
Bread made of American flour is sold in London for less than 
four cents per pound. 

The announcement for the next Saturday was a paper by W. W. 
Rawson, on " Vegetable Growing." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, February 27, 1886. 
An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
Vice-President C. H. B. Breck in the chair. 

William H. Spooner, Chairman of the Committee appointed 
January 30, to nominate a candidate to fill a vacancy in the Vege- 
table Committee, caused by the death of George W. Pierce, 
reported the name of P. G. Hanson, of Woburn, who was there- 
upon unanimously elected. 

The Secretary announced that the medals offered b} T the Royal 
Uni6n for the Cultivation of Flower Roots, at Haarlem, to be 
awarded for the best exhibitions of Hyacinths at the Spring Ex- 
hibition of this Society, had been received. He also laid before 
the Society a letter from the above mentioned Union in regard to 
medals to be offered as prizes for flowering bulbs at the Spring 
Exhibition of this Society, in 1887, and a letter from the Penn- 
sylvania Horticultural Society (which had received the same 
proposition) in regard thereto. The subject was referred to the 
Committee on Establishing Prizes, with full powers. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 6. * 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Vegetable Growing. 

By Warren W. Eawson, Arlington. 

This subject is one which enlists the attention of very many 
of our horticulturists at the present time. In the practical pur- 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

suit of it, success depends more on the man than on anything 
else ; presuming him to have secured the proper soil, which should 
be a light sandy loam. In the vicinity of any of our cities, large 
and small, can be seen small places devoted to the growing of 
vegetables, either as a special business or in connection with 
some other branch of agriculture. It is now one of the principal 
lines of business carried on in the vicinity of large markets, and is 
every year growing larger and larger, and extending farther and 
farther from the cities. The suburban land is becoming too valu- 
able for this use, being wanted for building lots or for manufact- 
uring establishments, which must be located near the large cities 
on account of railroads and help. These requirements are fast 
filling up the suburbs of Boston for five or six miles out ; within 
which distance scarcely any land available for gardening now re- 
mains unappropriated. 

The varying demand of the markets governs the amount of 
business done by growers in the large suburban towns ; but the 
product of two or three acres can be readily disposed of in almost 
any town containing from four to five thousand inhabitants — and 
in such markets the prices are much better than in large ones, 
and a profit is sure on a limited quantity. 

The vegetables grown are comprised in the following list : — 
Artichokes, Asparagus, Beans (Bush and Pole), Beets of various 
kinds, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbages (early and late), Carrots, Cauli- 
flowers, Celery, Corn, Cucumbers, Dandelions, Egg Plants, En- 
dive, Leeks, Lettuce, Martynias, Melons, Mushrooms, Onions, 
Parsle} 7 , Parsnips, Peas, Peppers, Potatoes, Radishes, Rhubarb, 
Salsify (Oyster Plant), Sea Kale, Spinach, Squashes, Tomatoes, 
Turnips, and Water Cress. 

There are many varieties of some of these ; but time and space 
will not permit me to speak minutely of them all. I will there- 
fore give an account of the soil and mode of cultivation needed by 
some, and describe their peculiarities ; selecting the most impor- 
tant, and taking them in the order in which they appear in the 
foregoing list : — 

Artichokes (Cynara Scolymus). — The soil required is a deep 
sandy loam. In this country the artichoke is but little known, 
as people generally have not learned to use it ; but it is of the easiest 
possible culture, being hardy in our climate and readily propagated 
from roots or suckers. The Green Globe is the principal variety. It 



VEGETABLE GROWING. - 105 

should be grown in rows three and a half feet apart, and the plants 
two feet apart in the row. The flower head, which should be taken 
before it has reached maturity, is the edible portion, and is eaten 
either 'cooked or in the raw state. The shoots are sometimes 
blanched in the same manner as endive, and are then used as a 
salad. 

Asparagus. — This will thrive on almost any sandy soil, even if 
quite light ; and the lighter the soil, other things being equal, the 
earlier the crop maj- be got off. It may be grown continuously 
on the same land almost any number of years without being 
renewed. It takes four years from the sowing of the seed before 
a full crop can be cut. In preparing the land a liberal dressing of 
manure should be given, and this should be thoroughly and 
deepty worked in. In setting the plants, care must be taken to 
spread the roots out properly, the best plan being to plough out 
light furrows or drills three and a half or four feet apart, and 
put the plants a foot apart in the rows. When the plants have 
become sufficiently established to be fit for cutting, this is fol- 
lowed up each season until about the first of July, or when green 
peas begin to come on. After this the tops are allowed to grow 
until fall, when they are mowed off and a liberal dressing of 
manure is put on. 

This vegetable is one of the best for shipping, and therefore it 
may be grown at a considerable distance from market, where land 
is cheaper and where it ma} T be made much more profitable than 
if grown on the high priced land very near the large cities. The 
two principal varieties are the Conover's Colossal and Moore's New 
Giant. The former has long been the leading market sort, but 
it is claimed that the newer strain is superior in size and quality. 

Beans. — The English or broad varieties are but little grown in 
this country, but are worthy of more general cultivation than they 
have received. They will succeed best in a strong moist soil, 
and cool situation. They should be planted as early as the ground 
can be properly fitted in spring, in drills three feet apart, the 
beans five or six inches apart in the drill. When the pods begin 
to form it is well to pinch off the ends of the shoots, so as to 
throw the nourishment into the pods instead of letting it go to in- 
crease the size of the plants. 

The Bush varieties are quite an important crop in our market 
gardens, and will succeed best on a rather light sandy loam. 



106 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

They should be grown in drills three and a half feet apart, the 
beans being put about six inches apart in the drill. The ear- 
liest market varieties are the Six Weeks and Early Mohawk. 
These are followed by the White, Black, and Golden Wax, which 
are succeeded by the Yellow Cranberry and Dwarf Horticultural. 
All these are planted in this'locality about the first week in May. 

The Pole varieties are less hard}' than the bush sorts, and are 
planted about two weeks later ; in rows three and a half feet apart 
and hills two feet apart in the row. The principal varieties are 
the Eed Cranberry, Pole Horticultural, Sieva or Small Lima, and 
Large White Lima. 

Although there are some other sorts of garden beans, these are 
the leading ones grown. 

Beets come next in order. The earliest are the Egyptian, 
Eclipse, and Bastian. By some the Egyptian is called the earli- 
est, but others say the Bastian is just as early, and others the 
Eclipse. The Egyptian is a very early beet, and is very good 
when small ; but when full grown it is wood}', and of very poor 
quality. The Bastian is, I think, just as early ; it is not a true 
blood beet, but is sweet and of very good quality at all times of 
the 3'ear. The Eclipse is quite new, having been in the market 
only four or five years; it is a blood beet, very fine grained, of 
good shape and good at all seasons of the year ; and it is perhaps the 
most popular of all beets at the present time. The next we shall 
name is the Dewing ; this is the kind most extensively grown, and 
is in nry judgment the best of all for summer and winter, being a 
true blood beet and not growing too large for table use. It is 
the kind most used for greens, and is in favor for the family 
kitchen garden. There are several kinds grown for feeding cattle, 
such as the Long Red, Eed Globe, Yellow Globe, and French 
Sugar. 

Beets are grown, especially the earlier varieties, as a first crop, 
and are planted by machine jn rows twelve inches apart ; rows be- 
ing left out at proper intervals for celery, as is done on ridges for 
horse-radish. Of the three earliest sorts above mentioned, two crops 
can be grown on the same land each year ; the first being sown 
about the fifteenth of April and a second about the fifteenth of July. 
Beets require good land, well manured ; and if desired early must 
be left quite thin in the row. The late ones or those of the second 
crop can be grown closer together ; this applies also to the kinds 
used for cattle, and many tons of these can be raised on an acre. 






VEGETABLE GROWING. 107 

The Cabbage is one of the largest of vegetable or market gar- 
den crops. The soil selected should be a deep loam, quite moist, 
for the early crop ; and good strong land for the later. The kinds 
are very numerous. The Early York is about as carry as any 
grown ; the heads are very close and rather small. The Early 
Etampes is very similar ; the head being quite pointed. The Earty 
Wakefield is one of the best ; it is quite large and early and is ex- 
tensively grown, as is also Henderson's Early Summer, which is 
almost the only one at the present time grown in New England 
for second early. The latter is about a week later than the Wake- 
field, but is very much larger — more like the Flat Dutch, but earlier. 
There are many strains of this variet}' which have been produced 
by selection within the past few years. The originator of this 
cabbage was Mr. Abram Vansicker, of Jamaica, L. I. The seed 
first obtained was bought by Peter Henderson for a very large 
price, and the variety received the name of the Henderson Cab- 
bage ; or Henderson's Early Summer. Fottler's Improved Bruns- 
wick is a very fine variety, of which too much can hardly be said 
in commendation. It is very large, and one of the best kinds in 
cultivation for late summer or early fall use. It is about two 
weeks later than Henderson's Summer. Next come the Flat 
Dutch and the Stone Mason, both adapted for fall and winter use ; 
the Marblehead Mammoth, which is very large ; the Curled Savo} r , 
preferred by some for winter use ; and the Drumhead Savoy, very 
much larger than the Curled and much more profitable to grow. 

Red cabbages are used for pickling ; there are two varieties, the 
Large Red Drumhead and the Small Red Dutch. 

The quantity of manure that may be applied to this crop is very 
large. It will take twenty-five cords of fine manure to the acre, 
with a ton of chemical fertilizer, and a liberal supply of water in dry 
seasons. It is thought by some that hog manure is not fit for cab- 
bages, but I save all my manure from my cellar, where I keep 
fifty or sixty large hogs, for my cabbage crop. 

Cauliflowers. — Within the past few years this vegetable has 
become quite popular in our market, and during the past season was 
very abundant and of the finest quality, but not very profitable ; 
the price ruling very low. The season was very favorable for their 
growth and every one made good flowers ; which has never before 
been the case within m}* recollection. The varieties are the Early 
Snowball, Extra Early Erfurt, Half Early Paris, and Algiers. The 



108 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Snowball will head well at any season of the year and under 
almost any circumstances, if it has the proper culture. The Er- 
furt is very similar to the Snowball ; or, in other words, the Snow- 
ball is a variety of the Erfurt ; as is also the Sea Foam, which I 
consider the best of all varieties. The Half Early Paris is but 
very little grown at present, the Erfurt and its varieties being 
so much better. The Algiers is best for late, being very large, 
and is most grown on Long Island. 

Celery. — This vegetable has increased in use and popularity 
more than any other in the past ten years, being now one of the 
leading vegetables in our market ; and no table would be consid- 
ered complete without a large bunch of well bleached celery. Its 
cultivation requires 1 very moist land, or a sandy loam with plenty 
of water for irrigation. 

The kinds chiefly sold in our market are the Arlington for early 
and the Boston Market for late. The Boston Market is the best 
of the two for keeping, although the Arlington has kept very well 
until February. The Arlington if planted about the fifth of April 
will be ready for banking by the first of August, and will continue 
all the season. The time required to ripen or blanch the celery at 
that season of the year is about ten days, but as the season ad- 
vances and the weather grows cooler, a longer time is required. 
If to be marketed at about Thanksgiving time the Arlington celery 
should have its first banking at the beginning of October, and the 
Boston Market a week earlier. It is quite a difficult matter to 
arrange the banking of ten or twenty acres of celery so as to 
have a well distributed supply all the time from the first of August 
throughout the season. 

This crop is mostly grown after some other, affording a second 
use of the land the same year ; in this way it can be made quite 
remunerative, but I do not consider it a veiy profitable crop at the 
prices which ruled during the last season. When the price will 
average one dollar per dozen for the season through, there is 
something left for the producer. 

Cucumbers. — Very few vegetables are so popular, and few are 
so difficult to grow, as the cucumber — especially in the winter sea- 
son. From seeing them exhibited on our tables at almost all 
seasons of the year, an} r one might suppose they are very easy to 
produce ; but there are about as many failures as successes, in 
growing them in the winter. Many think that when cucumbers 



VEGETABLE GROWING. 109 

bring twenty-five cents apiece there must be a profit, but really the 
time when they pay best is when they bring ten or twelve cents 
each at wholesale. They are cultivated in hot-beds and hot-houses. 
They require a high temperature ; and the greatest difficulty in 
growing them in winter is that the temperature may chance to fall 
below a given point ; and then they begin to show it, and decline 
or die ; but if a high temperature is continually maintained, and 
proper care and a sufficient quantity of water is supplied to them, 
their success is almost certain. 

Corn. — This crop is not very extensively cultivated by market 
gardeners, as it is not sufficient!}' profitable for growing on high- 
priced land. Nevertheless it is grown by them to some extent for 
the first early market ; and more largely in the farm gardens farther 
away from the city. The soil should be a well prepared sandy loam, 
enriched by about six cords per acre of stable manure, broadcast, 
and about two cords applied in the hill or drill ; or, if preferred, a 
dressing of fertilizer may be used in the hill instead of the manure ; 
but it is always well to have some manure put on broadcast for the 
crop to feed on when that supplied in the hill is exhausted. Plant 
in rows three or three and a half feet apart, with the hills three 
feet apart in the row ; drop five or six kernels per hill, and after- 
wards thin the plants to three or four ; cover about three-fourths of 
an inch deep. Afterwards the ground should be frequently stirred 
b}^ cultivating and hoeing. 

Dandelions. — This vegetable is one of the earliest and best, 
as well as most healthful, of spring greens. The seed is sown 
in the early spring, and it requires the growth of all one season 
to establish a large root. This is left in the ground over winter 
for spring growing. For forcing, it ma}^ be dug up and set in 
rows in a hot-bed or hot-house. The plants can be brought for- 
ward for market at any time, by putting the glass on the beds, or 
applying heat in the hot-house. The roots are used sometimes for 
making beer ; they are dug and dried, and are then ready for use 
at any time. 

Endive. — This is another vegetable for which there is only a 
very limited demand. It is used as a salad, and by some is highly 
esteemed. The culture is very simple, and it will succeed on 
almost any good garden soil. Select if possible a spot where 
the plants will not be fully exposed to the heat and drought. Sow 
in rows, thinning the plants to one foot in the row. 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It is not ready for use until it has been blanched, which is 
effected by tying the leaves together at the top and letting them 
remain for a few weeks, or until whitened. 

Leeks. — This is a somewhat peculiar member of the Onion fam- 
ily, and is of quite easy culture. Sow in rows or drills in April, 
and thin the plants to eight or ten inches in the row. As the 
plants increase in size they should be earthed up, so as to blanch 
the bulbs, which are the edible portion. They are used chiefly 
in soups and stews, for flavoring. There are two principal va- 
rieties, the Musselburgh Broad Flag and the Giant Carentan. 

Lettuce. — This is one of the principal crops of the market 
gardener, especially in the winter, and is grown very extensively 
in this vicinity, supplying not only our own market, but to some 
extent that of New York and also of Philadelphia. There are many 
who devote a large number of sashes to the growing of lettuce in the 
winter season, afterward using the glass for cucumbers and other 
plants in spring. There are also at the present time mairy houses 
heated bj* steam, or hot water, used for growing lettuce. When I 
built my houses it was said by some of our old and experienced 
market gardeners that they never would pay. But it is a note- 
worthy fact that today the same men have houses of their own, 
and use them for the same purpose. 

Not many years ago it was thought that lettuce could not be 
raised for less than one dollar per dozen heads ; but today we sel- 
dom get over seventy-five cents, and would like to have it average 
as high as fifty cents, for all grown under glass. That grown in 
the field can be raised and sold at a much smaller price, say fifteen 
or twenty cents per dozen. 

There are but very few varieties grown here. The White-Seeded 
Tennisball and Curled are chosen for forcing, and the Black- 
Seeded Tennisball and All-The-Year-Round for out-door culture. 
To have lettuce the whole season, it must be sown every ten days 
throughout the year and twice transplanted into beds for winter ; 
the first time four inches apart ; the second time eight inches in 
hot-houses or seven inches in hot-beds ; which will give fifty heads 
under each sash three feet by six. The proper distance for outside 
culture is twelve inches each way. To secure this, some sow the 
seed in rows twelve inches apart and, when the plants reach a 
proper size, thin them out to twelve inches in the row ; but it is 
better to sow in a bed and transplant to the proper distance. The 
plants will usually make better heads if treated in this way. 



VEGETABLE GROWING. Ill 

Martynias. — The young seed pods of this plant are used for 
pickling. The plants should be fully three feet apart each way, 
as they are of very spreading habit. 

Mushrooms. — This is a very peculiar crop, and one that is in 
many respects quite difficult to grow. The best plan is as fol- 
lows : — 

Take fresh horse manure and use only the finer portion of it, 
shaking out all the straw and coarser part. Mix this with fresh 
loam, one part of loam to two parts of manure, and turn every 
day, to keep it from burning, until the fiery heat is nearly all out of 
it. Prepare a bed, about four feet wide and as long as required ; 
put in the mixture about eight inches in depth, making it very 
solid as it is put in. Let it remain in this condition until the tem- 
perature of the mass has fallen to ninety degrees. Then make holes 
two or three inches deep, at intervals of twelve inches each wa} T , 
into which put the spawn, using pieces about as large as a hen's 
egg. Cover the spawn and let it remain for eight or ten days ; 
then cover the whole bed with fine loam to the depth of two inches, 
making it firm with the back of a shovel or spade. The bed must 
be in a covered situation, and the prepared soil kept dr} T from the 
commencement ; and must be in a dark place with the temperature 
at about fifty degrees. 

If everything is favorable, the mushrooms will appear in six or 
eight weeks. As regards watering, every grower must use his own 
judgment. 

Muskmelons, — This crop differs materially in culture from the 
watermelon, and must have land of good qualit}^ in order to suc- 
ceed well, while the watermelon will produce a good crop, if pro- 
perly treated, on land which most people would call poor. The 
muskmelon will succeed best, other conditions being favorable, on 
a recently turned soil. The best way is to turn the land over at the 
proper time and then apply about five cords of manure broadcast, 
using a spreader, if you have one. After harrowing thoroughly, 
the ground should be marked off with furrows run six feet apart 
each way. A shovelful of manure should be applied in each of 
the hills ; which should be slightly raised, so that water will not 
stand around the plants. Seven or eight seeds should be put into 
a hill, so as to make due allowance for insects. After the plants 
have got their fourth leaf well out and have obtained a good start, 
they should be thinned to three in a hill. Cultivate both ways 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

thoroughly, the same as a crop of squashes or other vines would be 
treated. They should never be hoed or worked around when the 
leaves are wet with rain or even dew« They are a rather uncertain 
crop, and are but very little cultivated by our market gardeners. 

In picking for market, it is an easy matter to tell when the fruit 
is ready to pick, as the under, side of the melon will be lightly 
streaked with yellow. If picked at this stage it will be in good 
eating condition by the time it reaches the table of the consumer. 

The melons of this class are all yellow fleshed. There are sev- 
eral varieties, but the Arlington Long Yellow is almost exclusively 
the one raised for our market. In shape it is oblong, skin thickly 
netted, flesh thick and of fine flavor. The Surprise is a variety of 
quite recent introduction, and of considerable merit for the home 
garden ; but is not large enough for market. The White Japan is 
a quite popular sort of most excellent qualit} 7 . It is of medium 
size, with a pale yellow skin, while the flesh is golden in color. 

Cantaloupes. — The culture of this class of melons is the same 
as is above recommended for muskmelons, except that they are 
usually started under glass and afterwards transplanted, in order 
to hasten them along. 

The Arlington Nutmeg is the leading first early variety, and is 
followed b} T the Hackensack, which is one of the most popular 
sorts for the main crop. The latter variety is of good size and of 
excellent quality. The Casaba is a large late variety, and in 
the Northern States requires to be started under glass in order to 
ripen its fruit before frost. The seed is planted usually about the 
first of Ma} r , and the plants should be set out in the field about the 
tenth of June. The bed is usually placed near the centre of the 
field where they are to be grown. The seed should be sown on 
sods nine inches square, so that thirty-two hills are started under 
each three feet by six sash. 

The Montreal Market is the largest melon of its class now in 
cultivation, deriving its name from having been originated and 
largely grown in the vicinity of Montreal. This is started under 
glass earlier than the others, and is grown almost invariably in the 
beds until the time of picking. The flesh is green and very thick, 
and it is considered the best variety in existence for table use. They- 
often bring as high as one dollar each at wholesale. As they pro- 
duce more vines than the other varieties, more room must be given 
to them. Where one hill is planted under each sash, the beds 



VEGETABLE GROWING. 113 

should be set so that the hills will be twelve feet apart the other 
way, and one plant per hill at this distance is sufficient. In picking 
for market it should be remembered that the fruit is never ripe 
until it will part readily from the stem. 

Watermelons. — These are but little grown in market gardens, 
as, like corn, they are not sufficiently profitable. Large quantities 
are grown and shipped here from the South, and can be sold much 
lower than those raised in this locality can be. 

They require warm land, and should be planted in hills eight 
feet apart each way as soon as the weather becomes settled — say 
about the middle of May. Cover about half an inch deep, and 
press the soil down firmly so as to hold the moisture. 

The varieties are numerous. The Phinney's Early, Black Span- 
ish, and Mountain Sprout are among the leading ones, and are as 
good as any. 

Onions. — These are grown quite extensively both from sets and 
seed. They require a well enriched heavy loam, highly manured — 
say at the rate of twenty cords per acre ; or, if manure is not plenty, 
a dressing of from a thousand to twelve hundred pounds of some 
good fertilizer may be made to answer a good purpose. The crop 
is either bunched and marketed early, or harvested at the regular 
time and sold then by the bushel or barrel. The principal yellow va- 
riety is the Danvers Yellow, and the leading red sort is the Red 
Wethersfield. The White Portugal or Silver Skin is the white 
variety, and is raised principally from sets and, bunched for early 
marketing. 

Parsnips. — These are usually made a second crop, following a 
first crop of either spinach or radishes. The seed is very difficult 
to get up, and should be sown quite early so as to avoid drying up 
before it germinates. Parsnips are generally sown on ridges to- 
gether with either spinach or radishes ; and are put in drills four- 
teen or fifteen inches apart, the earlier crops being sown in rows 
between. These will be out of the way before the parsnips will 
crowd them. The ridge system has two advantages over flat cul- 
ture, — first, that they seem to grow better, and next, that when left 
in the ground over winter they will not suffer from the water set- 
tling over them and rotting them out, as often happens in flat 
culture. 

Peas. — This is one of the leading first early crops of the mar- 
ket garden, but at present is less profitable than formerly ; owing 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to the fact that Southern growers ship North in such quantities as 
to lower prices and render the market very uncertain. 

In this locality the usual practice is to let cabbages or squashes 
follow peas as a second crop. If squashes are to follow, the peas 
are sown in double rows about three and a half feet apart, alter- 
nating with spaces of about five feet in which the squashes are 
planted about the first of June, and in hills about ten feet apart 
in the row. This will be before the peas can be removed. 

When peas are cultivated in this manner the earliest varieties are 
always chosen, as the later ones could not be got off early enough. 
They are usually sown about the first of April, or as soon as the 
ground can be worked. If later crops are desired, continuous sow- 
ings maybe made every week or ten days until the first of August. 

The number of first early smooth varieties is large, but in realit}^ 
all the following are only selected strains of the Daniel O'Rourke, 
and many of them are no better — Breck's Excelsior, Seventeenth 
of June, Maud S., Carter's First Crop, Early Caractacus, Hero, 
and nearly all of the so-called " First-and-Bests " sent out by 
seedsmen as especially early. 

Among the earliest wrinkled sorts are the Kentish Invicta and 
Blue Peter, but the Rawson's Clipper (which resembles the In- 
victa in appearance) surpasses all others in earliness, as has been 
proven by comparative tests the past season. The American 
Wonder, Little Gem, and Advancer are medium early wrinkled 
varieties; and these are followed in their season of ripening by 
the Champion of England, Blue Imperial, and Tall and Dwarf 
Marrowfats. 

The Stratagem is fast becoming one of the leading late varieties. 
It is of large size, a heavy yielder, and of the best quality ; and 
has the advantage over other varieties of being much easier to 
pick. The number of bushels of pods raised from a bushel of seed 
varies from one hundred to one hundred and fifty, and the price 
usualty averages about one dollar per bushel. 

Peppers. — This crop is but little grown in the market garden, 
and indeed is nowhere raised to any great extent, except in the 
home garden for a family supply. Those raised in the market 
gardens are mainly sold to the pickle factories. The plants while 
3 7 oung are very tender, and require starting early, and careful 
treatment under glass. They should be treated in the same man- 
ner as egg plants or other vegetables of tropical nature. Light 



VEGETABLE GROWING. 115 

sandy soil is best adapted to them, although they can be grown on 
almost any good land. It is advisable to delay putting out the 
plants in the spring until the weather becomes settled, — say about 
the twentieth of May. The Bell (or Bull Nose), Squash, and Cay- 
enne are the principal varieties. 

Potatoes. — These are almost entirely grown as a farm crop, so 
we will not give them much attention here. Their culture has 
been so much discussed in agricultural papers and books that it 
would seem as if little more could be said. Yet everything has 
not been learned about the crop, for we believe no one yet knows 
effectual preventives of the scab and other diseases which affect 
the tubers. And there are many points in the culture of potatoes 
which will no doubt be improved upon in time, so that we shall 
raise larger and better crops. 

Radishes. — This vegetable is grown quite extensively, being 
forced in hot-beds and hot-houses and, in spring time, grown out 
of doors. The seed is sown under glass in rows about four inches 
apart. The French Breakfast variety is the one chiefly raised in 
houses. For outside beds the Long Scarlet is sown. Sometimes 
this is the sole crop, and sometimes one row in three is sown to 
carrots, which come along after the radishes are pulled. The rad- 
ishes are sown in rows four inches apart, and thinned out to two 
inches in the row. About three pullings are generally made, after 
which the carrots are large enough to thin out ; and these occupy 
the ground until their .turn comes for market. The Long Scarlet 
radishes are pulled when about the size of clothes-pins. They are 
tied in bunches of ten each, and sold b} T the dozen bunches. 

The kinds most extensively grown in this vicinity are the French 
Breakfast, Scarlet Turnip-Rooted, Scarlet Olive-Shaped, and Long 
Scarlet. The White Turnip-Rooted and Black Spanish are grown 
in other places. The soil for radishes of all kinds must be quite 
sandy, thoroughly pulverized, and well manured. 

Horse-radish. — This vegetable is grown quite largely at pres- 
ent. It is planted in ridges ; one row on each ridge, at intervals 
of three feet between the rows, and the plants a foot and a half 
apart in the row. The plants are grown from pieces of the root, 
about half an inch long, which must be placed in the ground about 
two inches deep. The ground must be thoroughly worked, free 
from stones, and well manured. It is usually grown for the sec- 
ond or third crop, before which maj' come spinach, or beets, or 



116 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICTJLTUKAL SOCIETY. 

both. Carrots some times share the space on the ridges ; and some, 
in cultivating cabbages, place a plant of horse-radish between 
each cabbage and its neighbor, and so get quite a good crop ; but 
I do not think this is as profitable a wa} 7 as on ridges. 

It is prepared for table use by grating up and putting into bot- 
tles. It may be either dug up with the spade, or ploughed out 
when as much as a row is wanted at a time ; the latter is the best 
way, because it gets out all the roots. It is sold by weight, or in 
bunches, or by the barrel. 

Rhubarb. — This is now quite extensively grown, both in field 
culture and by forcing under glass. The plants are sometimes 
grown from the seed ; or eyes may be taken from old plants. By 
the latter plan one year's time is saved. They are set about four 
feet apart each way, on well prepared land ; which should be of a 
light porous character. If the land is heavy it will retard the growth 
of the crop somewhat, and a few days' time in getting into market 
sometimes makes a difference of one-half in the price obtained. 
The stalks ought never to be pulled the first year, as it requires 
one year for the plants to get established. 

This is one of the first out-door crops to come into market ; as 
the first pulling is usually made, in this vicinity, about the last of 
April or the first of May, and the stalks continue to furnish a sup- 
ply until about the first of July, or for a season of two months. 

For marketing it is put up in bundles, varying in weight from fif- 
teen to forty pounds, the weight increasing as the season advances. 
It is sold only by weight : the price varying from one to two cents 
per pound ; and at this price an acre would return from three hun- 
dred to four hundred dollars. In the fall, after the tops die clown, 
a coat of manure is given, and the following spring this is lightly 
turned under with a fork. It will not do to put a plough in, on 
account of disturbing the roots. 

When the crop is forced it may be done either by taking up the 
plants and setting thickly in hot-beds or hot-houses, or by having 
the plants in the ground about three feet apart, and setting frames 
over them so as to force their growth. In the last mentioned 
method the glass is put on the beds about the first of February. 
The price of the forced crop varies even more than that of out- 
door growth, so that it would be impossible to estimate the pro- 
ceeds very exactly ; but five dollars per sash, three feet by six, 
would be a fair estimate. 






VEGETABLE GROWING. 117 

The two varieties mostly grown here are are the Linnaeus and 
Victoria ; the former being on many accounts the most desirable. 
Like all the rest it is verj 7 early and productive. 

Salsify. — The culture of this vegetable, although at the pres- 
ent time quite limited, is slowly increasing, as it seems to be grow- 
ing in favor with consumers. It is as yet, however, less popular 
in this market than in some other places. The crop will succeed 
best in a light sand3 T loam, well enriched and thoroughly worked 
before sowing. The method of culture is almost entirely the same 
as for carrots or parsnips. The seed should be sown as early as 
the ground can be worked ; and the roots will be ready for market- 
ing the following fall and during the winter and spring ; but the 
winter supply of course has to be dug and stored before the ground 
freezes up, although the roots are not injured in the least by freez- 
ing, and may, if desired, be left in the ground over winter, and 
dug as soon as the frost is out in the spring. 

In marketing the roots are tied in bunches of twelve each, none 
but well-shaped roots being used. 

There is but one variety, although there is much room for im- 
provement in size and smoothness of root. 

Spinach. — This is becoming one of the leading crops of our 
market gardens, being in use during the whole of the year. The 
winter supply, at present, is usually brought from the South ; 
but formerly it was stored during the winter season, and marketed 
as required. 

The crop that comes early in the spring is commonly sown 
about the first of September, and at the approach of winter is 
protected with a covering of hay or boughs. This covering being 
removed as soon as the frost is out in the spring, the spinach will 
start almost immediately. When cultivated in this way, it is 
usually ready for cutting about the middle of April. This crop 
generally lasts until about the first of June, when that which has 
been sown in the spring will be ready for marketing. 

The receipts per acre vary greatly, as the price .obtained de- 
pends altogether upon the supply. It is sold by the bushel. The 
receipts from an acre, in a season when the yield is generally large, 
will probably be about two hundred dollars ; in a year when the 
general crop is a short one, they may reach as high as a thousand 
dollars. 

It is sown on beds about twelve feet wide ; ten rows being put 



118 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

in each bed. The purpose in view in sowing on these beds or 
ridges is to prevent water from settling on the plants ; as it would 
kill them out. The sowing is done with a seed drill. About 
eight pounds of seed of the Arlington, or ten pounds of the spring 
variety, will be required for an acre. 

For spring culture, it may be sown in almost any convenient 
manner ; either as a separate crop or with other crops. Frequent 
sowings are usually made, with a view of furnishing a continuous 
supply. 

The crop will bear a liberal amount of manure, and for the fall 
sown crop a dressing of about seven hundred pounds of sulphate 
of ammonia is usually given in the spring. 

For the first spring sowing the Round Thick-Leaved is generally 
used. For later crops the Long Standing is preferable, as it will 
not go to seed in summer weather as quickly as the Round Thick- 
Leaved. 

For either the fall or spring cutting, the Arlington or Pointed- 
Leaved is the favorite sort, as it is very hardy, and is better liked 
in the market than the Prickly-Leaved, which is sometimes sown. 

The Savoj'-Leaved is a curled sort, and is not only very orna- 
mental in appearance but of good quality. This is a very desir- 
able variety for the home garden. 

Squashes. — These are quite extensively cultivated; both inde- 
pendently, and as a crop to follow one that is earlier removed. They 
are often planted with a crop of peas, the plan being to leave out 
every third row of peas, thus providing a space of five feet in 
width in which to plant the squashes ; putting the hills ten feet 
apart in the row. The peas will be off the ground before the 
squash vines are large enough to be in the way. 

When planted alone they are put in hills ten feet apart each 
way, and unless they follow a crop which has been heavily ma- 
nured it is necessary to apply a dressing broadcast as well as in 
the hill. If the borers are ever troublesome, mix a shovelful of 
coal ashes in .the soil with the hill, and there will be no injury from 
them. It is not best to plant the general crop for winter supply 
much before the first of June, but the Marrows for early use are 
often planted as early as the last week in April, being protected 
with boxes until the weather becomes warm and settled. 

For the summer supply, the White Bush Scallop and the Yellow 
Summer Crookneck are the principal varieties. For early fall and 



VEGETABLE GROWING. 119 

winter use the Marrow has no equal, while the Hubbard is the 
standard hard shelled winter sort. The American Turban is also 
quite popular. But the Essex Hybrid is just as good in every 
particular, and has the advantage of being hard shelled, like the 
Hubbard, and consequently keeeping better than the Turban. 

Tomatoes. — This is a crop which is now very extensively 
grown. With the great increase in its consumption which has 
occurred within the past few years, there has been a correspond- 
ing improvement in varieties ; not so much in respect to earliness, 
perhaps, as in size and quality. Certainly there can be no gar- 
den product much more perfect and handsome than the well 
ripened fruit of some of our leading varieties. 

The tomato is in most respects of easy culture, although it re- 
quires some care, and a good deal of labor and expense, to get the 
plants properly started in the spring. 

For the early crop the seed should be sown in a hot-house or 
hot-bed about the middle of February, and after reaching sufficient 
size the seedlings should be transplanted to four inches apart ; in 
in order to induce a stocky growth. The second transplanting 
should be made before the plants commence to crowd and grow 
spindling, and this time they should be set eight inches apart. 
This last transplanting before their final removal to the open 
ground is always made in hot-beds ; but where the seed is started 
in a hot-house the first transplanting is usually made in the house, 
and the plants are allowed to remain until removed to the hot-bed. 
At the second transplanting, about the twenty-fifth of May, the 
plants may generally be set in the open ground, and should be 
planted in rows six feet apart, with plants five feet apart in the row. 

Tomatoes are usually planted to follow a crop of spinach, and 
but little more manure is applied except in the hill, for which two 
cords will be sufficient, and will push the crop along wonderfully. 
Five or six cords per acre is usually put on where the crop does 
not follow spinach. Clean culture should of course be given. 

In this vicinity the first picking is often made by the middle of 
July, and at that early date usually brings a good price, some- 
times as high at ten dollars per bushel ; but the price soon falls, 
and often gets down below a paying rate. The price varies great- 
ly, but on an average the proceeds of an acre would amount to 
about six hundred dollars. 

The varieties are numerous, but there are few of real superi- 



120 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ority. The Cardinal is a promising sort, of recent introduction. 
It is early, of large size, very smooth, and in every way desirable. 
The Acme was for a time a leading sort ; and, although it rots 
badly, is very desirable where it can be grown. The Mayflower 
is highly recommended as a very early, smooth sort, equally de- 
sirable for market or home use. Livingston's Favorite and Per- 
fection are two most excellent sorts, and are both good shippers, 
and not liable to rot or crack. The Emery is the first early mar- 
ket variety. It is of good size, and, considering its earliness, is 
of good quality ; but of course the very early sorts cannot be ex- 
pected to be as solid as the later varieties. 

There are numerous other sorts, such as Canada Victor, 
Conqueror, Hathaway 's Excelsior, Essex Hybrid, Trophy, and 
others ; but those described are the leading ones. 

Turnips. — This vegetable is not very extensively grown for 
market, except the strap-leaved varieties, which are quite largely 
used for bunching, and are also desirable for fall and early winter 
use. The Swedes and Ruta-bagas are mostly raised as a farm crop. 

Water-cress. — This is but little grown, as the demand is very 
limited. It is raised on very moist land, along the borders of 
marshes or streams, and is sold in our market in bunches, being 
used as salad. 

I have now gone through the list of garden vegetables ; though 
in a somewhat hurried manner, and mentioning only a very few 
points in connection with each. All vegetables offered in mar- 
ket require considerable care and attention — some more than 
others, and success in growing and disposing of them requires an 
observance of all the points mentioned, and many more, too num- 
erous to notice at this time. 

The progress in vegetable culture has been very great in the 
past ten years, as our exhibitions have abundantly shown. But 
there is still room for improvement ; and with the accumulated 
knowledge of the present day, the many kinds of fertilizers, the 
better machinery and tools, and the great improvement in varie- 
ties, there is every opportunity for the production of better veg- 
etables than ever before, and time only can show what further 
results will be attained. 



VEGETABLE GROWING. 121 



Discussion. 



William D. Philbrick inquired of Mr. Rawson what he con- 
sidered the best manure for early cabbages. 

Mr. Rawson replied that he used commercial fertilizers liberally 
in addition to banryard manure. He never knew fertilizers to do 
any harm. 

In answer to a question as to the quality of the Trophy tomato, 
Mr. Rawson said that it is hard round the stem and is objected to 
by the pickle makers for that reason, but it is a good variety for a 
family garden. 

In answer to a desire for further information concerning cauli- 
flowers, he said that they will absorb a great deal of manure ; he 
never knew them to get too much. Last year they were very 
successful ; if there was anything to object to it was that they 
grew too well ; everybody had them, and they were too cheap. 
They are sold by the pound to the pickle factories ; they began at 
four cents and fell to two and a half. They are composed of 
about seventy-five per cent water, and it requires a great deal of 
moisture to cultivate them successfully. The year before last he 
had six acres from which he sold $3,500 worth of cauliflowers ; he 
devoted his steam pump to them, running it continuously for four 
weeks, with two men by day and two to relieve them at night. If 
he had not irrigated them the crop would not have brought more 
than $1,000. In irrigating, he first ploughs the land into ridges, 
and runs the water in the channels thus formed between the rows, 
about once in a week or ten daj-s. Cauliflowers do not show the 
effect of dry weather until they are about to head, and if there is 
danger of a check then the application of water will cause them 
to go right on. Poor crops come from the lack of manure or 
water, or from poor seed. The variety selected makes some dif- 
ference ; the Early Paris is good, but if it grows large it becomes 
loose. The Erfurt is very solid, and will grow in all situations, 
and not one in a hundred will miss heading. Last }'ear he raised 
fifteen varieties, and found two or three Erfurts very fine and free 
from mixture, which he saved for seed. Cauliflowers are grown 
very extensively on Long Island ; the Algiers is the variety chiefly 
cultivated there ; it attains the weight of from ten to twelve 
pounds, but requires a season four or five weeks longer than other 
kinds. Cauliflowers are attacked by a small black flea as soon as 



122 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY". 

they get out of the ground ; the onl} r remedy is to drown them out 
by sprinkling freely three times a day with a hose until the plants 
get three or four leaves. Owing to the ravages of this flea he had 
frequently sold plants to cultivators to whom he had previously 
sold seed. He had sold cauliflowers from under glass for four 
dollars per dozen. 

Mr. Rawson said that he knew of no remedy for the cabbage 
maggot, but the cabbages will recover from the injuries caused by 
it. He recommended to heap the earth round the cabbages by 
means of a plough and hoe, and then tread it down, half-coveriug 
the head. He had known a crop saved in this way after the 
first of July. 

He transplants all his celery ; he sows in drills only to raise 
plants for sale. He sows in the shade of a fence, digging the 
ground lightly and treading it down hard ; then he rakes it so as 
to make the surface veiy fine, sows and covers very lightly, and 
waters frequently. It should have sun half the dsij. It may be 
sown on the north side of a fence used for protecting hot-beds ; he 
takes down his fences about the time the celery plants come 
along. 

A paper by Edward L. Beard, on " The Progress of Orchid 
Culture in America," was announced for the next Saturday. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 6, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, President of the American Pomo- 
logical Society, presented a copy of the Proceedings of that 
Society at its Twentieth Session, September 9-11, 1885. Mr. 
Wilder said that he had great pleasure in doing this personally. 
When President of our Society, he was authorized by it, as Chair- 
man of a Committee in connection with Committees appointed by 
the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New Haven Horticultural So- 
cieties, and the Board of Agriculture of the American Institute, to 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 123 

call a convention, which, from this small beginning, ultimately 
grew into the American Pomological Society, extending over not, 
only our own country but the British Provinces. He rejoiced that 
he had lived to see the progress, to their present advanced position, 
not only of our own Society but of- its child, the American Pom- 
ological Society. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr. Wilder for his 
donation. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were on ballot duly elected members of 
the Society : — 

Nathan D. Harrington, of Somerville. 

P. M. Augur, of Middlefield, Conn. 

Prof. Charles L. Jackson, of Cambridge. 

Dr. George E. Francis, of Worcester. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 13. 



MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The Progress of Orchid Culture in America. 

By Edward L. Beard, Cambridge. 

As compared with the few who have a knowledge of the struc- 
ture, formation, and habits of the wonderfully varied class of 
plants known as Orchids, the majority have so slight if any 
knowledge of them, that it will be proper at the outset of this 
paper to state, as briefly as possible, the peculiar characteristics to 
which they owe their distinct isolation from all other classes of 
plants. While the Orchidacese are scattered throughout the world — 
their more marked and beautiful forms being chiefly centered in a 
belt of territory embracing the tropics, with scattering examples in 
the temperate zones — and while the various species and their flowers 
are marked by the strangest peculiarities of growth, form, and color, 
its classification as a family, in a botanical sense, is due to the singu- 
lar formation of the organs of reproduction ; which are more or 
less the same in every species, no matter how widely separated 
from one another as to geographical location, or as to formation 
or color of flower, or growth of bulb or stem. These peculiarities 
need not be stated in detail, but only in a general way, to distin- 



124 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

guish the family from others whose flowers possess in common the 
same facilities for reproduction, and bear the stamens, pistil, pollen, 
etc., in a more familiar shape. Lindley's description of the Orchid 
family, in a botanical sense, is as clear and concise as any which 
can be given. He says : 4t The order owes its chief peculiarities 
to the following circumstances : firstly, to the consolidation of all 
the reproductive organs, such as the pistil, stamens, etc., into one 
common mass called the column ; secondly, to the suppression of all 
the anthers except one in the mass of the order, or two in Cypri- 
pedese ; thirdly, to the peculiar condition of its pollen, which in- 
stead of the typical powder takes the form, in most cases, of a 
waxy mass ; fourthty, to the very general development of one of 
the inner leaves of the perianth, or petals, in an excessive degree, 
or in an unusual form." As an instance of this, we have the gay 
lip of the Cattleya, or the upright banner of the Cypripedium. 

Another notable fact, connected with this family, is the singular 
inability of the flowers of orchids to fertilize themselves as in 
the case of other families. Owing to their peculiar construction, 
they depend upon the efforts of insects for the transfer of pollen 
from one to the other, and in some species, like the Coryanthes, 
the insect which attempts a visit to the flower has a 1 strange pro- 
cess to go through before he can be liberated with the pollen. 

There are some exceptional species like certain of the Cypripe- 
diums, Phaius, and others of that class which grow in the ground, 
or on rocks near the ground, but by far the greater number of or- 
chids are epiphytal in character, — that is, they grow upon stems or 
branches of trees, at greater or less elevation from the ground ; and 
I may at this point correct the popular impression that the Orchid 
is a parasite because of its habit of growth. It is not a parasite in 
any sense, as it takes no life from the branch upon which it grows, 
but draws its main sustenance from the air and moisture which sur- 
round it, its roots also taking some slight nourishment from the 
layer of vegetable debris or fibre which generally accumulates upon 
the limbs of trees in the tropics, where decay is rapid. In that re- 
gion, the finest orchids are often found in the tops of the highest 
trees, and at such an elevation that it is almost impossible to secure 
them except by cutting down the tree, or by engaging the services 
of expert native climbers. Collectors and travellers tell us that in 
journeying through the habitats of orchids, few are seen in the 
lower shades of the forests ; which are singularly bare of that 



THE PROGRESS OF. ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 125 

wealth of bloom popularly supposed to be their chief characteristic. 
Perched high in air, and shaded by the foliage of the tree- 
upon which it grows, the Orchid finds its home ; and the peril- 
ous experiences of collectors in their attempts to find the location 
of some new and rare species, of which little had previously been 
known, would fill many volumes. Instances are not uncommon of 
expert collectors having been sent thousands of miles across the 
ocean, to some remote portion of South America, India, or the 
Malayan archipelago, to secure some special orchid, of which a 
specimen or two may have been previously gathered and brought 
home. Most of these expeditions have proved successful, while 
others have failed, and many valuable lives have been sacrificed in 
the unhealthy climates of the tropics. In addition to these perils, 
millions, I may say, of plants have been lost in the effort to bring 
them from the far distant interiors to the sea-coasts, and thence to 
their destination. Many localities in South America, and other 
countries, have been so thoroughly stripped of choice species and 
varieties of orchids, that few of them are now to be found in those 
particular places ; though it must not be inferred that the supply of 
other species from other localities is exhausted. Orchids in their 
home fortunately form vast quantities of seed ; and these 
germinate freely and form the basis of a new supply, if the process 
of collection is not carried on too closely year after year in the 
same localities. 

It is worth while in this connection to refer to the fact that, in 
some portions of South America, an export tax is hereafter to be 
levied upon all shipments of orchids ; and it remains to be deter- 
mined whether this will in any way affect their indiscriminate de- 
struction, or increase their value. The process of raising seed in 
our own glass houses is too uncertain and tedious, and requires too 
great skill and patience, to warrant the belief that any large sup- 
ply will result from this source. 

I ma} r depart, for a moment, from my subject, to show what pa- 
tience is required to raise orchids from seed under glass, even sup- 
posing the skill attained that is requisite to hybridize the orchid 
flowers, and to sow and raise the seed, which is a very delicate pro- 
cess, orchid seed being as fine as dust. Denclrobiums have been 
flowered in from three to four years from the date of sowing the 
seed, and the ripening of the seed consumed an additional year ; 
which is about the shortest period of germination and growth 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

known. Masdevallias occupy from five to six years before they 
are strong enough to flower. The majority of other Orchids, 
however, occupy longer periods than this ; while Lselias and 
Cattleyas are from ten to fourteen years in germinating and 
reaching the flowering state. Examples where nineteen years 
have been consumed are recorded. A large proportion of the 
seed sown under glass never germinates, notwithstanding the 
exercise of the greatest care. Thus it will be seen that the cul- 
tivation of orchids from seed is an undertaking surrounded by 
difficulties almost insurmountable except by those who have 
exceptional skill and patience, and are willing to wait half a life- 
time for results. 

Such a man was John Dominy, of England, who in 1853 
began the hybridization of orchids at Exeter, and continued 
his efforts for a long period, producing in his time some very 
remarkable hybrids, all of them marked by increased vigor and 
bearing the characteristics of the parent plants in an improved 
degree. I do not know how many seedling orchids Dominy 
raised altogether, but those deemed worthy to receive names 
were twenty-six in number. Mr. Dominy's first hybrid orchid 
that flowered was Calanthe Dominii. The first hybrid Cattleya 
was G. hybrida, which was afterwards lost, but was soon fol- 
lowed by G. Brabantlce. The well-known Gypripedium Harris- 
ianum was the first hybrid of this genus flowered, and was 
named after Dr. Harris, who had first suggested to Dominy the 
possibility of artificially crossing orchids. 

Mr. Dominy's work closed some years ago, as he had grown 
desirous of leaving it to younger hands, and it was taken up by 
Mr. Seden, who in 1866 commenced his labors at the same 
nursery, and has progressed uninterruptedly in this interesting 
pursuit ever since, producing about fifty-six hybrid forms of 
orchids ; and it is safe to sa} r that large numbers of his seedlings 
have not yet been flowered, and remain in reserve to delight 
the orchidologist of future years. Seedling orchids have been 
raised in other foreign gardens ; the magnificent Dendrobium 
Ainsworthii being the result of a cross in Dr. Ainsworth's col- 
lection at Manchester in 1874. There have been scattering 
examples in other gardens, and a few seedlings have been 
raised in this country, but these were not perpetuated. The cool 
orchids, such as Odontoglossums, though seeding freely in 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 127 

their own country, have never been successfully crossed, and we 
have no artificial hybrids in this large section of the Orchid fam-, 
ily. The hybrid orchids which have been produced by artificial 
fecundation, and which have been put into commerce so far, or 
named, number about eighty-eight, and they are divided nearly 
as follows : Ansectochilus, one ; Calanthe, five ; Cattleya, seven- 
teen ; Chysis, two; G-oodyera, two; Dendrobium, eight; Cypripe- 
dium, thirty-nine ; Lselia, eight ; Masdevallia, two ; Phaius, two ; 
Thunia, one ; Zygopetalum, two. It will be noticed that the most 
numerous progeny of the hybridizer's skill are among the Cypripe- 
diums, and next among the Cattle}"as. There is every reason to 
believe that sooner or later crosses will be made among the 
Odontoglossums, the Phalgenopsids, and other genera which have 
hitherto failed to produce seed, or whose seed when produced has 
failed to germinate. One of the reasons given for failures to get 
good seed in England is the absence of strong sunlight ; and, as 
we have ample quantities of almost tropical sunlight in this 
country, there is ground for hoping that hybridizers on this side of 
the water may succeed in making crosses which have not hitherto 
been accomplished ; though whether the patience necessary for the 
subsequent development of the seed into growth, and the plant into 
maturity, is possessed by our horticulturists, remains to be proved. 

In summing up the general results of orchid-raising from seed, 
with its attendant care, watchfulness, and long waiting, it may be 
questioned whether it will ever prove in the popular sense a 
profitable undertaking : more probably we must depend for our 
supplies upon Nature's own handiwork amidst the forests of the 
tropics, where orchids are at home. 

It is but a few years ago that the great family of Orchids, with 
its members represented in nearly if not quite all the temperate as 
well as the tropical countries of the world, was comparatively un- 
known among the flower growers and flower lovers of the United 
States ; and even at the present time the great mass of intelligent 
people have but a vague and indefinite idea of the habits and won- 
derful variations of this family of plants ; and of its startling 
eccentricities of growth and flower. This is not more remarkable, 
however, than the superficial knowledge of the mass of people con- 
cerning the more common flowers ; which, indigenous to their own 
State or County, and springing up under their very feet, are rarely 
known by name or regarded with more than passing interest. It 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is pleasing to note an increased desire among intelligent and re- 
fined persons to know more about our native flowers and their names 
and habits ; which may be accepted as one of the best evidences of 
growing civilization. It is onry among the oldest as well as the 
most progressive nations, that the highest type of horticultural 
taste can be found. 

This growth of interest noted above has extended to the Orchid 
family, and it is noticeable that crowds of persons are invariably 
attracted to the brilliant displaj's of these plants in flower at the 
various exhibitions of this Society ; to the neglect, it must be con- 
fessed, of man} r more common plants which at least have the ad- 
vantage of being more graceful in leaf and stem ; for, with a few 
exceptions, such as the stately Angrsecums, Vandas, C3 T mbidiums, 
and some others, the Orchids are not attractive when out of flower, 
except to the connoisseur or expert. To these the Orchids are 
objects of fascination and deep interest, whether in flower or not ; 
and immense sums of money are spent in forming collections of 
the rarest varieties obtainable. It would be interesting to con- 
sider some of the expenditures which have been made b} T collectors 
from time to time for unique specimens of orchids. An example 
of this may be noted in the alleged sum of $3,000 paid for a single 
plant of Vanda Sanderiana by the late Mrs. Morgan of New York. 
There is some doubt expressed as to the truth of this, but, if true, 
it was a notable case of what I might denominate extravagant 
expenditure ; and we know she never hesitated to pay the price 
for any special orchid which she desired to possess. I knew of 
one mass of Odontoglossum Londesboroughianum, covering a space 
about the size of a door, whiclfcost her a thousand dollars, but a 
year or two later it had entirely disappeared through faulty culture. 
In her collection were magnificent specimens of such " miffy " 
subjects as Batemannias and Bolleas, which cost several hundreds 
of dollars each, and these too were lost. Mrs. Morgan undoubt- 
edly paid higher prices for orchids than any other bu}w in this 
or any other country, but her purchases were not marked by the 
wisest judgment, and so when her immense collection came to the 
hammer it did not bring anything near the original cost. Some 
years ago a single plant of Cyiiripedium Stonei platytcenium 
brought about $1,200 at a sale in London, and prices approxima- 
ting this figure have since been paid for specimens of newly 
discovered species at once rare and beautiful. 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 129 

111 this country, where the cultivation of these plants is not so 
general as in England, prices for imported orchids have not ruled 
high, but it is noticeable that within the past year the rage for or- 
chid flowers has tended to increase the demand for plants and en- 
hance their value. It is not probable that the prices of good orchids 
will ever rule lower than at present ; while for fine varieties of spe- 
cies connoisseurs are always ready to pay fancy prices, one plant 
of an exceptionally fine variety bringing twenty times the cost of 
an ordinary variety of the same species. A large number of the 
orchids in this country were imported from England, where there 
are large horticultural establishments, one of which has employed 
from ten to fourteen men at one time collecting orchids in the 
tropics. The collection of orchids in this way has been noticeably 
increased within the last five or seven years. As a consequence, 
many species which cost large sums of mone\' are now worth much 
less, but, as I have stated, the price of good orchids is about at 
its lowest ebb, and there is likely to be an upward turn. 

The sale of orchids by auction in New York has also increased 
largely within the last five years, most of the plants sold in this 
way being newly imported ones ; and thousands of these are sold 
by one firm from April to November, about twelve to fifteen 
sales taking place in this period. In their auction room, which 
is the haunt of most of the orchid growers, ma} T be found 
hundreds of imported orchids just as they have been gathered 
from the trees ; and ver} T dry, uninteresting, and valueless they 
appear to the uninitiated, but the expert in such matters can 
tell at a glance the value or quality of this or that shrivelled 
clump of bulbs, which, under conditions of moisture and warmth, 
will soon plump up and start into growth. The competition 
among growers for these dry bits is often spirited when some 
especially rare variety is offered, and I have seen from $.50 
to $75 offered for what most persons would have consigned to the 
rubbish heap ; but, under care and cultivation, this in a year or two 
was likel}' to be greatly increased in value over the first cost, though 
it must be added that many imported orchids never recover after 
removal from their native haunts, and die in spite of the most 
skilful culture. No collection is exempt from losses in this way, 
even established plants dying off nr^steriously, and without 
apparent reason ; yet the majority of orchids are hard to kill, and 
with proper cultural conditions they are no more difficult to grow 
9 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

than many other plants. Ample moisture in the growing season, 
atmospheric moisture being absolutely necessary, cleanliness, fresh 
air, and (except in the winter time, from December to March, when 
most orchids rest), a clear bright light without exposure to the 
direct sunlight, are the essentials of good culture ; but I will 
refer "to this later. 

Thousands of the "cool" orchids from the high mountains of 
South America have been destroyed, in this country and in Eng- 
land, by the application of too much heat. Many of these cool 
orchids come from altitudes ten and twelve thousand feet above 
the sea level — regions of perpetual moisture, and where ice 
forms — so that our tropical summers combined with overheated 
glass houses in winter have swept them off in large quantities. 
But the culture of this class of orchids is now understood, and, as 
a proof of this, at Mr. Ames's place at North Easton may be 
found a house over one hundred feet in length, facing the north, 
and containing, I think, the finest grown lot of cool orchids in this 
country. This house is always cool and moist, in summer as well as 
winter, and the conditions which surround these plants at home 
are well imitated. 

These, superficially stated, are some of the features of general 
interest peculiar to orchids ; though pages more might be written, 
full of interest even to the novice. There is no denying the 
peculiar fascination which surrounds orchid culture. The strange 
forms of the flowers, displaying in every species more or less diver- 
gence from those of others, the fantastic habit of growth, the un- 
deniable beauty of most of the flowers, and, not least, the fact 
that the plants are comparatively rare and expensive, and conse- 
quently not likely to become common — all these are> reasons for 
the enthusiasm which characterizes the orchidist at home, as well 
as abroad. 

The growth of Orchids was attempted abroad years before any 
attention was given them in this country. In the records of the 
Botanic Garden of Harvard University at Cambridge, Mass., 
mention is made of a single orchid which the garden possessed 
in 1818. It was the well-known Pliaius grandifolius, still grown 
in many collections. The first orchid exhibited in this country, 
of which we have any record, was Oncidium jlexuosum, still a 
favorite, and a good orchid. This was shown by Marshall P. 
Wilder before the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, June 24, 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 13 L 

1837. In September, 1849, James Dundas and Robert Buist 
were awarded the first and second prizes for orchids exhibited 
before the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society at Philadelphia ; but 
the species are not named. We find the first trace of any orchid 
collection, in America, in Boston about 1837 — John Wright Boott, 
whose garden occupied the ground where the Revere House%iow 
stands, owning a small lot of orchids sent from England. This 
collection was scattered, but in 1846 Caleb Cope of Philadelphia, 
who still lives, had a greenhouse devoted to orchids. He was 
also the first to flower the Victoria regia in this country. 

In the meantime small collections of a few species had grown 
up around Boston, and in 1854 Edward S. Rand owned what was 
considered, at the time, a fine collection, and many of the plants 
were specimens of considerable size. Previous to 1850 Erastus 
Corning, of Albany, N. Y., owned some orchids, such as Phaius, 
Cypripediums, Cattleyas, Epidendrums, and a few other genera ; 
and about 1850 he brought from England thirty species of orchids, 
including Vandas, Aerides, etc., and thus laid the foundation 
of his wonderful collection, which today is, without doubt, the 
finest in America, and one of the best in the world. Isaac Buchan- 
an of Astoria, L. I., long known as one of the earliest florists 
in this country, who still lives, and whose love for orchids 
continues as keen as ever, brought Cattleya Mossioe, from England 
in 1840, and gradually increased his collection until, about 1860, 
he had a large number of plants. Mr. Buchanan never lost an 
opportunity to add to these, and (although buying and selling con- 
tinually) he had as many as 2,000 orchids in his collection at one 
time, and probably many more than that number. His collection 
was largely dispersed some time ago, though he still retains some 
of his plants. Thomas Hogg maintained a fine collection near 
New York about 1850, but this was dispersed some years later. 
The collection of Cornelius Van Voorst, of Jersey City, was a 
noted one in its day, and doubtless the best in this country at that 
period. It existed from about 1857 until 1870, when it was 
broken up. M. Lienau, of the same city, owned, after the 
dispersion of Van Voorst's collection, the best lot of orchids in 
this country, but in 1873 this was also dispersed, part of the 
plants being taken to Germany by Lienau, and the rest of them 
being sold at auction. There were a number of other orchid- 
growers in this country previous to 1860 — among them Gren. John 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

F. Rathbone, of Albany, N. Y., who founded his collection about 
1853, and still maintains it in fine form. Louis Menand, of 
Albany, was another. He had a few species as early as 1846, and 
has kept pace with the progress of their culture, and is considered, 
with Buchanan, amongst the pioneers of orchid-growing in this 
country. One of the most enthusiastic of our American orchidists 
was Edward S. Rand, Jr., who, leaving Boston some years since, 
settled in South America, where he gave much attention to collect- 
ing orchids, and made some experiments in growing the Indian 
orchids, such as Phalsenopsids, Vandas, and Aerides, upon the 
trees and trellises surrounding his dwelling at Para. His collec- 
tion near Boston, started in 1873, was an exceptionall} 7 good one, 
embracing fine specimens of nearly' every species then introduced. 
His work on Orchid Culture embodied some valuable information, 
especially on points relating to orchid culture in this .country. 
Mr. Rand's collection was kept up for a short time only, most 
of the valuable specimens going to Mr. Frederick L. Ames, of North 
Easton. From about 1865 up to the present time, orchid growing 
in America has been more general, and is now widely diffused over 
the country ; so that, in place of the dozen or fifteen collections kept 
up twenty years ago, almost entirely in the Eastern states, we 
find good collections scattered all through the Northern states, and 
in Canada. Many of these collections number from one thousand 
to one thousand five hundred plants, and are rich in fine varieties 
and large specimens. 

The most rapid growth of the orchid fever has, however, 
been within the last ten years. Within that period, English 
nurserymen have enormously increased the importations from 
the tropics, and as a result of the activity of their trained 
agents, most of them experienced botanists and familiar with the 
orchid family, unexplored sections have been penetrated, and 
hitherto unknown species brought to light. Manj 7 more exist 
which collectors have not found, or, having found, have not suc- 
ceeded in introducing alive. An estimate has been made by good 
authority that not less than five thousand species exist, of which 
two thousand have been, or are, in cultivation. In the former part 
of the statement there is much of conjecture, but in regard to the 
latter there is no doubt. Discoveries of new orchids of very prom- 
inent distinctiveness are likely to continue as long as indefatigable 
collectors are kept at work in the tropics, urged on by the desire of 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 133 

orchid fanciers for new varieties which shall outrival any of those 
previously brought into cultivation. 

It would be interesting to review thoroughly the immense 
quantity and variety of new Orchids introduced since 1875, but 
the lack of space will not permit this to be done ; suffice it to 
say, however, that since that year such Orchids as Vanda 
Sanderiana, Odontoglossum cirrhosum, Bollea coelestis, Aerides 
crassifoliurn, A. Laivrencece , A. Sander ianum, Cypripedium Laic- 
renceanum, O. Spicerianum, Cattleya Lawrenceana, Cymbidium 
Lowianum, Dendrobium superbiens, and hosts of new Masdevallias 
(a genus, by the way, which in 1830 was thought to have but 
three species) have been discovered ; besides unlimited numbers 
of varieties of species, like Odontoglossum crispum, Cattleya 
Triance, etc. When we look over such a collection as that of 
Corning, at Albany, and find there alone over eleven hundred 
species, assembled from every part of the tropical world, with ad- 
ditions constantly coming, the contrast with the dearth of orchid- 
aceous knowledge in 1830, fifty-five years ago, is startling ; then 
— as Lindley puts it — ' ' the orchidaceous plants of tropical 
America were scarcely known either in gardens or herbaria ; those 
of the Philippine islands were unheard of ; and the numerous Javan 
species were only puzzles which the Dutch had the means of 
unravelling." 

The increase of trade collections in America has not been in 
proportion to the growth of collections owned for private use or 
pleasure. As stated previous^, Isaac Buchanan, Louis Me- 
nand, and Robert Buist were the first to take up the growth of 
orchids in a commercial way ; and no doubt even they were im- 
pelled to it more by a personal interest in Orchids than by any 
hope of great gain. Mr. Buchanan has a small collection left, but 
he does not give that space to orchids which he formerly did. 
American florists, with one or two exceptions, have found it dif- 
ficult to keep up a profitable trade in orchid plants, owing to the 
competition of English nurserymen, and the large auction sales in 
New York. Mr. George Such, of South Amboy, N. J., had the 
finest trade collection ever maintained in this country. It embraced 
fine specimens bought from private collections, many of the best 
plants from the Lienau and Van Voorst sales having been added 
to it. Mr. Such imported largely direct from Mexico, South 
America, India, and elsewhere. Thousands of valuable orchids 



'«qr 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

were sold from this establishment, many of them particularly fine 
varieties, which are difficult to duplicate now. Mr. Such's green- 
houses were resorted to by all orchid growers. They were doubly 
attractive because always neat and clean ; and the dispersion of his 
collection by auction about three years ago was an era among 
orchidists. There were over four thousand five hundred plants 
disposed of, and over twelve thousand dollars was realized at the 
sale. 

Mr. Menand, at Albany, N. Y., has about four hundred and fifty 
species in his collection, where they are associated with other 
plants, such as camellias, cacti, etc., while many are grown in the 
open air in summer. He grows some kinds to better advantage 
than almost any other cultivator in this country. A. F. Chat- 
field, of Alban3 T , maintained a trade collection for years, and 
imported and disposed of many fine plants ; but I do not know 
whether he still keeps it up to any extent. William Matthews, 
of Utica, N% ( Y.», is getting together a good trade collection. 

The largest collection of orchids kept for sale purposes is prob- 
ably that of A. Brackenridge, at Govanstown, Maryland. This 
gentleman a few years ago started as an amateur with a few plants, 
but now has four houses devoted to them, which he states contain 
sixty thousand plants. He grows the best known kinds, which am- 
ateurs would most easily succeed with ; and has met with remarkable 
success in disposing of plants all over the Union. During the past 
year he has disposed of over six thousand Lycaste Skin- 
neri alone. He has collectors in the tropics, and proposes to im- 
port largely of the Mexican and Central American orchids. He 
does not deal in specimens, but in the smaller plants which find 
more ready sale to small growers. 

John Saul, of Washington, D. C, started his trade collection 
in 1879. He has been a large importer, and his houses, three in 
number, each 100 feet long, contain nearly 10,000 plants. In his 
collection are 3,000 Dendrobiums and 1,000 Cj^pripediums, besides 
Cattleyas and all the better class of orchids. The number of 
species and varieties approximates 600. In the warm climate 
of Washington the Indian Orchids flourish exceedingly well, but 
it is very difficult to keep the cooler orchids during the summer 
in a proper state of health. There is no trade or amateur 
collection south of Washington of which I have any knowledge, 
with the exception of a small one owned by Dr. Richardson, 
at New Orleans. 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 135 

William C. Wilson, of Astoria, L. I., is another commercial 
dealer in orchids, and also transacts an immense business in other „ 
plants. He started as earl} 7 as 1870 to increase his stock of 
orchids, and since that time, he writes, he has disposed of from 
40,000 to 50,000 plants of different varieties. He now has from 
300 to 400 different varieties of the most popular kinds, and 
grows them largely for supplying cut flowers, which within a year 
or more have become fashionable, and are in great demand. 
Another promising commercial grower is Henry Siebrecht, of 
New Rochelle, N. Y. His collection was founded about three 
years ago and has made rapid growth. It now numbers about 
3,700 plants, comprising 1,500 Cattleyas, 400 Lselias, 500 
Cypripediums, 500 Aerides, Vandas, Saccolabiums, etc., and 
400 Odontoglossums, with miscellaneous kinds making up the re- 
mainder. Among these are fine specimens of valuable kinds, and 
the plants are well grown. 

One of the best lots of orchids around New York is that owned 
by John S. Bush, at Tremont, N. Y. The plants were in a very 
robust state of health when I last saw them. There are here about 
2,300 plants, of which 398 are Catt^as, 357 Dendrobiums, 200 
Phalsenopsids, 271 Cypripediums, 134 Vandas and Aerides, 662 
Odontoglossums, 100 Calanthes, 70 Ccelogynes, etc. William 
Bennett, of Flatbush, L. I., has a collection of orchids for trade 
purposes ; but I do not know how large or valuable it is. 

There are few commercial places around New York where some 
orchids are not grown ; but the above collections are the only 
ones I know of which are large enough to be noted. Benjamin 
Grey, at Maiden, in this State, has a large span-roofed house 
about 100 feet long devoted to orchids. Here he has about 3,000 
plants, made up of 17 species of Cattleyas, 27 of Cypripediums, 
36 of Dendrobiums, 13 of Epidendrums, 12 of Lselias and about 
50 other genera ; in all there are over 200 species and varieties. 
Mr. Grey is an orchid grower of long experience and his plants 
are cultivated for the flowers only, no plants being sold. The 
plants here are grown without any shading whatever, and in conse- 
quence are very free bloomers. 

In New York city more particularly, orchid flowers have become 
so popular that the few who grow them find it difficult to meet the 
demand. A year ago they were not in such request, and though 
the present demand seems to be confined to New York, the 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

rage for them as they become better known and the supply in- 
creases is likely to spread to other cities. The kinds which 
are most profitably grown for trade purposes are — Catlleya 
Triance, C. Mossice, C. Mendelii, Coelogyne cristata, Lcelia anceps, 
L. autumnalis, Cypripedium insigne, CSpicerianum, C. Harris- 
ianum, C. villosum, Lycaste Skinneri, Odontoglossum crispum-, 0. 
Pescatorei, 0. Rossi major, and Dendrobium nobile. Many more 
can be added to this list, but good collections of these kinds, well 
grown, are more profitable than mixed collections of less reliable 
and more expensive varieties. If the present demand for orchids 
proves to be a steady and growing one, their cultivation for cut 
flowers on a large scale will prove profitable. Florists in the 
vicinity of New York judge that the fashion for orchid flowers is 
in its infancy, though it must be confessed it is confined almost 
entirely, at present, to the ultra fashionable society of New York, 
where a craze is often as ephemeral as it is sudden. 

There are but two botanical gardens in the United States that 
maintain collections of orchids. That at Cambridge, Mass., 
before referred to, had the honor of growing the first orchids of 
which we have record in this country, away back in 1818. This 
garden has held many fine plants in its time, but they have not 
always been successfully grown ; and mairy rare and valuable kinds 
have been lost through bad treatment. With the present new 
houses well adapted to them, and with treatment on the part of 
the present gardener, W. A. Manda, calculated to insure a 
robust growth, the collection is decidedly improving. In 1883 it 
contained 273 plants and 167 species and hybrids ; but now, only 
three years later, the garden has 828 plants in 378 species and 
hybrids. There are a stove, an intermediate, and a cool house 
devoted to them. 

The United States Botanic Garden at Washington, under the 
care of William R. Smith, dates its collection of orchids from 
1852, when there was a small lot grown. Aerides odorata and 
Vanda teres were grown there as far back as 1855. The collec- 
tion of 120 species remained stationary for a long time, but has 
been increased in later years until it now embraces 52 genera 
and 247 species and varieties. There are 32 species and varieties 
of Dendrobiums and 22 species and varieties of Cypripediums. 
The collection contains some fine groups of Cattleyas, etc. 

The private collections of this country which are sivffi- 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 137 

ciently extensive to warrant specification are about twenty 
in number ; but there are many other small lots scattered 
in different parts of the country, and grown by amateurs who 
have just started in orchid culture. First among the private 
collections is that of Erastus Corning, located at Albany, N. Y. 
This was begun about 1850, and its growth has been constant 
ever since, and now, though closely rivalled by two others, it has 
no equal in this country ; and I regret that I have so little space 
to describe it. Nine houses are devoted to the orchids, to wit : 
a Cattleya house, 100X20 feet ; Cypripedium house, 50X17 feet ; 
Dendrobium house, 60x22 feet; Oncidium and Lycaste house, 
60X22 feet; Phalaenopsis house, 50X22 feet; Vanda house, 40X17 
feet; a north or cool house, 36X12 feet, devoted to Masdeval- 
lias, and another cool north house, 60X12 feet, for Odontoglos- 
sums. There is, in addition to these, a resting house, 30X17 
feet, where deciduous orchids which need a long period of rest, 
during which they are kept dry and cool, are housed. A house of 
this character is a necessity where a large collection is grown, and 
here are kept such things as Bletias, Cynoches, Mormodes, Den- 
drobiums, and other species which are not particularly ornamental 
when at rest ; and they are thus exempted from the exciting effects 
of heat and moisture from fall until spring, when growth com- 
mences. 

Mr. Coming's collection has been for 3'ears under the skilful 
care of William Gray, who as an orchidist is at the head of his 
profession. The collection embraces the immense total of over 
12,000 plants, a large number of them magnificent specimens, in 
size from a foot to several feet across. There are over 1,100 
species and varieties, and among these are 48 species and varieties 
of Aerides, 19 of Angrsecums, 11 of Calanthes, 135 of Cattleyas, 
16 of Ccelogynes, 18 of Cymbidiums, 91 of Cypripediums, 102 of 
.Dendrobiums, 31 of Epidendrums, 72 of Lselias, 16 of Lycastes, 
34 of Masdevallias, 98 of Odontoglossums, 68 of Oncidiums, 12 
of Phaius, 58 of Phalaenopsis, 22 of Saccolabiums, 13 of Stan- 
hopeas, 36 of Vandas, and from one to eight or ten species of 
every other genus worthy of cultivation. 

Some idea may be gained of the size of this collection from 
the numbers in some of the genera, to wit : 6,000 Odontoglossums, 
2,000 Cattleyas, 500 Dendrobiums, 400 Calanthes, 300 Cypripe- 
diums, 300 Lycastes, etc. The collection contains many unique 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

kinds not to be found in Europe, especially of Phalsenopsis. Of 
the latter there are such rare kinds as P. Corning iana, P. 
Brymerianum, P. advena, P. marmorata, P. Valentini, P. fas- 
ciata, P. PeichenbacJiiana, P. media, P. Veitchii, P. bracliyodon, 
P. leuchorrhoda alba, eta. Among other noted plants are Aerides 
Lobbii rubrum, A. Williamsii, Cattleya Marstersoniw, C. super- 
bissima, C Osmanii, C. triopthalma, Cypripedium Schroederai, O. 
Artlmrianum, C. candidibulum, Dendrobium Corningii, D. Ward- 
ianum ochroleucum, Loelia Veitchii, L. callistoglossa, L. sSchroederii, 
Odontoglossum elegans, 0. Wilckeanum flava, 0. Shuttleworthii, etc. 

The method of growing orchids in this collection has been 
greatly simplified in recent years. There is no dipping of plants 
when dry, and it would make one of the ancient orchidists shudder 
to see the free use made of the hose for all the plants, especially 
in the hot season, when they are growing. Air is more freely 
admitted than ever before, and shading is much less used for all 
the hard leaved plants, like Cattlej^as, Lselias, etc. 

Some ten years ago or more Frederick L. Ames started a 
collection at North Easton, Mass. Plants from the Rand collection 
were purchased soon after, and from that period until now nearly 
every new variety or species in cultivation has been added from 
time to time. The Kimball collection, at Rochester, contains a 
larger number of plants, but that of Mr. Ames is in point of rare 
varieties the second best collection in America. It is particularly 
noticeable for the Odontoglossums, Masdevallias, and other cool 
orchids, while the Cattleyas and Cypripediums are in great force, 
the latter embracing about every species, varietj^, and hybrid 
known. A few years ago a house facing north was built for the 
cool orchids, and the general judgment is that it contains the 
best grown lot in the country ; the plants number about 1,200, and 
when they are in bloom offer a spectacle of exceptional beauty. 
There is a large span-roofed house in two compartments ; one de- 
voted to Cattleyas and intermediate classes, and the other to the 
warmer orchids. A large stove or warm house, originall} 7 built 
for palms and ferns, contains many orchids, and there are two or 
three other houses in which they are arranged. Another house has 
just been built, for the accommodation of the large additions which 
have been made during the past year. 

The total number of plants is between 3,000 and 4,000. I am 
unable to give the exact number or a list of species or varieties, 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 139 

but among the gems of the collection are such as Aerides Van- 
darum, A. JRoJianianum, A. Houlletianum, A. expansum, Angrwcum j 
bilobum, A. hyaloides, A. cryptodon, A. Scottianum, A. Chail- 
lua,7ium, Calanthe Sedeni, etc. The Cattleyas are in splendid 
shape, and among some 200 or more plants of C. Triance are 
some of the finest forms known. It is not necessarj 7 to enumerate 
the Cypripediums, as there is hardly a rare kind that is not grown 
here. Among them is C. Stonei platytoenium. Among the im- 
mense quantities of Dendrobiums are eighteen plants of those most 
exceptionally rare and beautiful kinds, D. Ainsworthii and D. 
splendidissimum, and in fact the most costly varieties of Den- 
drobiums, Phalsenopsids, Odontoglossums, etc., are represented, 
in many cases by two or three examples. There is not space to 
enumerate all of the features of this collection, upon which 
neither money nor skill has been spared. It is and has been for 
years under the care of William Robinson. 

The collection of William S. Kimball, of Rochester, N. Y., is 
comparatively a new one, but it is now one of the best three in 
the county, and at the present rate of progress is likely, within 
a few years, to stand second to none. It was started in 1883, and 
now numbers 4,211 plants, with 123 genera and 852 species. 
Among these are 63 varieties of Odontoglossums, 65 varieties of 
Oncidiums, 24 varieties of Vandas, 52 varieties of Cattleyas, 34 
varieties of Aerides, 18 varieties of Angrsecums, 48 varieties of 
Masdevallias, 33 varieties of Leelias, 66 varieties of C} T pripediums, 
23 varieties of Phalsenopsis, 16 varieties of Saccolabiums, 84 
varieties of Dendrobiums, and 17 varieties of Lycastes. 

Mr. Kimball has perhaps the best Vandas in the country — 
among them the splendid Vanda Lowii from Mrs. Morgan's collec- 
tion, which is eight feet high. The collection of Angrsecums and 
Saccolabiums is unsurpassed, and there is but one other collection 
which surpasses it in the variety of Cypripediums. Mr. Kimball is 
a most enthusiastic orchidist and lets no opportunity pass to secure 
a rare and good orchid. His houses are models, having every 
appurtenance and facility for the perfect growth of plants in 
them. They are under the care of George Savage. In addi- 
tion to the orchids Mr. Kimball has a lily house which contains a 
tank 22X65 feet wherein are 24 varieties of Nymphaeas and three 
varieties of Nelumbiums. He expects to flower in this tank next 
summer the Victoria regia. 



140 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

These already named are the three largest collections in the 
country ; but some of those which are not so large are the results 
of years of experience and careful selection on the part of their 
owners. That of Gen. John F. Rathbone, at Albany, is such 
a one. He has five houses devoted to orchids, and his collection 
comprises 100 or more Phalsenopsids, 500 Cattle} T as, 100 Cypripe- 
diums, 400 Odontoglossums, etc. His houses are filled with the 
best varieties of every orchid of value, and the plants are finely 
grown. Gen. Rathbone has been an orchidist for twenty-two 
years, and in that period has grown some of the finest plants 
in the country, and bloomed as many fine specimens as any other 
grower in this country. Some magnificent Vandas and other 
varieties which he grew into huge specimens were afterwards 
bought by Mr. Ames. 

Ja} T Gould's collection (Ferdinand Mangold, gardener) , at Irving- 
ton, N. Y., is a large one, numbering 2,211 plants and 287 
varieties. Mr. Gould is fond of orchids and palms, and his 
houses are being steadily filled up with new additions, which are 
well cared for by Mr. Mangold. Among the varieties of this col- 
lection are 10 of Aerides, 53 of Cattleyas, 4 of Cymbidiums, 26 of 
Cypripediums, 38 of Dendrobiums, 9 of Epidendrums, 16 of 
Lselias, 9 of Lycastes, 18 of Odontoglossums, 24 of Oncidiums, 6 
of Saccolabiums, and 6 of Vandas. In order to show how the 
collection is made up it may be stated that there are, besides those 
of other kinds, 27 Aerides, 496 Cattleyas, 340 Cypripediums, and 
728 Dendrobiums. 

De Witt S. Smith, Lee, Mass., is another orchid lover, who has 
successfully built up a fine collection which will number perhaps 
from 1,500 to 1,800 plants, distributed nearly as follows: 300 
Cattleyas in 31 varieties, 125 Cypripediums in 32 varieties, 200 
Dendrobiums in 42 varieties, 80 Lselias in 14 varieties, 150 Phalse- 
nopsids in 10 varieties, 23 Saccolabiums in 6 varieties, 40 Aerides 

in 14 varieties, 400 Odontoglossums in 25 varieties, and 50 On- 
cidiums in 11 varieties. There are many fine varieties in these 
houses, such as Cattleya ametJiystoglossa, C. Triance in many 
fine forms, C. Exoniensis, Lcelia elegans prasiata, and perhaps 
the finest plants of Oypripedium niveum and C. Spicerianum in 
this country. There is a strong representation of Lselias ; and 
a few years ago Mr. Smith had some of the best plants of 
Saccolabium in cultivation. 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 141 

At Staatsburgh, N. Y., is a nicety grown lot of orchids owned 
by William B. Dinsmore, who devotes four houses to their culture. 
Three of the houses are each 40X16 feet, and there is a lean-to 
house for the Mexican plants 14x65 feet. This collection was 
started about six years ago. The larger part of the Cattleyas 
and Lselias are specimen plants, averaging from 25 to 30 bulbs 
each ; and there are unusually good specimens of Phalsenopsids, 
one plant of P. Schilleriana bearing last year 134 blooms. There 
are 1,109 plants in all, of which 510 are Cattleyas, 117 Cyp- 
ripediums, 72 Oncidiums, 63 Lselias, 56 Dendrobiums, 52 
Phalsenopsids, and 38 Odontoglossums. 

Coming nearer home, we find at Mr. H. H. Hunnewell's beauti- 
ful place at Wellesley, under the care of F. L. Harris, a very satis- 
factory collection of orchids, the cultivation of which is most 
intelligent and instructive. There are 1,250 plants distributed 
among several houses, one house being devoted to cool orchids. 
There are 150 Dendrobiums in 31 varieties, 45 Lycastes in 4 var- 
ieties, 80 Cypripediums in 22 varieties, 250 Cattleyas in 20 
varieties, 60 Aerides and Vandas in 18 varieties, 75 Laelias in 10 
varieties, 20 Masdevallias in 8 varieties, 200 Odontoglossums in 
30 varieties, 100 Oncidiums in 16 varieties, and 80 Phalsenopsids in 
6 varieties, including good plants of all the vety best kinds, and 
many fine specimens and noteworthy varieties. The treatment here 
is of the more modern kind, and robust health is the result. 

Another of our home collections is that of Samuel R. Payson, at 
Belmont, Mass. Here are 1,432 plants, grown by D. Aird. Cat- 
tleyas, Dendrobiums, and Odontoglossums are the features of this 
collection, and they are all well cultivated. There are 75 Phalsen- 
opsids, 330 Cattleyas, 180 Dendrobiums, 414 Odontoglossums, 23 
Aerides, and 25 Cj^pripediums, besides a good selection of other 
well-known kinds. The cool orchids are in a north house, while 
two span-roofed houses are devoted to others ; the Dendrobiums 
being rested in the graperies and large conservatory. The Cat- 
tleyas are particularly well grown, and when in bloom afford a 
brilliant sight. This collection has been in existence for quite a 
number of }'ears. 

In close proximity to Mr. Payson's we have the well-known col- 
lection on the Pratt estate, in Watertown, Mass., under the 
supervision of David Allan, who has increased the number of 
plants very largely in late years, so that they now tax the capacity of 



142 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the houses in which they are grown. Cattleyas, Dendrobiums, 
Lselias, and Phalsenopsids are the chief features here, and all are 
admirably cultivated. There is a fine collection of cool orchids 
forming, which has improved very much in the last two years, 
now numbering fully 1,000 plants. Among the Cattleyas are 
numerous fine specimens of G. Triance, many of exceptional 
quality ; and large masses of C. Mossice. Loelia anceps and L. 
autumnalis are grown in large quantities and in a very vigorous 
condition. The Dendrobiums number about 800 plants, and those 
who saw Mr. Allan's specimens of D. Wardianum in this hall 
last spring will understand how well they are grown ; and this 
applies to all the other varieties as well. The entire number of 
plants in this collection is over 4,000. They are not grown in any 
one house but are changed about among the numerous houses as 
may best suit the cultural requirements. 

John Wallace, of New York, grows about 1,200 to 1,300 plants 
at his home in Paterson, N. J. ; and, which is remarkable, success- 
fully takes the entire care of them himself, although he goes to 
business daily. It is an example of what an enthusiast in orchid- 
growing may do. Mr. Wallace's collection embraces most of the 
finer kinds in cultivation, and among them many rare hybrid and 
choice varieties. C. F. Erhart, of Brooklyn, has a well grown, 
selection of 625 plants in 48 species and 268 varieties. He has 
of Aerides 10 varieties, Cattle}'as 29 varieties, Dendrobiums 32 
varieties, Cypripediums 22 varieties, etc. 

In Vermont, at St. Johnsbury, may be found a strong lot 
of orchids belonging to Col. Franklin Fairbanks. This comprises 
600 plants and was formed seven years ago. It is made up of 
good specimens of Phalaenopsis, Dendrobiums, and other standard 
genera, and the plants are in fine health. Ex-Governor Fair- 
banks, in the same place, has a house 60 feet long filled with 
orchids which are mostly large specimens, and man}' of the Cat- 
tleyas, Dendrobiums, etc. are especially fine plants. This col- 
lection also was formed seven years ago. 

Another veteran orchid-grower is Capt. Charles H. Snow, who 
ten or twelve years ago started a small collection near Baltimore ; 
which has since grown to ample proportions, filling a house 70 
feet long, there being from 1,000 to 1,500 plants, mostly Cat- 
tleyas, Lgelias, and Dendrobiums. Capt. Snow is an amateur who 
gives much personal attention to his plants. The collection of 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 143 

W. H. Perot, near Baltimore, was once a most promising one, sev- 
eral houses having been filled with plants numbering at least 1,500 
to 2,000. It is a matter of regret that it is now nearly dispersed. 

Another good collection is that of William Barr, at Orange, 
N. J. A house 72X22 feet is devoted to it, and contains some 
250 plants, which are grown in different sections of the house 
very successfully. A large part of this collection is made up of 
Cattleyas, Odontoglossums, Oncidiums, Dendrobiums, and Cypri- 
pediums, with a fair proportion of other genera. 

The collection of Henry S. Hollingsworth, in Brooklyn, is of 
good extent, numbering 877 plants and over 300 varieties. 
Mr. Hollingsworth personally cares for his plants, giving them 
more air and less heat than is usual, and with beneficial results ; 
a course which all amateurs would do well to follow. 

In the Western States, as a rule orchids are not numerous, 
though many amateurs there are forming the nuclei of collections 
which, in all probability, ten years hence will closely rival those 
of the Eastern States. 

About the best collection in the West, of which I have any knowl- 
edge, is that of W. H. Chadwick, of Chicago, Illinois. This lot 
of plants is a very good and comprehensive one. It embraces 
about 522 distinct sorts, though the total number of plants is 
larger than this figure. There are 64 sorts of Dendrobiums, 36 of 
Epidendrumfe, 48 of Cattleyas, 42 of Odontoglossums, 40 of 
Oncidiums, 14 of Vandas, 26 of Cypripediums, 22 of Lselias, and 
16 of Masdevallias, with a large representation of Central Ameri- 
can and South American species. 

Alexander Mitchell, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, has a collection ; 
but I have not been able to secure any detailed information con- 
cerning it. 

Charles E. Hay, of Springfield, Illinois, has a nice small lot of 
miscellaneous plants grown in two houses, embracing all of the 
standard kinds. There are three or four other small collections in 
Illinois and Wisconsin, but none sufficiently large to note. 

I have not been able to secure full information in regard to the 
collections around Philadelphia, where one would naturally expect 
to receive every aid towards helping on the cause of orchid 
growing. The collections however in this section are by no 
means large, as compared with those I have described ; and can 
only take rank with the small lots scattered about in different 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

sections of the countiy which, with perhaps an exception or two, 
are not important enough to warrant description. Mrs. Baldwin 
has a fairly good collection; and other private growers are F. T. 
S. Darley, Mrs. R. S. Mason, H. Pratt McKean, Mrs. William 
Weightman, H. C. Gibson, Clarence H. Clark, and two or three 
others. 

In Baltimore, besides Capt. Snow, the orchid growers are con- 
fined to two others, T. Harrison Garrett and Robert Garrett ; 
both of the latter are forming collections, which in time will very 
likely become of importance. 

Mr. T. Harrison Garrett's collection was commenced about 
four years ago, and the plants are, with a few exceptions, small 
ones, but the selections have been made with care, and there is a 
prospect that the collection will become a noticeable one. Three 
houses are devoted to it, and the total number of plants is 1,347. 
They are divided into about 600 distinct species and varieties. 
The East Indian house contains 516 plants, the intermediate 
house 234, and the cool orchid house 597 plants. Among the 
notable genera are 242 Cattleyas in 56 species and varie- 
ties ; 35 Phalaenopsids, in 10 species and varieties ; 21 Vandas, 
in 13 species and varieties ; 25 Aerides in 13 species ; 70 
Laelias in 20 species; 198 Dendrobiums in 68 species; 143 
Oncidiums in 32 species ; 94 Odontoglossums in 36 species. 
Mr. Garrett is moreover very much interested in' our native 
Orchids, and has collected a large number of species. 

An experiment has been made here with a doable glass roof for 
Orchids, and Mr. Grant, the gardener, writes that it has proved 
highly successful, and not only the orchids like it, but thetenderest 
fern stands the summer's sun without flinching. The upper glass 
is about an inch from the lower glazing ; and no artificial shading 
of any kind is used. It is stated that the Cattleyas, Dendrobiums, 
etc., made bulbs of remarkable strength, which were much shorter 
jointed, and which flowered with greater freedom. Double glazing 
has been used before on other houses, but I have the impression 
that it has not been well received. This practical testimony in its 
favor is therefore the more noticeable. 

At Troy, N. Y., A. R. Smith, a most enthusiastic amateur, 
grows a small collection to which, like all orchidists who really love 
their plants, he gives much individual care. The collection of 



THE PROQRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 145 

Mrs. Gardner Brewer, at Newport, R. I., numbers about 400 
plants, nearly half of which are large specimens of Yanclas, Cypri-' 
pediums and Angrsecums. There is one other small collection in 
Newport, but it is not large enough to notice. 

One of our most promising local collections is that of E. W" . 
Gilmore, at North Easton, Mass., whose plants have often been 
exhibited here. Mr. Gilmore has constructed a north house, 
where he has over 500 well grown Odontoglossums and other 
cool orchids. This collection numbers altogether 1,275 plants ; 
among them 90 Phalsenopsids, 100 Cattleyas, 140 Dendrobiums, 
etc. The plants are cultivated in three houses well adapted to 
their growth, and there are few if any better collections of the 
size of this to be found. 

Among other small collections, maj T be noted that of Henry 
Graves, of New York Cit} T , who has a few hundred orchids and is 
building a house, and another is that of M. Shaw, at Eau Claire, 
Wisconsin, who grows about 500 orchids in a house 18X60 feet. 
In addition to the growers I have mentioned there are, as I have 
said, some others scattered over the country, but their collections 
are small. I hoped to be able to give some idea of the size of 
each of these, but my requests for information have not met with 
the desired responses. I have, however, given data enough to 
enable those who are interested in the culture of orchids to form 
some conception of the growth and extent of the orchid fever in 
this country. This paper is of coarse superficial in character, but, 
as matter of record, it has its points of interest for those who 
give any time or attention to the subject it discusses. 

Before closing, it is desirable to refer to the primary rules which 
ought to govern orchid culture in this country and this latitude. 
The great obstacles to the successful growth of orchids, as I have 
found after some years of experience and personal attention to them, 
are — First, The lack of proper and constant atmospheric moisture 
during the season of active growth. Second, The want of a con- 
stant supply of fresh air during growth, and still more during 
the resting period, from November to April. Third, The lack of 
cleanliness. Fourth, Over shading the houses during growth, as 
well as during the resting period. These four points are the 
cardinal ones in orchid culture, all other requirements, such as 
potting material, proper receptacles for growth, etc., being of little 
moment beside these ; and want of proper knowledge of them all, 
10 



146 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

or of some of them, is the cause of all failures, to a greater or 
less extent. 

Our climate is naturally dry and arid compared with that of 
England, from whence we have had most of the hand-books and 
rules to govern orchid amateurs. The tendency of these is to lead 
the inexperienced to believe, after reading up on the subject, that 
too much atmospheric moisture and air can be given. In this 
respect, however, modern culture has made great progress. The 
most successful grower now does not hesitate to leave open both 
top and bottom ventilators of the orchid house, during the sea- 
son of growth, whenever the outside temperature ranges above 
fifty-five degrees, except when there may occur a rapid fall of tem- 
perature of the outside air.' In consequence, all kinds of orchids 
may be freely syringed over head even twice a da}' during growth, 
and the walks and benches thoroughly saturated. There is little 
danger of losing the growth of Cattleyas by S3 T ringing when the 
maximum amount of air is given. Slow but solid growth is made 
in this way, favorably contrasting with the weak, watery growth 
made in a close, heavily shaded house ; and every orchid grower 
should arrange to give fresh air through the winter, the period 
of rest. This is the time when orchids, with the exception of a 
few species from the hottest climates, become debilitated and lose 
their vigor. 

A night temperature of 50° is better than one ranging from 55° 
to 60°, and Cattleyas and many other intermediate kinds, if in 
robust growth, will do well in a night temperature of 45°. For 
the majority of all orchids, tropical or intermediate, in winter, a 
comparatively low temperature is better than a high temperature 
maintained at the sacrifice of all the atmospheric moisture, drawn 
out by over- heated pipes. The latter condition is the cause of so 
man}' of our orchids coming out of their winter rest shrivelled and 
weakened ; when, had they been subjected to lower temperature 
and had more atmospheric moisture and more sunlight, their bulbs 
would be plump and well ripened and ready to start into strong 
growth. 

Air ought to be given by bottom ventilators in winter if the 
temperature outside is very low, and on all bright, sunny days 
the top ventilators should be open. There are many other 
successful ways of ventilating, but by some method or other 
fresh air should be had all the year round. Some of the 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 147 

English orchid houses are especially constructed with flues 
opening upon the hot water pipes, which distribute constantly a 
supply of fresh air without creating injurious cold drafts ; and such 
a plan is without question a very excellent one. From the first of 
December to the middle of February, in this latitude, all shading 
should be removed from orchid houses, and the full benefit of 
eveiy ray of sunlight secured. A few species like the Phalaenopsids, 
Bolleas, Pescatoreas, some of the Cypripediums, and some other 
scattering examples are benefited by slight shading in winter, on 
very bright days, but the number is less than might be imagined ; 
and even Phalcenopsis Scliilleriana enjoys the winter sunshine with- 
out injury. Full exposure to all the sunlight which may be had in 
winter is of great benefit to orchids ; it ripens the bulbs, solidifies 
the growth, and stimulates the flowering qualities ; and stronger 
growth and better root action result in the spring. So important 
is this, that the glass should be clean and free from everything 
which might serve to obstruct the sun's rays. In many collections 
you will find the opposite state of things, but a close observation of 
most of the larger and best grown collections of the country justi- 
fies the conclusions I have stated. 

From the middle of February, or the first of March, to the first 
or middle of November, according to the incline of the house, 
roller shades of the thinnest cheese cloth, running on slats 
elevated six inches from the glass, are better than whitening 
the glass, as they serve to keep the houses much cooler than if the 
sun's rays strike directly upon the glass. For a large number of 
houses shading of this kind may not be possible, but it is by far 
the best method yet devised ; the great advantages being that on 
cloudy days the shades can be raised and the benefit of the early 
morning and late afternoon sunlight can be secured without in- 
jury, and above all, in this hot climate, a cooler and more moist 
condition of the atmosphere can be maintained in the houses. 

Orchids which are not kept clean cannot be health} 7 , and what 
with white and brown scale, black and yellow thrip, and green flj r , 
the cultivator needs to be alert. I believe in mild fumigation once 
a week, as the only proper method for keeping a house clear of 
thrip and green fty, though many growers have an impression 
that orchids do not like tobacco smoke. I have never known one, 
even of the thin-leafed kind, to be injured by a light fumigation 
properly given ; and two of these in succession, or one given every 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

week, will certainty keep a house clean from these pests. I may 
add that tobacco stems placed under the benches and kept moist 
are invaluable preventives of thrip and green fly ; and they must 
be replenished when the strength departs. Most tender ferns 
will, however, be injured by this process ; nevertheless, I can 
strongly recommend it for orchids. Plent\ r of fresh air is one of 
the best preventives of all kinds of thrip, green fly, and red spider. 
If growers start with clean plants, the} 7 can save themselves great 
trouble b}' the "ounce of prevention" in the way of mild fumiga- 
tion. It is easier to keep out insect pests than to get them out 
when once established. White scale does more injury than is 
credited to it. Nothing but careful sponging and brushing with 
soapsuds or insecticide will eradicate it. It is an insidious pest, 
and ruins the plant before an inexperienced person will detect it. 
Every orchid ought to be sponged over with clean water two or 
three times a year ; but this is a rule not as generally regarded as 
it should be, for in many collections dust and dirt are allowed to 
accumulate upon the leaves, to the great detriment of the plants. 
There are many other points in orchid growing which could be 
taken up and discussed in this paper, but a grower will find them 
of minor consideration in comparison with those I have mentioned. 
Personal knowledge of details is of the greatest value, but the be- 
ginner as well as the old hand at orchid culture must keep in sight 
the four prime requisites of success which I have stated, if they 
expect to maintain their orchids in robust health for any period of 
years. 

Discussion. 

Rev. A. B. Muzzey was ready to sa} r that eminent patience is 
genius, — he knew no better definition of that word. Think of it, 
that in the culture of orchids a man has devoted nineteen }*ears to 
a single experiment ! Now let us carry that same spirit into the 
work of this Society, and we shall have something of the glorious 
beauty in this specimen* before us, as the result. He bade the 
Society God speed in all its attempts to promote horticulture ; and 
moved a vote of thanks to the essayist for his patient, thorough, 

* A fine, large plant, abundantly bloomed, of Dendrobium Wardianum, 
from A. W. Spencer, 



THE PROGRESS OF ORCHID CULTURE IN AMERICA. 149 

and admirable essay — which, as a record of what has been 
done, would find no superior. 

The vote was passed unanimously. 
• President Walcott said that the paper was one well deserving 
a full discussion, and called on William Robinson, gardener to 
F. L. Ames. 

Mr. Robinson said there was one point he should like to refer 
to, in regard to collections of Cypripediums. He thought that 
Mr. Ames has as large a collection of this genus as any grower 
in the United States, and as large as any private individual has 
grown anywhere. He had given to Mr. Beard, as the number in 
Mr. Ames's collection, about seventy-one species ; 'but did not in- 
clude varieties or American species, so probably Mr. Coming's 
and Mr. Ames's might have come pretty nearly together as to 
numbers, if he had counted the varieties and American species in 
the latter collection. 

Speaking of what Mr. Beard had said about keeping the temper- 
ature clown to fifty-five degrees at night, he thought it a little 
difficult, particularly in view of such weather as last week's, to 
keep the house at that temperature during the night and raise it 
again in the day time so many degrees. Such a temperature may 
be had and such changes made, provided you have your house so 
constructed that you can run it without absorbing the moisture by 
such rises in temperature. Conditionally, he would grant that you 
can keep the house at fifty-five degrees, and then run it up in the 
day time ; but he thought few orchid houses are so constructed 
that this can be done. 

He thought that the greatest preventive of green flies is 
putting tobacco stems on the floor and on the pipes. No one 
trying this will be troubled much with green flies afterwards. 

Mr. Beard said his own experience had been that tobacco used 
as recommended by Mr. Robinson is no less effective than in the 
form of smoke. Ferns are liable to be injured by the tobacco in 
either form, but when fumigation is employed they can be taken 
out, and returned to place after the process is concluded. He 
remembered that Mrs. Morgan's collection, some years ago, was 
overrun with the yellow thrip, which is much worse among orchids 
than any other insect, with the exception of cockroaches ; but she 
put in several barrels of tobacco stems, which were constantly 
dampened and replenished, and the result was that in a short time 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the thrip was pretty well eradicated ; so that he could bear testi- 
mony to support Mr. Robinson's recommendation of tobacco 
stems for extirpating all insects that can be killed by fumigation. 

His own experience in regard to running up the heat of orchid 
houses is that, if the weather is so cold that the temperature can- 
not be run up without great fire heat, it is better to let the day heat 
remain at fifty-five degrees, rather than attempt to raise it ten 
degrees. Saturation of the air with moisture is essential in orchid 
culture. Their native homes are in regions where moisture is con- 
stantly around them, and the combined sunlight and fire heat of 
artificial culture are injurious to them, if they have no atmospheric 
moisture to counteract it. It is better to allow the temperature to 
remain low rather than attempt to run it up. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder could not allow the subject to be closed 
without saying that this paper is one of the most able and elab- 
. orate, on the growth ot orchids, that he had ever heard. It is also 
a very valuable addition to floricultural history ; and it will be so 
esteemed in the Old World, from whence we receive so man} 7 of our 
fine orchids. He did not doubt that we should see it copied in the 
leading horticultural journals in Europe. Mr. Beard had stated 
that the speaker presented the first orchid exhibited in this Society. 
This was very nearly fifty years ago, but he well remembered the 
plant ; it was Oncidium Jlexuosum. It covered a large space on 
the wall of his greenhouse ; and, if he recollected rightly, had a 
hundred and seventy-six individual flowers. He was surprised to 
see that so few of the collectors to whom Mr. Beard had referred 
had a large number of Oncidiums. He believed that Mr. Beard 
had reported Mr. Hunnewell to have about a hundred species and 
varieties ; if so, that is probably the largest collection of On- 
cidiums in the country. 

This paper shows how im Tensely a subject may grow in the 
course of half a century. Beginning with that little plant of On- 
cidium which had been spoken of, these immense collections have 
grown up since that time in our country. He might say that the 
orchids are the most gorgeous plants in creation ; and he felt ex- 
tremely obliged to our generous contributors, who do so much to 
increase the interest in that order by their exhibitions here, — to 
Mr. Ames, Mr. Hunnewell, Mr. Payson, Mr. Pratt, and others, 
who spare no expense whenever they can add anything beautiful 
and valuable to their collections. Mr. Ames told the speaker that 



PROTECTION OF BIRDS. 151 

he had a single plant for which he paid almost a thousand 
dollars. 

Mr. Robinson said that the plant mentioned is a Vanda San- 
deriana. 

Mr. Wilder added that we have reason to be thankful for what 
has been accomplished, and to hope that this order of plants will 
receive more and more attention, as he had no doubt it would. It 
is easy of cultivation, and man}- of the most beautiful species are 
cool orchids that can be grown with great ease. 

James Cartwright was called on and said that most of his or- 
chids are Cypripediums. He has one hundred and twenty plants, 
which he grows in very cool houses, the temperature having been 
down to forty degrees a good many times this winter. 

Notice was given that, on the next Saturday, Dr. G. Austin 
Bo wen would read a paper on " Homestead Landscapes." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 13, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

On motion of William C. Strong, seconded by Rev. A. B. 
Muzzey, the following preamble and resolution were unanimously 
passed : — 

Whereas, The Massachusetts S«*iety for the Prevention of 
Cruehy to Animals has petitioned the Legislature of Massachu- 
setts to enact a law making it the duty of all teachers of public 
schools in this Commonwealth to instruct their pupils, in such man- 
ner as the School Committees of the several cities and towns shall 
determine, in regard to the importance of protecting our insect- 
eating birds and their nests, and to treat the lower animals kindly ; 
and whereas, we believe it to be for the benefit of this Common- 
wealth that such instruction be given in the schools : 

Resolved, That we do most earnestly ask the Legislature of 
Massachusetts to grant the petition of said Massachusetts Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 



152 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

The preamble and resolution were signed by the President and 
Secretary of the Society, to be presented to the Legislature of the 
State as a petition. 

Adjourned to Saturday, March 20. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
Homestead Landscapes. 

By George Austin Bowen, M.D., Woodstock, Conn. 

There is no word in the English language of deeper significance 
than that good old Saxon one tk home." It in some way expresses 
more of human heart and feeling, and of the conditions and senti- 
ments that characterize a true manhood and womanhood, than any 
other word in our extensive vocabulary. Its utterance at once 
brings to mind scenes of "domestic happiness. Home is the one 
centre around which revolve all the feelings and aspirations that 
stimulate our daily exertions ; and it is the only place that affords 
the tranquillizing influences so necessary for refreshment after the 
rude contacts and the busy turmoil of our outside life. Love and 
joy — happiness and peace — are expressed in its very name. The 
thoughts of wanderers on sea and land revert to it with deep and 
persistent emotion ; and the heart of man everywhere derives from 
it a contentment that can never be supplied from an}' other source 
— for it is the only place in all this world where hearts are sure of 
each other. 

The influences of home create and develop not only the char- 
acter of individual men, but of might} 7 nations. Refined sentiments, 
lofty aspirations, and purity of moral character are developed far 
more by the unseen influences of home teachings, and home sur- 
roundings, than by all other causes combined. The home life of 
any nation is the truest index of that nation's civilization. Looked 
at the world over, the comparison of homes with character justifies 
this broad conclusion. Stating it in one aspect, I suppose we 
should say — "As a man is, so he makes the home." But does not 
that home, once made, tend to keep him true to the impulses that 
inspired him in establishing it? And does it not exert a yet more 
wonderful influence upon his children, whose characters are still 
in the plastic stage of formation? Therefore the expending of 
time, thought, and study upon the problem of improving the 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 153 

homes of all classes is not only permissible, but presents itself as 
a duty owed to the individual, to the family, and to the com- 
munity. And surely no section of our broad land offers better 
opportunities and facilities for refining and elevating homes than 
our own loved New England. 

The rude homesteads of New England, peopled hja sturdy race, 
have exerted, and are this day exerting a perceptible influence 
upon our national prosperity and character, but under the inevit- 
able law of change, and the universal tendency to variations, they 
have gradually been modified in style and character. The humble 
cabin, built of logs and picturesque in its simplicity, in time gave 
place to the more commodious though still humble cottage, which 
in its turn succumbed to the square two story structure with its 
ell ; a type so dominant in the architecture of the Eastern States, in 
times comparatively recent, that it may be said to be character- 
istic of those times. Fashion ruled in our fathers' days as well as 
in our own ; but she is a fickle goddess, changing every clay, incon- 
stant as the wind, and the shapes she but lately considered as 
ideally perfect in regard to st}ie and convenience are today looked 
upon as. antiquated and uncomfortable. The surrounding lands 
changed their aspect with the dwelling, as the actor changes his 
dress to correspond with the character. Fields freshly hewn out 
from the forest, stump-decorated, harmonized well with the log- 
built cabin. The cottage, built later in the subdued clearing, and 
surrounded by well walled fields, told of the prolonged toil that 
had been bestowed upon the land, fitting it for tillage by the simple 
implements of those early days ; and showed the prosperity of its 
inmates. The subsequent square farm house, with long-sloped 
rear roof and extensive ell, and several small buildings around, 
was likewise in keeping with the time of its construction, and the 
enlarged labors and productions of the farm. Thus the dwellings 
and the land have ever been characteristic indications of each 
other's prosperity, and are so today. But at the present time we 
observe contrasts more marked than at former periods, chiefly due 
to the concentration of population in towns and villages, which 
has succeeded the more scattered distribution of an earlier day ; 
also to the consequent change in the choice of crops for cultiva- 
tion ; to the increased wealth and prosperity of the people ; and to 
the exodus of city dwellers to the country during the summer 
months. 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

All new countries have presented the same succession of changes, 
in the various phases of progress from pioneer life to that char- 
acterizing old established settlements ; and when that point has 
been reached, certain other conditions have uniformly succeeded. 
It requires no prophet to tell what the future of New England will 
be. The history of all older Anglo-Saxon civilization will prob- 
ably indicate the course of our own. 

I have never for one moment entertained the idea that the New 
England States have seen their best days, and in time will be left 
out in the cold — desolate and unlovely. I believe that they will 
always hold the lead in the future, as in the past ; that from their 
geographical position wealth must naturally come to them, and 
that in time — and not a very long one either, as we view national 
growth — we shall present as attractive scenes of cultivated land- 
scapes, and imposing homes, as do the most civilized countries of 
the old world. And certainly no region can offer better oppor- 
tunities than our own, with its wooded hills, open valleys, and 
picturesque lakes and streams. We have but to give a little 
thought to the subject, and then let our work follow in fulfilment 
of it. 

Do you ask when the era of beauty is to begin? I answer that 
it has already commenced, and I can point to many sections that 
show the fruits of this thoughtful purpose. It is to be attained 
gradually and by accumulation of individual efforts ; not by a great 
uprising. Each minute coral insect builds only its own diminutive 
dwelling, but the resulting aggregations make the beautiful archi- 
pelago. I would not have you tear down and radically reconstruct 
your homes in more elaborate designs ; but let each one simply 
ask — Wherein can my own homestead be made to harmonize with 
this coming change? Where can I correct its deficiencies, and 
where enhance its merits, making it more attractive to the eye, 
more comfortable for occupation, and — for this is practical New 
England — at the same time increase its revenue. 

If asked to furnish a description of an ideal country home, you 
would scarcely describe the present average country residence, and 
hold it up as a model for others to cop}- . And yet, taking any one 
of these homes, and looking at its outlines and surroundings, any 
person who possesses even a slight knowledge of architecture and 
landscape gardening might at once point out many features that 
could be changed entirely, or modified, or enlarged; which being 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 155 

done, with the supply of a few additional embellishments, such as 
trees, rocks, or other out-door objects, and a porch, piazza, ba} T 
or landscape window added to the house, would completely trans- 
form the appearance of the place. And those most iutimately ac- 
quainted with it would be driven to doubt whether that particular 
part of the brain, which phrenologists denominate "locality," was 
not at fault and deceiving them. 

It is thus that I would have you look at your homes with me to- 
day. Some of them, I know, are examples of the most skilful 
construction, and have been embellished by lavish expenditure, 
and are finished country homes. All that I would say to the 
possessors of such is — Enjoy them to the utmost, and be thankful 
that you have them. But many others, I know, stand in need of 
a little criticism, and, as we proceed to develop our subject, we 
may be able to bring forward suggestions that will be of general 
benefit. 

The first suggestion that I would offer is this — that expenditure 
of money does not alwa} 7 s bring a return in true beauty. I have 
in mind one lawn that remains dull, flat, and uninteresting, 
although it has absorbed money enough to have made earthly 
paradises of all the estates in the village, had it been expended 
with good judgment. 

A first general rule is that every building should, as far as pos- 
sible, conform to the character of its site and of the surroundings. 
Place a castle on the hill, and a cot in the valley — never the re- 
verse. The most incongruous piece of architecture that I have 
ever seen was a Swiss chalet in a closely built city street. Such 
an instance affords an example to be avoided. 

Another imperative rule is to preserve the salient features of a 
landscape. A lawn preserving the natural slopes of the ground, 
with easy circuitous pathways, is far more pleasing than a dead 
level, with all the lines at right angles. A rocky border, a precip- 
itous gorge, or a tangled thicket is oftentimes better treated by 
embellishment than by removal. Even boulders, expensive objects 
to remove, become useful features when made centres or back- 
grounds for appropriate shrubbery. 

There is an old saying, which is full of truth, that will apply to 

him who commences to improve his home and surroundings ; it is 

— "Plan the patch before the cloth is cut." To begin wisely, a 

, plan should first be outlined ; and can afterwards be gradually 



156 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

worked out in detail. There are two ways of doing this. One 
way is to employ a high-toned architect to reconstruct the house, 
and a landscape gardener and a brace of survej'ors for the lawns 
and fields. It sounds well to talk about them, and they are very 
interesting objects to look at while they are at work, but will not 
be likely to exhibit as much agility and animation as you your- 
self will when they have finished, and present their specifications 
and bills. 

In country localities congenial society is oftentimes scarce ; 
therefore the country resident is forced to seek his pleasures and 
recreations in and about his own homestead, and therein lies a mine 
of crude satisfaction, to him who has the ingenuity to work it into 
a tangible shape. T would, therefore, advise a second way, 
one which has the double advantage of annihilating the expense, 
and increasing the satisfaction. It is to draw the plan yourself. 
Perhaps you say you cannot. I s&y 3 7 ou can if you will. 

Having thus arbitrarily settled that point, we will now com- 
mence work. Take some bright morning when your digestion is 
good, and you feel at peace with your neighbor who borrows and 
never returns, and when the note you gave to settle your fertilizer 
bill is not quite due ; then enter upon the task with a determination 
to have a feasible plan before evening. 

Take the house first. Scan it with an eye critical of its defects, 
and study to find a remedy for each. Should you be so fortunate 
as to have an old-time house, with ample chimney, shallow eaves, 
and quaint little windows, content yourself with its simplicity. 
Seek to make only such additions as will be suggestive of " solid 
comfort " and will be in keeping with the quiet air that invests 
all such venerable dwellings. Do not try to modernize it, for it 
cannot be done ; architect and builder will only impair or destroy 
the charm that time has placed as a spell around it. 

But these old structures may receive improving touches. A 
wide spreading porch over the door, having bracket supports in- 
stead of posts or pillars, will add to rather than diminish its 
quaint and homelike charm. Do not make the porch heavy and. 
solid, with straight timbers, but shape the edges and bevel the 
ends till they have an artistic effect, however rough in workman- 
ship. A broad, low piazza, with light supports, might be per- 
missible, should a re-entrant angle be presented by a projecting 
portion of the building. Consider all such proposed additions 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 157 

with the mind's eye ; trace them on paper, to be filed with the 
ground plans, as notes of ideas for future development. 

Do not forget to include, in your scheme of improvement, re- 
moval of the lilac and sweetbrier bushes from before the windows. 
Let these and similar shrubs be placed at a respectful distance 
from the house, and let vines be planted in their place ; which, in 
a few years' time, will cover the unpretending structure with a 
mantle of living green, and will thereby add greatly to its health- 
fulness as well as beauty. 

Should the house be of more recent construction, a bay window 
may be thought of in the place of the flat one, which now gives 
light to the living room ; or a landscape window, should that room 
be one of ample proportions. Consider the planting of vines here 
also, for they are becoming to all classes of dwellings, from the 
humblest cottage to the most elegant mansion. No feature in the 
landscape gives so much interest as well placed vines ; the wonder 
is that they are so little used. 

Perhaps y¥hen 3'ou look at 3'our own dwelling, neither of these 
distinctive types meets- your vision, but you behold a modern 
American dwelling, with its shams and false pretences, painted 
with as much gorgeousness as a Chinese lantern, replete with all 
the so-called modern conveniences of furnaces, hot and cold 
water, shoddy plumbing and sewer gas. If so, go no further in 
your plans for landscape ornament, but devote }'ourself in earnest 
to the sanitary problem. Too many such houses generate and 
harbor the germs of scarlet fever, diphtheria, and kindred diseases* 
It will not be prudent for you to proceed in other improvements 
until fully assured on this point ; for the modern American house — 
the blending of the st}'les of Queen Anne and Robinson Crusoe, 
Gothic church and Virginia cabin — Ionic, cubic, and diabolic, is 
more often a death trap than a protecting home. 

A house must be viewed from many different standpoints — as a 
connoisseur of pictures views a work of art from all directions. 
Especial regard should be had to its site and immediate surround- 
ings ; for a house requires a suitable frame or setting as much as 
a picture. This is especially true of a dwelling placed upon a hill ; 
where, without some effective surroundings, it is likely to look bare 
and cheerless. This appearance, however, can be relieved by 
planting trees in such positions as, in time, to shut it in somewhat, 
yet not so close as to overshadow it. It needs a background of 



158 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tall trees, which will break up the regularity of the sky line formed 
by the straight roof. The outbuildings should be kept from an 
undue prominence by groups or bands of evergreens. 

As the plan slowly unfolds before us and as we depart from the 
house, a lawn inevitably presents itself to the mind, for there is 
no one feature that gives a greater air of elegance and comfort to 
a place than a well grassed lawn. It may often be an expensive 
toy that scarcely repays the labor bestowed upon it ; but it also 
may be an object of great beauty, and one which, without any con- 
siderable expense of money or toil, seems always in order. I do 
not propose now to enter into the details of the construction of a 
lawn, for they must vary with the conditions of every place. Any 
one, who inclines to study and improve his opportunities in this 
direction, may find all needed assistance in earlier publications of 
this Society. 

The forming of a lawn will at once sweep away one of the 
greatest blemishes of our country homes — the little door-j^ard 
fences, running to every corner of the house and enclosing spaces 
too small for any practical use, harboring noxious weeds, and en- 
couraging the presence of tangled and decaying grass, thus rend- 
ering -the ground damp and unwholesome. The} 7 are inconvenient, 
unattractive, expensive, and unnecessary. Make a marginal note 
on your plan for their immediate removal. 

Next proceed to stake out a driveway leading from the highway 
to the house, including a circular or oval turn convenient to the 
front door, and continuing to the stable ; this should be at least 
twelve feet wide, and should follow the easiest and most access- 
ible route. Pathways should also be staked out, leading from 
the house to the highwaj T , the well, the various outbuildings, and 
places most frequented. One simple rule will dictate the route of 
all paths and driveways, and insure a graceful outline. It is 
merely to follow the trail one would naturally make in going from 
one point to another. Instinctively the feet will seek the easiest 
direction, avoiding rocks, shrubs, and undulations. Did you ever 
follow a cowpath through a rough pasture ? No one will give 
cattle credit for engineering science, yet the path they make will 
always be found the easiest and most direct route from point to 
point, which is just the object we aim at. 

When your paths have been thus staked out, trace them on your 
plan ; the intervening spaces will form the lawn. Let me advise 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 159 

in this — do not plan to grade it too much ; aim simply to smooth 
the surface, retaining all prominent or curious rocks and native 
shrubbery. 

It is an almost universal fact that lawns in our Eastern States are 
too small. In other sections they seem to understand this point 
better, and do not hesitate to devote several acres to this use, and 
certainly no one item can contribute more of an air of elegance to 
even a humble place, than an extensive opening around the dwell- 
ing. To get this, it is oftentimes necessary to throw the fields 
adjacent to the house into one large enclosure. 

The general outlines of a plan are perhaps all that one can 
secure in the first draft. A few groups of shrubbery can be in- 
dicated, in what might be called naturally fit positions, such as at 
the divergence of paths, at the ends or sides of rocks, at the base 
of cliffs, or as screens to outbuildings, etc. ; but the details must be 
left to future development. 

We find many instances of partially well planned homes through- 
out the country, the house and the immediate grounds affording 
pleasing examples of what refined taste, aided by wealth, can 
create, but the care of the occupant having gone no further, unless 
in building miles of useless stone walls. But I would have the re- 
sults of an artistic directing mind apparent over the whole farm, 
no less than in the dwelling and immediately about the door. The 
same careful planning should be given to every acre of the land, 
not perhaps with a view to equally elaborate embellishment, but to 
get it out of the rough state into one more refined — as park-like 
and artistic as possible. 

Have the kindness at this point not to judge me too hastily and 
accuse me of fostering ideas of fancy farming, but bear with me 
awhile, and I will endeavor to show that it is practical farming 
that I advocate, adapted to practical New England, where every 
day must be made to count as a bread-and-butter day. A leisurely 
saunter over the farm will suggest a multitude of changes, which 
would enhance the working advantages of the place and the 
pecuniary interest of the owner. 

A bit of old wall, with stumps of broken bar-posts rising from 
moss-filled turf, and a growth of red osier standing gallantly over 
all — these make a subject for a very pretty picture to display on 
one's libraiy wall ; but the actual presence on the farm of a 
long line of such fencing will hardly be attractive. It gener- 



160 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ally fails to turn stock, and always becomes a harbor for 
brush, and that little nuisance the woodchuck. The thought- 
ful farmer's judgment does not hesitate long regarding walls. 
He knows that they are expensive to maintain, that large 
fields are easier to cultivate than small ones, and that it is about 
as expensive to relay a tumbling wall as to remove it altogether ; 
hence all unnecessary walls shall be doomed, and the material shall 
be used to reinforce those that are actually necessary — and a good 
wall is in some situations a necessity ; but it is never picturesque, 
as is an old one, and this is so simply because it is fast reverting to 
wild and natural conditions. No artist would select as a subject 
for a picture a good substantial stone wall, such as covers the 
farm requirements of" horse high, bull sfrong, and pig tight." He 
could not make it attractive — neither can the farmer, who under- 
stands less of art ; therefore the fewer he embellishes his land 
with the better. 

The inquisitive eye will also be quick to perceive the possibili- 
ties of an old " alder run ;" even though the land be unsuited to 
cultivation, it can be put to more profitable use than harboring 
the undesirable wild growths which infests it now. A strong-armed 
man would soon finish the job of cutting them, and with no great 
stretch of the imagination one may picture in their place a grove 
of maples and elms, with a few outstanding willows ; and possibly 
a fish pond, to be created by an inexpensive dam. I have heard 
of one use and but one for alders on a farm — it was that " the 
cattle loved to brush through them to remove the flies." The far- 
mer who gave me this valuable piece of information owned two 
brindle cows and a roach-backed calf, and had alders enough to 
do the brushing for a drove of western steers. 

The natural landscape of our New England farms is diversified. 
I feel positive that you will not question this point. It is like our 
weather, showing a, maximum variety in a minimum of space ; 
smooth fertile fields, sandy dunes, rolling hills, and abrupt crags 
are commingled in a wa} r to bewilder all but geologists. A prairie 
farmer has no diversified problems of utilization to solve ; his 
farm is equally fertile in all parts, and is as square and monoto- 
nous as a checker-board, but his eastern brother can pick out a bit 
of strong land only here and there, and it is a question what he 
is to do with the larger remaining portion to make it remunerative. 
He is forced to pay taxes upon it, though deriving no income. 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 161 

These comparatively or wholly barren spots are found more o r 
less upon all our farms. They cannot be given away, for unfor- 
tunately the} 7 are scattered about like bad men in a community ; 
not in one section where they can be set aside by a dividing line. 

A plan for farm improvement must necessarily embrace many of 
these unattractive spots ; but if you will give them proper thought 
and care the}' can be made to produce five per cent and possi- 
bly seven per cent annual profit on their taxed valuation, at the 
same time presenting to the eye an attractive picture both in sum- 
mer and winter. If thoughtful care will do this — and hundreds of 
men are ready to testify that it will — there should be no hesitation 
in adding, on our plan, a marginal note to plant these unprofit- 
able places with suitable trees — larch, pine, hemlock, chestnut, 
or whatever variet} T seems best suited to the spot. 

Developing our plan still further, let it embrace good solid farm 
roads, to be so laid out as to render the greatest number of fields 
accessible. This will naturally include the filling in of low wet 
spots, and the grading of steep ascents. Should a running stream 
be crossed by this internal highway, design a strong substan- 
tial bridge with a rustic railing (which is cheaper and handsomer 
than one of finished timbers), and do not be content with a ford. 

Plan to clear away bushes from roadsides and to replace them 
with trees ; plan for trees in pastures, on steep hill-sides, and in all 
the more inaccessible corners. Include here and there a close 
planted evergreen hedge or windbreak for exposed situations ; in 
short go over the farm till you are familiar with every rod you 
own, and have some well matured plan for its improvement. 

A pretty plan on paper, with neat marginal notes, as described, 
would be looked upon by many as a "castle in Spain," or in 
that yet more indefinite localit} 7 — the air. And this, in truth, is 
what the plan itself is. But I believe in air castles ; I regard 
them as most excellent property ; I believe that all good business 
men build them ; 3-et they do not rest there, but strive to bring 
them down to a terrestrial foundation. 

We do not use adages and proverbs as much as our ancestors 
did, but a few still linger in daily use, among them one that up- 
holds me in my proposition ; it is this-: "Well begun is half 
done." A well considered plan means not only systematic work, 
but economical work. The great advantage of such a plan is that 
not one stroke of work will be lost ; each part can be worked to 
11 



162 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the advantage of another ; thus, are a few loads of earth required 
in grading? The bed of the future roadway will supply it, and 
the excavation made will serve as a convenient dumping ground 
for stones removed from the fields. 

But how is our plan to be executed? Shall it be as public parks 
are created, by employing a host of laborers, gardeners, and sur- 
veyors, the labor of teams and the blasting of rocks, creating 
chaos and final!}' bringing out a crude landscape, that requires 
time for ripening, so to speak, by arboreal growth? Well, it can be 
done in that way, but my word for it you would not enjoy it 
much, if .you are a true lover of nature and a patient worker. I 
have seen men improve their places in that manner, but it gener- 
ally absorbed their- bank balances, their credit with their friends, 
and their wives' dowries. 

The true method is to work it out by one's self, as we have 
supposed the planning done; and to a methodical man there is no 
pleasanter occupation to be found than in thus carrying gradually 
forward long cherished designs. It is surprising how fast a place 
will grow in beauty under a directing mind, without much visible 
effort being made in that direction, mainly by bits of chance work, 
as it might be termed. 

For example, in making excavations, or in removing stone 
walls, a large boulder may present itself. The question at once 
arises what is to be done with it. The plan will show that it is 
needed, at the divergence of a pathway, where it becomes an 
object of natural fitness ; or it may be dragged to the side of a 
lawn, to become in due time an accessory in a prospective group 
of shrubbeiy, or it may be thrown into a ravine to aid in the for- 
mation of a cascade. 

Again, there is no more attractive feature about a country place 
than a shaded pathway climbing a rude steep ; but it would be 
expensive work to drag stone expressly for the needed steps, and 
much time might be consumed in seeking out and collecting a suf- 
ficient number of proper shape and proportion ; whereas they are 
frequently presenting themselves one by one as other labors are 
carried on, and can be easily deposited where they will soon be- 
come of service ; and so in many similar ways a feature, objec- 
tionable in its original situation, may, at a slight expense of time, 
be made a leading advantage in another. 

The prominent attraction of all country scenery around residences 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 163 

or farms is in the trees, and the shade afforded D3 7 them. I care 
not how costly a dwelling may be erected, or how lavish the ex- 
penditure upon roads and pathways, and in adorning the grounds 
with fountains and statuary ; the place if destitute of trees will 
look cold and dreary in winter, with the bleak winds coursing 
over it, and be heated in summer like a Sahara under the untem- 
pered glare of the sun. Such places can never be homes of com- 
fort, but will be abodes of malcontent. 

Contrast the greater charm of the more humble dwelling sur- 
rounded 03* trees, which screen it from the force of both wind and 
sun ; offering in the warm season a cool retreat beneath their 
spreading boughs, and imparting freshness and vitality to the air 
by moist and fragrant exhalations from their leaves ; beautiful in 
summer, not only bj^ their shade, but also by their variety of form 
and foliage ; and in autumn by the rare coloring they spread over 
the landscape, excelling the work of any" artist's brush; and later 
imparting to the air the soft warmth of their deca} T ing leaves ; 
and even in winter showing variety of form and modest coloring 
assumed by branch and twig. Surely no one would think of liv- 
ing in the country without surrounding his dwelling with trees ; 
not only the land adjacent to the house, but the whole farm should 
be made to receive from them the benefit they bestow. There- 
fore, the man who plans wisely for external home adornment will 
devote much time and thought to the study of arboriculture, and 
his grounds will show his proficiency therein by the skill displa} T ed 
in so grouping his trees as best to bring out their characteristics. 

I am sorry to say that the ordinary country dweller seems to 
have an aversion to trees, and where one is found who has some 
fondness for them, he often shows a fearful ignorance of their 
actual value. I cannot conceive how the descendants of tree- 
cultivating Europeans can have acquired the tree-destroying habits 
of the present generation, unless it be because their fathers, 
having to hew their farms out of the wilderness, thought only of 
clearing them of all trees, and thus their offspring derived from 
them a tree killing instinct, just as we see children of dissolute 
parents inheriting their instincts to crime. 

Whatever the cause ma} T be, the average Yankee seems to have 
a natural aversion to all indigenous growth, and as soon as a tree 
shows a stem that can be split for cordwood, he is uneasj 7 till he 
has prostrated it with his axe ; and he never feels in fit mood to 



164 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

sing the psalms of praise and thanksgiving in his church service 
till he has cleared from the highway every tree large enough to 
give shelter or pleasure to the wear} 7 traveler. We are slowly 
beginning to realize that there is a wholesale destruction going 
on, which needs to be stopped. I trust that I may live to see 
the time when a man who cuts down a tree of any description, 
without legal authority, will be punished as a criminal. 

A few suggestions may be in place here regarding the location 
of trees, shrubs, and Vines. The latter should be used to cover 
exposed ledges, rustic trellises, railings of bridges, arbors, and 
especially the dwelling. In the case of non-supporting climbers, 
or plants which are partially so, like the woodbine, I have found 
one of the best aids in ordinary wire staples, such as are used to 
secure wire netting, — a size smaller than those used for wire fenc- 
ing. These should not be set enclosing the vine, for in future 
years they would interfere with its growth ; but should be driven in 
beside it, the vine being fastened to them by hempen twine. There 
is a general opinion that vines render a house damp, but such is not 
the case ; the multitude of rootlets they throw out absorb much 
moisture, and no house is so dry as the vine clad one. A beauti- 
ful effect is sometimes produced b} r planting vines at the base of 
trees, and allowing them to ascend to the branches, and there run 
riot, and hang in wild festoons. The woodbine and trumpet 
creeper are both very effective when growing in this way. 

Shrubs should never be placed veiy near a house ; especialhr 
avoid planting them under the windows, which is a common cus- 
tom. Let the grass grow to the very foundation walls. A natural 
situation for them seems to be about rocks, at the base of cliffs, 
or at angles and turns in paths and roadways. The} T are effective 
ornaments when grouped in lawns, or as screens for outbuildings, 
bleaching grounds, etc. 

Trees should never stand close to the house, but should be at a 
distance just sufficient to prevent their overhanging the roof ; and 
should be of a kind that will grow higher than the topmost ridge, 
thus securing a pleasing sky line as before advised. Keeping the 
trees at the proper distance will allow the house to stand out in 
distinct view, showing its individuality ; and will permit the sun's 
rays to strike almost every part of it, at some period of the day. 

Trees on a lawn should never be planted so thickly as to pre- 
vent them from assuming their proper individual characters and 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 165 

distinguishing forms. If evergreens are planted, they should not 
be trimmed up from the ground, but allowed to branch throughout 
their entire length of stem. The same may be said of weeping 
trees, and of most of the birches. 

In planting trees for landscape effect on actual farming ground, 
a good deal of thought is necessary in order to avoid encroaching 
upon tillable lands, and to occupy such only as are unfitted for 
profitable cultivation ; and also to so place the trees as not to 
produce the formal effect of lines or blocks. If, however, there is 
no outlying spot which can be thus occupied, and made to break 
up an undesirable regularit}*, a similar effect can be secured by 
making a careful selection of varieties, and so interspersing them 
as to give an irregular sky line with a broken border line and con- 
trasted colors. 

» 

Formality is always to be avoided, and } r et there will be much 
that must be regular. For instance, many wind-breaks must of 
necessity be so placed as to give a straight outline. Here and 
there, however, according to the nature and value of the land, the 
trees can be placed in irregular groups, composed of a number of 
varieties, thus affording a pleasing park-like effect. 

In developing a homestead landscape, there is one thought that 
should always be kept in mind. We must remember that we are 
not merely creating a park, but are looking for profit as well as 
pleasure. We are aiming to conduct our farming according to 
business principles, and, while gratifying a taste for beauty, we 
have a need for dollars and must plant accordingly. Therefore 
our varieties cannot always be the most ornamental, but must 
consist largely of those most in demand for timber. Our plan 
contemplates that in due time the thinning out, and the occasional 
clearing off of well grown spots, will afford a cash income, besides 
providing fuel for household needs. 

To go gradually and completely over an ordinary farm, in the 
manner described, utilizing its waste places and bringing beauty 
as well as profit out of deformitj 7 , will require not only much time 
and labor, but also a large amount of nursery stock. On the first 
mental calculation of the capital necessary, it might seem, to a 
poor man, to amount in itself to a prohibition. So it would if all 
the money had to be expended at once, and all the trees had to be 
purchased of the nurseryman, but as the plan is to be advanced 
gradually, and to be carried out mainly by one's self, there will be 



166 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ample opportunit}* to procure the stock cheaply as the work goes 
on. To give a clearer idea of the suggestion here intended, allow 
me to relate some bits of personal experience. 

Four years ago one of my townsmen, pointing to a row of 
shapely elms in front of his house, said that when working one 
daj' in a neighbor's garden he took them up as seedlings, brought 
them home with him at evening, and planted them in his own 
garden ; from whence in a few } r ears they were removed to their 
present location, where they have become trees of pronounced 
beauty. 

Shortly after this conversation occurred, being engaged in work- 
ing a roadway on my own place after the plan described in this 
paper, I discovered a number of seedling elms, twenty-five of 
w hich I transplanted to a locality suitable for their further growth. 
Soon after this, I discovered b} 7 the roadside a number of seedling 
balsam firs ; eighty-five of these were soon screened from the sun 
under the seat of my buggy, and before nightfall were placed in 
company with the elms. In other drives, seedling hemlocks, 
chestnuts, arbor vitses, tulip trees, beeches, maples, white and 
yellow pines, etc., presented themselves, and were added to the 
collection, making quite a complete nursery. In the fall, hickory 
nuts, chestnuts, and horse chestnuts were planted, and the seed- 
lings gave me much delight by their peculiarities of growth the 
following season. 

These have been transplanted in such a manner that I expect in 
time to place them in permanent positions, and have them suc- 
ceed, — even the difficult hickory. You see that from this sugges- 
tion, caught from my neighbor, has grown a fine home nursery ; 
from this in the spring I shall transplant at least twenty-five well 
grown trees, which being removed at the right time, and without 
the roots becoming at all dry, will be much more sure to grow 
than those which I might obtain in the market. These trees 
have not cost me one dime in cash. Ever} 7 item of labor con- 
nected with them has been done by myself personally — which 
was also to my physical benefit. 

Another source of supply for a farm nursery is the nurseryman 
who grows from seed ; who will sell seedling ornamental or 
timber trees, at from one-quarter of a cent to two cents each, 
according to the variety. Five dollars so invested will give a fine 
start to a farm nursery, and in a short space of time will create a 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 167 

decided improvement upon the place. Larger trees from two to 
seven feet high and cut back to the ground are sold at slightly 
advanced rates. These may be planted in the nursery, or in per- 
manent locations. They will throw out strong new shoots, and 
soon surprise us by their tree-like form. 

I cannot close this paper without making some allusion to our 
native shrubs, many of them rivalling those imported from more 
favored climes. A lawn decorated with such shrubs can be made 
exceedingly attractive, and with only the cost of transplanting. 
Such are the common barberry, may apple, clethra, elderberry, 
thorn apple, the beautiful laurels, and the brilliant black alder, 
the various viburnums and cornels, and the clematis, bitter-sweet, 
and woodbine, so attractive for covering stone walls and fences as 
well as our houses. Surely, with such resources at hand, no one can 
make any excuse for living in a barren unattractive home. I 
have transplanted man}' fine specimens from the roadsides ; discov- 
ering them when in full flower, stopping then not only long enough 
to admire them, but to mark them, by fastening a few inches of 
surgical bandaging material to branch or stem, and making a 
note in my memorandum book, which enabled me to identify the 
locality in the fall, after the leaves had fallen, and when they could 
be more safely removed. 

Land in New England is cheap — lower than in many parts of 
the West ; but it will not always remain so. The West will fill up 
and a check will be placed upon emigration. A reaction will fol- 
low in this as in everything else. These older states will here- 
after sustain more than double the populations that they now do. 
There will come a rise in land values, which in turn will impel us 
to more thorough tillage ; and with the general advance in taste and 
culture, which in our democratic countrj 7 can never be confined to 
one class, a corresponding impression will be stamped upon even 
these rocky hills, making them artistically beautiful as well as 
abundantly productive. These transformations will do much to 
change the wandering instinct, now so prominent a characteristic 
of our people, into that better trait called inhabitiveness or love of 
home, which is the direct outcome of civilization, and the best 
index of its advancement. 



168 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

Discussion. 

William C. Strong said that all would agree that the paper 
which had been read contained many valuable suggestions. He 
was pleased with its tone, and with the idea that every man might 
become his own landscape gardener. Planting trees so as to bring 
out their individual characteristics is very desirable when it is 
possible, but sometimes we must have groups of trees for shelter, 
or rows for wind-breaks, where individual characteristics are lost. 
He liked the idea of planting vines to keep houses dry. The 
Kenilworth and English ivies are not suited to our climate ; but 
we have a wealth of material in our native vines. The woodbine 
is more graceful than either of the two just mentioned. We want 
sunlight, and must take care not to make our houses damp by 
planting trees too near. He had seen cases where he would have 
put the axe to trees, because they were too near the house. He 
liked the elm for a roadside tree or to grow near a house, because 
it is not dense like the maples, but lofty and open so as to admit 
air beneath. 

Dr. Bowen said that he was not a professional landscape gard- 
ener. His idea is that even the simplest country dweller, living 
in the humblest home, can render his abode as attractive as any 
of the cottage homes of England, of whose beauty so much has 
been said ; and this would not be expensive, for the materials are 
near at hand. 

John G-. Barker said that the suggestions of the essayist are 
such as we shall all agree to. He lives in a brick house covered 
with Ampelopsis Veitchii, which is better than paint. He did not 
know that the vines made any perceptible difference in the damp- 
ness, but they improved the appearance very much. The remarks 
made in regard to planting trees near houses reminded him of a 
plan made for improving the grounds around his house, which in- 
cluded a clump of white pines on the northeast side, that would 
have shut off the view from the dining room and sitting room win- 
dows. He made a yard which it was desired to hide from view, 
and here a trellis was built, in front of which were planted lilacs, 
Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora, Paul's scarlet thorn and other 
shrubs ; and, in front of these, herbaceous plants, some of which 
are in flower from early spring to autumn. He can sit at the sec- 
ond story window and look over the tops of the shrubs. 



HOMESTEAD LANDSCAPES. 169 

We are too apt to do what others say and not to look round and 
work out plans for ourselves. A friend in the country had a stone 
wall, which he thought it best to remove and put a picket fence in 
its place ; but there was plenty of woodbine round, and he was ad- 
vised to plant this and clematis against the wall and let them run 
over it ; he did *so and was much pleased with the results. In 
the cemetery which the speaker has charge of, he was obliged to 
build a piece of stone wall, and this was covered in the same way 
with excellent effect. The woodbine needs a little pruning to keep 
it within bounds. 

He agreed with Mr. Strong in regard to trees ; there is nothing 
better than the American weeping elm, especially for broad 
streets. For streets, they are better than maples, but the latter 
are proper for lawns. There are some tulip trees in East Saugus, 
which are very beautiful, especially when in flower. Their upright 
growth adapts them for narrow streets. The superintendent of 
tree planting in Lynn has come to the conclusion that young trees 
are better than large ones cut down. The trouble with many 
people is that their faculty of adaptation is never developed. The 
speaker advised any one who is thinking of planting trees to take 
the catalogue of some nurseryman who has a good variety, and go 
to the nursery and make notes of what is best adapted to the pur- 
pose in view ; or, better still, to go to the Arnold Arboretum. It 
is astonishing what an amount of valuable information we are to 
have from that source for the mere trouble of going and getting it, 
or, indeed, how much can now be obtained. He felt grateful to the 
Committee for having brought the subject of the essay before the 
Society. 

Col. Hen^ W. Wilson said that the whole genius of our age is 
against planting trees, on account of the slow returns from them. 
The black walnut and white pine do not reach perfection for lum- 
ber until they are over a hundred years old. Men cut down pine 
trees as soon as they will bring eight dollars per thousand for box 
boards. Our people are possessed by the spirit of unrest ; when 
they plant corn they want to see it up the day after to-morrow. 

The question is how to show, to men who want trees for orna- 
ment, some means of getting large handsome trees speedily. A 
man does not generally feel justified in making a country residence 
before he is fifty years old, and then his expectation of life is only 
twenty years. Fine trees are often destroyed in laying out streets, 



170 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

or can be found in pastures of a size ordinarily considered too large 
to be transplanted, but with sufficient care they might be safely 
removed, and would produce an immediate effect. The speaker 
had often transplanted large trees with success. It is a beautiful 
thing to take a tree six, eight, or ten inches in diameter, which 
would perhaps otherwise be destroyed, and pul it where it is 
wanted, and do the work in such a manner that in a year it would 
not be known that it had been transplanted. The late Hon. Josiah 
Quiri cy planted an orchard in his old age, and lived to eat of the 
fruit for twenty-five years. It is important in planting trees to 
attend to the location and condition of the soil ; they love moisture, 
and evergreens are often supposed to have been winter-killed when 
in reality they have died of drought. But they must have drain- 
age, for a superfluity of moisture is equally deleterious. If, after 
the holes are dug, they are found full of water, another location 
should be selected, for no tree will grow in stagnant water. One 
must either be familiar with these points or procure the services 
of a competent person. 

Col. Wilson advised the planting of trees that will bear nuts ; 
he loves to go nutting still. He would plant grafted trees of some 
line variet} T of chestnut or other nuts, rather than to raise them 
from seed, and then he would be sure of getting fine nuts. There 
are many places in New England where the black walnut will 
flourish. 

There are many estates that require wind-breaks. People plant 
grape vines in exposed places and the leaves are broken by winds, 
and also evaporate more water than they would in a sheltered place, 
and are attacked by mildew. Grapes cannot be brought to the 
highest perfection except in still air. In encouraging the planting 
and growth of trees will be found the hope of establishing homes. 
. Our cities ought to own the lands upon which rainfall is gathered 
for their water supply, and keep them covered with forest trees, 
thus preventing pollution at the source. The money that has been 
spent by the city of Boston in other directions to secure the 
purity of the water supply, would have bought a hundred thou- 
sand acres of land. 

Notice was given that on the next Saturday John G. Barker 
would read a paper on "The Care and Embellishment of Ceme- 
teries." 



THE CAEE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 171 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 20, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

No business being brought before the meeting, it adjourned to 
Saturday, March 27. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The Care and Embellishment of Cemeteries. 

By John G. Barker, Superintendent of Pine Grove Cemetery, Lynn.* 

In approaching the subject assigned for our consideration to- 
day, it will not be out of place to look first of all at some of the 
cemeteries in foreign lands, and glance veiy briefly at the history 
of their origin ; especially as this Societ}' is recognized as the 
originator in the first "garden cemetery" in this country. It is 
admitted, however, that the idea had been already carried into ef- 
fect in other countries, some time prior to the establishment of 
Mount Auburn. 

Mr. Loudon, in his "Encyclopedia of Gardening," says: "The 
cemeteries of the Jews may be considered as a species of garden. 
We find that Abraham, when Sarah died, purchased from the 
children of Heth a 'field, and all the trees which were within its 
limits, or on its borders' as a place of burial. It appears, from 
Abraham having declined the choice of any of the sepulchres of 
Heth, and fixed on a spot ornamented with trees, that burial- 
. places in those days were considered scenes of beauty, as well as 
of mournful associations. The idea is confirmed by the circum- 
stance of the sepulchre in which our Saviour was laid being in a 
garden." 

It is also said in the work above quoted that, in the Netherlands, 
cemetery gardens were first commenced by the emperor Joseph ; 
but they did not for a long time become common, though trees 
were frequently planted in churchyards. 

No one, I suppose, who has ever been in Paris, or ever read of 
it, is without some knowledge of Pere la Chaise ; which was set 
apart as a cemetery, after an act had been passed by the French 

* Since this paper was read Mr. Barker has been appointed Superintendent 
of Forest Hills Cemetery, Boston. 



172 MASSACHUSETTS HORTIOULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

legislature prohibiting burials within the precincts of towns, and 
was first used in 1804. Concerning it I should say that, although 
many shrubs and flowers are used for decorative purposes within 
its limits, yet it is in fact anj^thing but a garden cemetery, for 
it is said that between 1804 and 1832 nearly thirty thousand 
monuments were erected within it. "This burial ground," Haz- 
litt observes, "is tricked out and overacted, as if there were noth- 
ing sacred from impertinence and affectation." Mr. A. Strauch 
says on this point : "It is calculated that over one hundred millions 
of francs have been expended in the erection of monuments to the 
dead ; many of them are, however, disfigured by ridiculous inscrip- 
tions and other ornamental puerilities." He says further: "It 
may perhaps be justly contended that the rivalry of art which 
abounds here weakens the effect which the solemn character of 
the place ought to inspire." Indeed many of my own personal 
friends who have visited Paris corroborate this statement, and say 
that amongst all the cemeteries of Paris, though they are richer 
in works of art than ours, none display that beautiful alliance of 
nature and art which may often be found in our own. 

The English cemetery at Lisbon is said to be very picturesque. 
It contains a handsome chapel, and is planted largely with pine 
trees, and adorned with shrubs and flowers. 

The practice of the continent, in removing burial places from 
towns to the country, was first imitated in England about the year 
1825. Among the earliest examples was one near Liverpool ; and 
others were formed at Birmingham, Manchester, and other large 
cities and towns throughout the country. The principal London 
cemeteries are those at Kensal Green (begun in 1834), the West 
London, Highgate, Abney Park, Nunhead, Tower Hamlets, and 
Norwood ; all of which are laid out and planted with ornamental 
trees and shrubs — most of them with a view to picturesque 
effect. Later many have sprung up, in various parts of England, 
laid out on the landscape lawn plan, which are in striking contrast 
with the old churchyard burial grounds ; partaking more of our 
own rural cemetery style. 

It is unnecessary at this time to make more than brief allusion to 
our own Mount Auburn. The narrative of its origin already in print 
in the History of the Society, and undoubtedly familiar to you, 
needs no repetition, and the object sought to be secured in its es- 
tablishment is also familiar to you all. Those of us who, though 



THE CARE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 173 

having had no part in its formation, are permitted to contem- 
plate the noble result owe a perpetual debt of gratitude to the 
projectors of this enterprise, the influence of which has pervaded 
the entire countr} 7 . 

But I am to speak to you more particularly on the Care and 
Embellishment of Cemeteries. Did time permit, I should attempt 
to give some thoughts relating to the Laying Out of cemeteries more 
particularly than is possible in this paper ; for, in the care of any 
place, much depends on whether or not it is judiciously laid out in 
the beginning. A proper understanding of this dependence, or in 
other words a proper regard for the future, is a point every intelli- 
gent landscape gardener should study. Only a few miles from 
here, in a town where, around the houses of many of the residents, 
good taste prevails to a unusual degree, I could take you to a 
small cemetery so injudiciously laid out, with so many needless 
avenues and paths, that in keeping it merely tidy more than 
double the amount of labor is required that a place of that size 
ought to take ; and I am sure I make no misrepresentation when 
I say one-third of the land is wasted. Thus it happens that in 
compiling accounts of actual outlay in care and maintenance of 
grounds, we often remark the great cost of the care of some as 
compared with that of others, of nearly or exactly the same size ; 
there being so many circumstances that differ in any two places 
compared. 

Unless in the case of a flat surface, it is impossible to lay out 
any cemetery to the best advantage without first viewing the 
grounds. Any location, be it ever so small, should be seen with 
all its surroundings before a stake is driven ; and before any plan 
is adopted we should be sure it is what we want. In other words, 
I should reverse the usual order of work ; I should sa}- the grounds 
for a cemetery should be laid out first, and the plan made last. 

There are those who palm themselves off as landscape garden- 
ers, yet cannot lay out two places differently if their lives 
depended upon it — when you have seen their plan of one place, 
you get at one look all they have in them ; and I can assure you I 
do not say this at hap-hazard. Some men's bump of adaptation, 
if they ever had any, seems never to have got developed. 

It requires something more than a cit}' office, or the accident of 
an acquaintance with some influential trustee or lot holder, to 
enable one to lay out a place for the whole future as well as the 



174 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

present, and in a manner that will always be acceptable. And is it 
not true that, in some places under such influence as I have indi- 
cated, we witness in our visits a piece of mere heterogeneous botch 
work ; where trees, shrubs, plants, and flowers are huddled in to- 
gether, without any regard to habit of growth, taste in arrangement, 
or anything else? And this is called landscape gardening ! And 
when these trees, shrubs, etc. are grown up, who can wonder that 
even the ordinary man who does his own thinking is dissatisfied? 
I think it is not difficult to see how it is that some other places 
look better than such as these. 

Of course ever} 7 cemetery has an entrance of some kind ; and 
let me sa} 7 , right here, this is the very place where a diligent care 
of the grounds should be at once apparent. Our visitors are 
brought there b} 7 no ordinary circumstance of life ; and we should 
always be careful that their first impression is cheerful and 
pleasant. I would make it so attractive, and keep it so neat, that 
the thoughts and emotions of the person would at once be relieved 
of gloom, and refreshed by the joyful contemplation of a bright 
and happ}' scene. 

Be sure of this first impression ; but do not stop here — do not 
expend so much of } r our energies here that you must neglect the 
rest of the grounds. Wherever } 7 ou can plant a rare tree, or a 
group of nice shrubs, or a bed of flowers, do so ; and do not let 
the marble and granite monopolize the ground anywhere. 

A few weeks ago a friend asked me, " Do } T ou ever go to such 
a place? " " Yes, I have been there," was my answer. " Well," 
he continued, "I was there a short time ago. The entrance 
looked nice, and our expectations were all excited ; but really that 
was all there was to it ! " Now just imagine such a feeling — one 
transient good impression at first, and nothing more. We want 
a sustained impression ; good at first, and good all the way 
through. 

Most of on r larger cemeteries have adopted the plan of setting 
apart, at the sale of every lot, a portion of the purchase mone}', 
which shall constitute a fund for the perpetual care of the same. 
The advantages of this plan at once commend it to ever}' pur- 
chaser ; and it is greatly to be regretted, in the case of man} 7 of our 
cemetery corporations, that they did not have foresight sufficient 
to add this feature long ago. It will need no extended argu- 
ment to convince every close observer that a provision for the per- 



THE CARE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 175 

petual care of every lot, combined with the lawn plan of laying 
out the grounds, makes it much easier to care for them than when 
they are laid out in the old style, and with liberty to every 
purchaser to establish his own grade, so that one lot is high and 
another low. As I am writing I call to mind a cemetery, a portion 
of which is quite level, and yet on this very part the amount of 
filling put in is so great that the paths have the appearance of 
ditches, more than anything else ; and long flights of steps are 
necessarily provided to very many of the lots to make them 
accessible ; and the interments cannot be more than a foot or two, if 
so much, below the grade of the avenues and paths. Imagine 
this to take care of! 

Have not I succeeded in showing wiry it is that a man can do 
double and in some cases treble the effective work, where the 
grounds are laid out on the lawn plan ? In the one case there is a 
bank or terrace to nearly every lot that he works on, and the 
sickle is in constant use ; in the other, he has little use for any- 
thing but his mowing machine and the wooden lawn grass rake. 
Again, remember that, under our hot suns in July and August, 
nothing can be more unsightly than a long extent of dried up sun- 
burnt banks and terraces. Considering all these facts, are we not 
justified in advocating the landscape lawn plan, both for effective- 
ness and ecorionry, in the care of our cemeteries? 

Practical experience teaches me that an all-important point, in 
the care of our cemeteries, is a proper division of the work. For 
years I have laid out our work in sections ; assigning two men only 
to a section. Their duty is to keep all lots trimmed and quite clean, 
the flower beds free from weeds, and the vases watered ; and (when 
the grass does not grow so fast as to keep them constantly busy) 
they are also expected to keep the paths and avenues clean, in their 
respective sections. I hold one of these two men responsible for 
the work ; and, by so doing, if I see a neglected lot at any time, I 
know just whom to go to about it. He cannot tell me — " I did not 
do that last." I try to have a general oversight of the work, exam- 
amining it myself once every day, and twice if other duties do 
not prevent me. I think it is well the Superintendent should be ex- 
pected often ; and sometimes it is well for him to go when he is not 
expected. To be still more explicit, I believe the Superintendent 
should as far as possible know everything that is going on, allow 
no one to stand between him and his men, and above all, if possi- 



176 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ble, know all his lot holders. He is the responsible man. and 
above all others, has need to be completely familiar with all the 
details of the place ; and by this familiarity, together with habit- 
ual and systematic planning for his men, he is enabled to use to 
the very best advantage all the means at his command for the care 
of the place ; and what is true of this department of work is 
also true of all others. 

Having thus, though briefly and imperfectly, considered the Care 
of a cemetery, let us now turn to its Embellishment ; though one is 
so much a part of the other that I may not succeed in keeping 
them distinct. I think we shall all agree that the Avenues and 
Paths are verj^ important features. Those at the entrance should 
always be of a width proportionate to the surroundings ; they 
should be well extended, and the curves easy. I have found that 
for the principal avenues, aside from those at the entrance, 
eighteen feet wide is a good standard to adopt ; and three feet 
and six inches for the paths is quite sufficient. The surface should 
alwa} T s be rounded enough to throw the water into the gutters. 
Nothing adds more to the appearance of a place than well kept 
avenues and paths, and nothing detracts more from it than 
neglected ones. A job well done is sure of giving good satis- 
faction ; and work of this kind should be of the best. 

Wherever it is necessary, and at the same time feasible, to carry 
off the water, it will be found best to lay a drain pipe in the 
avenue along its border — a foot deep is enough — with a catch 
basin at that part where the most water concentrates ; so carrying 
it to the most accessible point of discharge*. This is preferable 
to paved gutters, especially where good stones cannot be obtained 
for the work. A nicely paved gutter of selected beach stones, of 
uniform size, makes a handsome finish sometimes ; but they can- 
not be obtained everywhere. 

As all cemeteries have more or less of paved gutters, it may not 
be amiss to speak here of their care. It may be thought that these 
are very expensive to keep clean, but it is not so ; it is very sel- 
dom that they have to be weeded by hand. When the grounds 
have their spring raking up or cleaning, the gutters should be 
thoroughly swept with a stiff broom. This is generally in the 
latter part of April ; after that, I always keep three barrels of brine 
on hand, and — weeds or no weeds — these gutters are watered with 
it once in two weeks ; and with an occasional sweeping they are 



THE CAKE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 177 

always clean. Use it always on a bright sunny day. This is an 
easy and very satisfactory wa}^ of caring for the gutters ; an ex- 
perience of several years supports my statement. I think this is 
an important point to attend to in the care of our cemeteries ; for, 
no matter how thoroughly you may do all the rest, if you neglect 
this it will detract more from the appearance of the grounds than 
can be made up by any efforts whatever towards other em- 
bellishment. 

The edges of the avenues and paths should never be so high as 
to attract notice ; keep them low, but properly defined ; use the 
scuffle hoe and fine rake freely when the weeds are scarcely per- 
ceptible, and you will be surprised to see what a distance two men 
can go over in a day. 

You will expect to hear something about the Lots ; and I remark, 
first of all, that without good grass you may plant whatever else 
you please, and yet never have a good looking lot. Let all the 
ground be well prepared ; do not be disturbed if the compost heap 
is reduced. Before sowing, give the seed something to feed on. 
I cannot recommend attention to this work too strongly. I know 
by sad experience the great drawbacks from the want of thorough 
preparation. Proprietors whose lots were graded years ago, and 
who have them cared for by the year, are surprised that theirs do 
not look as well as manjr others ; the fact being that, at the time 
those lots were graded, the work was usually let out by the indi- 
vidual purchaser to the man who would do it cheapest ; while now 
every lot, in any well conducted cemetery, is thoroughly prepared 
before it is sold. 

I have in my mind an owner of a large well laid out lot, who is 
willing to pay any reasonable bill for the care of it. On that lot 
there is not over four inches of good soil. He is willing to top- 
dress it — but I have not persuasive power enough to get his con- 
sent to make thorough work, by taking out the gravel and 
replacing with good loam and manure, and then seeding down 
anew. Top dressing is good, but food for the deep roots is better ; 
a dry spell will soon convince a close observer of this fact. By all 
means let us have good grassing. 

As long as time lasts, I suppose marble and granite will be used 

for decorative, as well as for memorial purposes. We scarcely 

ever think how little the original intention of the projectors of 

Mount Auburn was conformed to, during the many years when 

12 



178 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICTJLTURAL SOCIETY. 

fences and granite curbings were permitted to surround the lots, 
giving it more the appearance of a marble and granite yard than 
anything else ; especially when viewed from a distance. It is not 
until within a few years, comparatively speaking, that the land- 
scape lawn plan has been carried out there. It certainty is a de- 
lightful spot ; but only imagine how much more charming a place 
it would be, were the whole of these naturally beautiful grounds 
brought into accordance with the intentions of its founders. 

Happily many of the old unsightly hedges and fences are giving 
way, each year, to grassy slopes and rare trees and shrubs ; so 
that in this modern st} 7 le the views of the founders are becoming 
realized. I make these remarks in friendly criticism and not in 
a captious spirit. 

Not long ago a lady, who owned a small lot, said to me : "I 
want some shrubs, or plants, or both, on my lot ; what do you 
advise?" — In the centre was set a weeping Kilmarnock Willow 
(which can be easily removed if a monument is erected) , and on 
each front corner a plant of Yucca aloifolia ; with a Spiraea and a 
Hydrangea placed near the back corners, in the space in the rear 
of the lot. Properly cared for, this simple arrangement will look 
well for years to come. 

I do not advise flower beds on lots, although many wish for 
them, but I do think a good-sized vase, well filled, and placed in 
the centre of the lot (especially where there is no monument), is 
very desirable. 

So far, I have referred more particularly to small lots. Of 
course larger ones will admit of more extended work ; but still the 
principles for treating small lots will apply to larger ones. We 
must remember, of course, to attain all the variety we can in the 
embellishment introduced ; and yet also that an effect of neatness 
and simplicity is what we should equally strive to secure ; and 
that anything like ostentation is entirely out of place. 

It is a good thing that tastes and customs change. We all feel 
how much better it looks to see on a large lot, or indeed on a lot 
of any size, one handsome monument, with simple markers set at 
each grave to designate whose it is — than a quantity of head-stones, 
some of one design and some of another, such as were once com- 
mon. A superintendent's advice is often sought on this very 
point. Sometimes the matter is presented in this way : " I have a 
lot in the old part of the cemetery. I inherited it from my father. 



THE CARE AND EMBELLISHMENT OP CEMETERIES. 179 

I want to improve it and I do not know what to do with it. It 
looks bad ; still I dislike to disturb what my father did." This I 
know is an ill-advised sentiment ; and I would take that friend and 
reason with him, as kindly as I know how, and would show him, by 
what had been done on other old lots, what his might be and ought 
to be made. By taking this course, if he is really in earnest, you 
can usually win him to your views : but be assured it will take 
kindness, and not " you must," to gain your end. 

I can show you a beautiful vista where once was an assemblage 
of unsightly hedges and iron fences, with ragged banks and ter- 
races, half dead trees and scraggy shrubs. We now have there a 
range of well kept lots, with vases and beds of flowers, and choice 
trees and shrubs ; the whole area is a pleasure to all, and not 
one of the several proprietors would restore its former condition 
on any account. It took time, of course, to accomplish this result. 
But it has been done, and this single example has done more to 
influence others to make like changes than any amount of argument 
could possibly have done. 

On the larger lots, of a thousand or more square feet, a good 
way is to form a circle, described about the centre of the lot. This 
will leave spaces in the back and front corners, which may be 
planted, if you please, with Cut-Leaved Birch on the back corners, 
Deutzia gmcilis in the front, or Yucca aloifolia, or anything to suit 
3'our taste, if not of too strong growth ; place a tree in the centre, 
to occupy it until you are ready with your monument. This idea I 
gain from a plan in my possession, furnished from Spring Grove 
Cemetery, at Cincinnati. 

It is a good practice, adopted in many cemeteries, to furnish 
every owner with a plan of his lot drawn to a scale ; and cause all 
the graves to be correctly defined upon it. A book of duplicates 
of these plans is kept at the office of the cemetery, one page being 
devoted to each lot. In this wa} T all mistakes are prevented, even 
if there is neither monument nor headstone on the lot, as each suc- 
cessive interment is recorded on the proprietors' plan, and also on 
the book at the office. 

While we cannot control all tastes we can influence very many. 
Some of you will say, Tell us how you do it. The first thing is to 
know jour people, and find out what their wants are, and then 
adapt yourself to them. 

I have tried to efface all lines implying the exclusiveness of 



180 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

wealth ; both in my own work, and outside of it as far as my in- 
fluence could reach. Let me give you an idea of one section laid 
out this season. 

The section is bounded by three avenues and a path ; it is about 
150 feet long by 112 feet wide. We will suppose ourselves standing 
on an avenue facing the section. All the front lots contain 300 
square feet each, except one of 400. The borders are 5 feet wide ; 
the lots 20 feet deep. Next, or in the rear of the front lots, is 
another space 5 feet wide, for trees ; next, a width of 9 feet run- 
ning the entire length, 150 feet; then a 2-foot border. Here is 
our single-grave section ; then a path 3 feet and 6 inches wide, 
then another row of lots, 18 feet deep, with a border of 2 feet on 
both front and back ;, these lots are of 300 feet area. Next comes 
a path' 3 feet and 6 inches wide ; then, again, a border of 2 feet ; 
then follows a 9-foot space. Here we have another single-grave 
section, and back of this is a space 5 feet wide for trees ; again, 
lots 20 feet deep, with a border of 5 feet, bringing us to the 
avenues. These lots in the last tier contain 200 square feet 
each. 

Now, what are the advantages of this plan? I reply, we have 
small and large lots together, and still separated from each other ; 
we have uniformity, and ample space for trees and shrubs. Here 
the rich and poor will be laid together, and I never hear the re- 
mark, " Because I cannot buy a large lot, I am driven into a back 
corner," or a low place. Since the adoption of this plan, I have 
not heard one word of complaint from any source. Small lots we 
must have ; and I think this plan admits them to much better ad- 
vantage than where a large space is specially assigned for them 
alone, and the headstones are so close together that you find it a 
very difficult job to clean about them. 

The planting of trees and shrubs, in the cemetery of which I 
have charge, is controlled entirely b} T the Trustees ; and with 
w4 perpetual care " there is no reasonable objection to this restric- 
tion. Large trees are not planted on the avenues, but only between 
the lots, on the back of the front row. I follow substantially the 
same plan in all the sections, yet I never lay out two alike if I 
can avoid it. It is well to vary as much as you can, adapting your- 
self to the wants of the people ; and if you adhere to the land- 
scape lawn plan you can keep all unpleasantly distinctive lines 
out of sight, and maintain a uniform neatness throughout which 
no other system will allow. 



THE CARE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 181 

For the embellishment of such spaces as are available for the 
purpose, I would recommend a free use of shrubs and herbaceous 
plants. I would never plant very close, but would let each have 
room to show what it is. This matter is one I should find difficulty 
in giving rules for. The best qualiQcation I can think of is a good 
knowledge of trees, shrubs, and plants ; this will be a great assist- 
ance in making successful and effective arrangements. Observe 
everywhere you go what will do well and what will not, and keep 
your note -book constantly by you. Few rules will apply every- 
where. Never let the nurseryman's catalogue rule you ; it may 
help your search, but go and see the plants for yourself, taking the 
catalogue with you ; check what you find that you like, and when 
you are ready to order this will assist you much. Above all 
places go to the Arnold Arboretum, where everything is plainly 
named. Even one visit will save you many dollars, and much 
annoyance. You will discover that you need not experiment for 
yourself with unknown things ; here you may see them growing 
— and free of expense. After this you will know how to buy and 
not be disappointed ; you can be your own agent in purchasing, for 
you have seen nature in reality, and not on paper in chromo style. 

I believe in massing the different kinds of flowering shrubs, but 
not in swamping them. But before any kind of planting is done, 
prepare your beds in the best possible way — it will pay to do it ; 
and if you do not, disappointment will be your doom. 

I have one ornamental piece, on a flat surface, seen on all sides. 
It is broad in the centre, and comes to a sharp point at either 
end. In the centre of the piece a Salisburia adiantifolia is planted, 
and at each of the ends are six or eight plants of Yucca aloifolia. 
On the edges between the Yuccas at each end is a row of low- 
growing Phloxes — all seedlings. The spaces between the Phloxes 
on the sides and the Yuccas at the ends are filled in with Hydrangea 
paniculata grandiflora; the whole forms a very satisfactory bed. 

Another prominent corner, of good size and triangular in shape, 
is planted as follows : at the point on the back, about thirty feet 
from the avenue, is a very fine specimen of Virgilia lutea ; half 
way between this and the avenue is a Kilmarnock Willow, grafted 
high. Between these, and bordering two sides, are Spiraeas, 
Wiegelas, Deutzia scabra and D. crenatajl. pi., Forsythia viridis- 
sima, and Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora; and on the front 
Deutzia gracilis ; these are all grown as specimen plants, and they 



182 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

barely touch each other. A circle of five feet is kept open around 
each, and the grass spaces are cut at the same time with the lots 
on each side. I assure you this is a very satisfactory group of 
flowering shrubs. Other groups might be mentioned, but it would 
take more time, I am sure, than you would like to listen, and per- 
haps I have said enough to indicate my ideas of this part of the 
work. 

I would plant single specimens of both trees and shrubs where- 
ever there is space for them, if the condition of the treasury will 
permit. Do not be discouraged if }^ou cannot set them all in one 
season ; keep at it — plant some every year. Don't put them in 
hap-hazard ; look out for effect, and get all the pleasing vistas you 
can ; and you will be surprised to find what a few years of steady, 
persevering, faithful work will do. 

If I am not mistaken, the great beauty of the celebrated Spring 
Grove Cemetery, at Cincinnati, is due largely to the skill and taste 
shown in the arrangement of the trees and shrubs ; of which the 
late Mr. Strauch, the gifted landscape gardener and superin- 
tendent, made a special study. I am also informed that West 
Laurel Hill, Philadelphia, is particularly interesting on account of 
the beauty of the arrangement of the trees, and for this the name 
of John Jay Smith, the eminent horticulturist and warm hearted 
gentleman, whose love of the beautiful knew no bounds, will ever 
be held in grateful remembrance. This plan, I believe, was his 
last effort; and no more magnificent monument could perpetuate 
his memory. 

I may mention not inappropriately as examples of cemeteries 
worthy of our attention — besides Mount Auburn, already named — 
Forest Hills, well known to all, and the delight of . every one; 
Cedar Hill, Hartford, Ct., laid out on the plan of Spring Grove, 
Cincinnati, — most beautiful for situation; Swan Point, Provi- 
dence, R. I., wonderfully improved under the superintendence of 
Mr. McCarty, well known to most of us ; Woodlawn, at Chelsea, so 
successfully managed by our honored associate, H. Weld Fuller ; 
and also Newton Cemetery, one of the prettiest of all suburban 
cemeteries, for which nature and art, here most beautifully com- 
bined through the admirable taste of Mr. Eoss, the respected 
superintendent, have made a reputation extending far and wide. 
Doubtless many others might be mentioned, but these will suffice 
for this occasion. 



THE CARE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 183 

In many of our cemeteries, especially those owned by the cities 
or towns in which they are located, a considerable area is occupied 
by what is known as the City or Town Lot. We know that 
our friends who are compelled, from necessity, to make the 
principal use of these public burial places are just as sensitive, 
and have just as much grief in the loss of kindred, as the most 
favored ones, who have means to do as they wish. Remembering 
this, we want no one to feel the dollar division in the cemetery ; 
and how to avoid placing these humbler graves on one side, or 
isolating them, is a question that has perplexed us all. 

In many of these places disorder seems the rule ; in other 
words, every one does as he pleases. Large headstones are 
erected where there is too little room for them ; elsewhere, un- 
shapely wooden boxes or trellises are placed around graves, and 
are frequently left to decay and disfigure the grounds ; and, not 
unfrequently, unsightly mounds are raised over the graves. It is 
not difficult to see why a lot that has been filled in this way is hard 
to keep in order. I have noticed that in some cemeteries hedges 
have been grown to surround these special burial-places ; but I 
cannot commend that, for when you see such a hedged-in place, 
3 r ou are impelled to look inside, and the result invariably is a 
disappointment. 

Let me ask 3^011 how it would work to establish and post up, to 
be seen, read, and obeyed by all, the following 

Rules and Regulations Concerning Public Lots. 

1. No graves in these lots can be reserved for future use. 

2. No wooden structures of any kind will be allowed on these lots, 

unless it be for the protection of tablets or for the purpose of 
placing flowers in during the winter season. 

3. No raised mounds over the graves in these lots will be allowed ; 

but persons wishing to cultivate flowers upon them are invited 
to do so. 

4. No headstone will be allowed over two feet wide at the base, 

or over three high from the grade of the lot ; and the stone 

upon which the number of the grave is cut must be retained, 

unless the number is cut upon the headstone. 

In addition to this, when an interment is made and you hand 

to the friends the card designating the place, date, etc., let these 

rules appear in print on the back of each card ; and in this way 



184 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

every one will be informed of them. An arrangement of this kind 
has greatly assisted us to keep our grounds at Lynn in an orderly 
condition. 

There are a great many who will desire to cultivate flowers on 
the graves of their friends, and among them some who will ask 
what they shall plant. Very many have pansies — and with a deep 
cool soil, kept moist, they will flower long into hot weather. I 
would recommend setting a Geranium or two among them ; and, if 
you like, edging with Daisies, or Forget-Me-Nots and Daisies, or 
Eclieveria secunda glauca on the edge, with Altemanthera par- 
onychyoides next ; and, if there be room for a centre row, Geran- 
ium Crystal Palace Gem, or Santolina, will look well if the work 
is rightly done. 

Some may want all hard} 7 plants ; in such cases the common 
Ground Myrtle or Periwinkle is most used, and is very satisfactory ; 
the deep green leaves contrasting finely with the delicate blue 
flowers. The Ivy is also used ; and when covered in winter and 
occasion alty top dressed does very well ; this can be edged with 
the small hardy Euonymus radicans variegata, and with a little 
trimming and care the whole will last many seasons without any 
transplanting. There is a pretty little Retinospora — plumosa 
aurea, I think it is — which is very bright, and would contrast 
beautifully with the Euonymus or the Ivy, and might be used to 
good advantage. I have not tried it, but observation justifies me 
in speaking of it. Another hardy plant, which I have read of but 
do not know, viz., Campanula pusilla alba, is highly recommended 
for planting on graves ; and is said to produce a dense mass of 
pure white flowers. There undoubtedly are many other plants, as 
yet unknown to me, adapted for planting on graves ; but I think I 
have said enough to prove, and trust I have convinced you, that 
our public burial grounds need not be places that people would 
rather avoid than visit. 

Unless I make some allusion to the use of greenhouse and bed- 
ding plants, I shall hardlj T have fulfilled my task. We cannot visit 
any one of the many beautiful cemeteries in this vicinity without 
perceiving that the use of these plants adds very much to its 
attractiveness ; although I am aware that it takes many months of 
labor to produce a bed which gives pleasure but a few brief weeks. 
I have both heard and seen in print some very severe criticisms on 
what may be called our summer mode of embellishment, denying 



THE CARE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 185 

that we are repaid in the return we get for the amount we spend. 
I do not intend to discuss this point here, but I must say that 
careful observation compels me to admit that a greenhouse will 
prove a valuable adjunct to any cemeter\ T . I think also that con- 
sidering the comparative ease with which the usual style of bed- 
ding can be arranged, and the quickly effective results afforded 
by soft-wooded plants, the tendency, in a measure at least, to 
displace hardy plants is quite natural. We all know how quickly a 
bed of the former plants will look well. Indeed, if they are 
properly grown and well hardened off, so as not to lose their leaves 
after being turned out of the pots, they look well the moment the 
planting of the bed is finished ; and I think this is the commend- 
able point in their use. Nevertheless, I will venture this assertion 
— that a more thorough knowledge of the hardy plants and 
shrubs, on the part of those who lay out and have charge of 
our cemeteries (especially the smaller ones where a professional 
gardener is not employed) , would be likely to add more of perma- 
ment beauty and attractiveness to them than any one thing I could 
recommend. I confess that, until of late years, I have not 
appreciated their value. There are very few places where some- 
thing could not be done in this way. 

In a cemetery, not beyond the reach of any of us, a landscape 
gardener was employed to present plans for the improvement of a 
very sightly portion of the grounds, devoted not to burial but to 
ornamental purposes. The plan in due time was presented, and 
accepted by the trustees ; and, as I have since seen it, I can 
assure you it made a beautiful picture ; but before being executed 
it was placed in the hands of a competent person for criticism. As 
regards trees and shrubs, the criticism was based mainly on a 
report of a Special Committee of this Society, on the causes of 
the injuries to vegetation in the winter and spring of 1871-2 ; and, 
on consultation had with persons of acknowledged ability and 
much experience, it was concluded that not one-third of the trees 
and shrubs recommended on the plan for this particular place 
were in the least appropriate. A glance at the plan, by any 
experienced and practical man, would convince him that this was 
no prejudiced judgment. The criticism having been reported, 
orders were given to execute the plan as far as adapted to the 
location ; and, where it was not, to make such changes in it as 
would contribute to the permanent beauty of the place. I might 



186 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tell you where it is, and you would, I feel sure, be welcome to go 
and see for yourself. A more thorough knowledge of the grounds 
and a little closer observation would have been of great help to the 
designer, and would have made his work more satisfactory. The 
bedding recommended in this plan was positively worthless. 

But to resume the thread of my thoughts — I do think that, where 
more than one man is required for service in winter, a greenhouse 
can be carried on to good advantage ; for a great deal of time in 
stormy and cold weather can be well employed there. Plants for 
vases and general ornamentation must or should be had in every 
well ordered place ; and it is very much better to raise them, because 
then you can propagate just such ones as you know you would like 
for your next season's work, and be sure of having them on hand. 

In the smaller places and where help is kept only a part of 
the time, it will be found that great improvement can often be 
made merely by keeping the fences all in order, the headstones all 
upright, the grass closely cut, and the avenues and paths perfectly 
clean. Let so much be done if nothing more, but if possible set 
out a few trees. If you cannot do all you want to at once, try 
again, and yet again — as many times as need be until your desires 
are accomplished, and in a few years you will be astonished to see 
how the whole appearance of the place has been changed. Many 
a town or village cemeter3 T , now neglected, could be made a source 
of pleasure to all the people by a small annual expenditure ; and 
no place is too poor to do something. 

I believe we should use our influence as a Society in this direc- 
tion ; for a well kept cemeten* is an efficient educator in any 
community, and does much to mould the tastes of those who visit 
or even merely pass by it. 

Allow me to mention one instance. In the } T ear 1874 I planted 
in groups and single specimens a few plants of Hydrangea paiiic- 
ulata grandijiora; these were certainly the first planted in Lynn, 
or for many miles around. When these plants bloomed, they 
were the admiration of every one ; and when it was learned that 
they were thoroughly hardy scores and hundreds were sold, and 
the same is true of other shrubs and flowers. I could give you 
the names of several owners of large estates who have added to 
their collections shrubs and plants which they first saw growing in 
our cemetery, being attracted to them as they were driving by. 
More than once these occurrences have led to acquaintance and 



THE CARE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 187 

friendship of the most delightful nature. On this point allow me 
to quote a few words from the pen of our countryman, the late 
A. J. Downing, who in writing to Loudon's (London) "Gar- 
dener's Magazine " said : 

"Beside the three principal cemeteries of Boston, New York, 
and Philadelphia, there are at least a dozen others in progress in 
the neighborhood of other cities. It is remarkable that these 
cemeteries are the first really elegant public gardens or promenades 
formed in this country. In point of design, keeping, and in so far 
as respects the variety of rare flowering shrubs and trees intro- 
duced, they are much superior to the majority of country resi- 
dences here, and may therefore be considered as likely to affect, in 
a very considerable degree, the general taste for laying out and 
embellishing grounds. Hundreds of the citizens who ramble 
through them form perhaps their first acquaintance with many 
species of plants there, and apply the taste thus acquired to their 
own gardens." 

It is just forty-seven years ago since these views were expressed, 
and however true then they are perhaps doubly so now. There is 
no one thing that we so much under-estimate as our influence over 
others. Let us plant right that others may be rightly guided ; let 
our tastes be such as others can safely follow ; let us select such 
trees, plants, and shrubs as will withstand the changes and severity 
of our climate. Others will do the same and so will be saved from 
following, to the doom of bitter disappointment, the misguided 
many who purchase under the seduction of gorgeous chromos, and 
from agents with whom they are unacquainted. Our cemeteries, 
even more than our public parks (as there are many of the former 
where there are few of the latter), ma} r be made public educators, 
and so benefactors, of the masses, when occasion brings them to 
visit and contemplate these most sacred and dear of all spots on 
earth. 

I have tried to think what general rules or maxims could be 
suggested, in condensed form, by way of help to such as are inter- 
ested in the subject under consideration. Perhaps I cannot do 
better than reproduce to you some advice offered by our late Cor- 
responding Member, Dr. John A. Warder. It is certainly prac- 
tical, and will reward our attention even if we do not agree to all 
of it. Regarding cemeteries, Dr. Warder wrote : 

"First. There should be perfect security and permanence in 
the title and against intrusion, 



188 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Second, Insuring peaceful quiet and perfect repose to all who 
may be brought within the sacred limits. 

Third. The landscape should embrace a diversified surface of 
land and water. 

Fourth. The area should be covered with green turf in broad 
stretches, 

Fifth, Shaded by umbrageous trees, singly distributed at inter- 
vals or in open groups, 

Sixth, And reaching on either side to masses of foliage of differ- 
ent hues, deciduous or evergreen, according to the situation. The 
outside boundaries should be concealed by these ; and, at the same 
time, from various commanding eminences, open and unobstructed 
vistas across the demesne, and to distant objects of interest, 
should be carefully preserved. 

Seventh. Easy access to all parts of the grounds should be pro- 
vided by smooth, hard roads and paths, kept in perfect order. 

Eighth. Of all things and above all, we should enjoin severe 
simplicity and strictly good taste in the decoration of the graves, 
and the mementoes offered to the dear departed ones. 

Ninth. In the modern rural cemetery we want no selfish, repel- 
lent, and obtrusive fences as enclosures to our lots, ever decaying 
and ever reminding us of the egotistical claims and pretensions of 
individuals, in this common meeting place of rich and poor, where 
all of us, from the highest to the lowest, are at last reduced to a 
common level, and to a condition in which there is and should be 
no respect of persons. 

Tenth. Lastly, and in connection with the sentiments already 
presented, as appropriate accompaniments and conditions of the 
sacred precincts of the cemetery, let us carefully avoid another 
great danger that is incurred in our desire to pay due respect to 
the memory of our dead — let us avoid making such a sacred spot 
appear to be only one vast advertisement of the stone cutter's 
thriving trade. Instead of this constant repetition of granite and 
marble, shaft and obelisk, of pretentious mausoleum or cenotaph, 
some persons will prefer to place a mass of native rock, partially 
faced for an inscription. Others again will prefer to mark the 
spot, most dear of all the earth beside, by planting a memorial tree 
to mark the last resting place of their dear departed friends." 

Perhaps we cannot follow out all these ideas to the letter, they 
being intended especially for new cemeteries ; but certainly they 



THE CARE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 189 

will help us in the attainment of what may be feasible. I cannot 
say that I agree, to the letter, with all these suggestions ; but 
they are so good on the whole that I feel quite safe in quoting 
them in this connection. 

I would again advise, no matter how small the place, never to 
start a new cemetery without some arrangement for the perpetual 
care of all the grounds. This is of too great importance to be 
neglected ; for, as I have already said, however well your grounds 
are planned the entire beauty will soon be lost if this has been 
left without due provision. Take care also that no slovenly, un- 
skilful person has charge of your new cemetery ; the whole com- 
munity are interested in its proper maintenance, and it is little 
less than sacrilege to place it in charge of an incompetent man ; 
as may be seen by the way some are managed. I have read that 
the clown in "Hamlet" served as a grave digger, but he was 
hardly the man to have charge of a cemetery. 

Mr. President, Ladies, and Gentlemen : I hope I have not tired 
you all out by taking so much time ; and yet I feel that I have 
hardly begun, there is so much to be said on this subject. It is 
one in which we all have a common interest. My own heart is in 
the work ; and if I have succeeded in saying anything to promote 
in any way the Care and p]mbellishment of our Cemeteries, I shall 
feel grateful to the Committee for assigning to me the duty that I 
fear I have so poorly performed today. 

Discussion. 

Samuel A. B. Bragg was called on and said that the paper read 
had covered the ground so fully that he could hardly add anything. 
He was formerly Superintendent of Mount Hope Cemetery, and 
when there received visits from the Garden Committee of this 
Society, whose members gave him many valuable suggestions. He 
was particularly struck with the account, in Mr. Barker's paper, 
of the man who wanted his lot improved, but did not want the 
headstones removed. He had himself had such a case ; the lot 
looked well in spring, bat soon dried up and looked worse than 
the roadside ; in some places the soil was only three inches deep. 

He thought the essayist seemed inclined to plant rather too 
mam' trees and shrubs in lots. In his experience many lot owners 
inclined to planting too man}? or too large trees and shrubs, and he 



190 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

was obliged to discourage it. The Sugar Maple is about the only 
shade tree suitable for planting in cemeteries. It is clean and 
never soils the tablets. Mr. Barker recommended planting the trees 
well back from the avenues, but the object of the speaker was 
to shade the avenues. They were formerly planted back from 
the avenues at Mount Hope, but he changed the plan and set 
them at about six feet from the avenues and trimmed them up 
to twelve feet ; and was laughed at, but in a few years the 
aspect changed ; the trees were not too near the avenues, and 
the sun could shine on the grass. A mistake was made in the 
old parts of the cemetery in allowing the limbs of trees to 
grow too low, and to shade the ground so much that there was no 
green grass under them. He used to talk with Mr. Moulton, the 
Superintendent of Forest Hills Cemetery, on this point, and he 
was finally convinced and pruned up the old trees, and the young 
ones as they were planted. 

One of the trustees of the Cemetery had Norway spruce and 
maple trees set so closely around his own house that the speaker 
wanted him to take awa} T some of them, and prune up others, so as 
to give a view of the Blue Hills. Before long, the spruces came 
away and the maples were trimmed up. This was six or seven 
years ago, and the gentleman has lived there since that time and 
kept up an open wood fire without buying any wood. 

At Mount Hope Cemeter} 7 , which belongs to the City of Boston, 
there is a pauper lot ; another where friends pay the cost of dig- 
ging graves, and a third where single graves are sold for about 
twelve dollars each. In the first two lots no tablets are allowed, 
but the graves are all levelled off and designated only by little 
markers ; in the third tablets are allowed, but are restricted to 
thirty-two inches in height and two feet in width, and no wooden 
structure of am r kind is permitted. One exception to this last 
rule was made, in the case of a little wooden tablet describing the 
vacancy in the home, caused by the departure of the sleeper be- 
neath. If all rules were carried out to the letter it might some- 
times lead to harsh and arbitrary treatment. 

Warren H. Manning said that there might be a difference of 
opinion in regard to planting trees in cemeteries, but he thought 
they were apt to be too thick ; as at Mount Auburn. Vistas should 
be left open ; and the trees should not be so thick that the grass 
will not grow under them. ' Tne trustees of cemeteries have power 



THE CAKE AND EMBELLISHMENT OF CEMETERIES. 191 

to remove trees, and to prohibit the planting of them where it is 
judged that they will be too close. 

Mr. Barker did not wish to be understood as advocating the . 
planting of too many trees. If those present should visit Pine 
Grove Cemeterj 7 they might think the trees are not thick enough. 
In the old parts the avenues are damp ; but he had tried to plant 
the new ones so that neither he nor his suGessors would be obliged 
to thin out. Certainly there have been more mistakes made in 
planting too many trees than too few. No man can take a plan 
and sit down in his office and mark the positions of trees ; he must 
know what people want. Nor can avenues be laid out to advant- 
age without regard to the contour of the ground. If avenues are 
put in proper places great saving may be made in the cost of 
grading. The planting of trees and the laying out of paths and 
avenues must both be adaped to the ground. 

Samuel Hartwell said that the town of Lincoln, where he re- 
sides, has lately established a new cemeterj 7 where there are many 
huckleberry bushes, and he wanted to know how to eradicate them. 
The ground has been surveyed and a plan made, and five thousand 
feet of roads built at a cost of two thousand dollars. One acre of 
the ground is quite heavily wooded with oaks and maples, and he 
wanted to know how to treat them to the best advantage. 

Mr. Barker said that nothing could be more beautiful than the 
old trees described by the preceding speaker. At Oak Hill 
Cemetery, Georgetown, D. C, such trees have been retained, and 
paths have sometimes been curved to save a fine tree even at the 
expense of losing a lot. At Pine Grove Cemetery there are so 
many stones that they are obliged to trench the whole ground five 
feet deep to get rid of them, and all huckleberry bushes and similar 
growths are erf ectu ally destroyed in this operation. In the land- 
scape lawn system the lots are marked by a stone post six or eight 
inches square at each corner, the top being set even with the sur- 
face of the ground. 

O. B. Had wen said that he did not feel competent to discuss the 
paper, but its value would be appreciated when printed in our 
Transactions. It affords much information on a subject of which 
little is known, and when lot owners understand the situation there 
will be less annoyance and trouble to the superintendents of cem- 
eteries, where all must sooner or later go. 



192 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Hadwen, as Chairman of the Committee on Discussions, 
announced for the next Saturday a paper by Professor G- C. 
Caldwell, of Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., on "Nitrogen: 
Whf the crops must have it and where they must get it." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, March 27, 1886. 
An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

No business being brought before the meeting it was dissolved. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

Nitrogen : Why the Crops Must Have It and Where They 

Must Get It. 

By Professor G. C. Caldwell, Ithaca, N. Y. 

In beginning the study of the atmosphere as a source of supply 
of the nitrogen of vegetation, we are at once confronted with the 
familiar fact of the abundance of this substance existing there in 
the free or chemically uncombined state, it being simply mixed 
with the oxygen ; which is also present in large quantity. This 
supply of nitrogen would furnish, if the crops could use it, an 
amount a hundred thousand times greater than the most greedy of 
them could dispose of. The first question which it is natural that 
we should consider is, Cannot plants force this free nitrogen into 
those chemical combinations containing nitrogen, which form such 
an all-important part of the contents of their ceils, and for pro- 
ducing which they must have nitrogenous food of some kind ? 

It ought not to be necessary to discuss this question now. It 
has been demonstrated, by the most competent investigators who 
have ever entered, the field of agricultural research, that plants 
cannot assimilate the free nitrogen of the atmosphere — that, in 
other words, while it is in the free or chemically uncombined state, 
it is of no use whatever for plant food. Boussingault, in France, 
now one of the oldest living chemists of renown — whose work 
commands the highest confidence throughout, the chemical world — 
was the first to investigate this great question in such a manner as 



NITROGEN : WHY AND WHERE CROPS MUST GET IT. 193 

to get convincing results. Many years later Lawes and Gilbert, 
of England — whose work for the advancement of agriculture is 
known, respected, and implicitly trusted wherever there are farmers 
who read and think — associating with themselves the late Dr. Pugh, 
who, after bis return to this country from his studies in Europe, 
broke himself down in his herculean efforts to build up an agricul- 
tural college in Pennsjivania, obtained results fully confirming 
those of Boussingault. 

But it may be asked, If Boussingault had settled the question so 
conclusively, what was the need of its being investigated again, 
at such lavish expense and with such great care ? 

It was because, unfortunately, another man had meanwhile 
attacked the difficult problem, and had reported results diametri- 
cally opposite. This man was Georges Ville, a Frenchman, of 
whose training as a chemist and an investigator we have no very 
satisfactorj- information. It is said that he w y as a watchmaker by 
trade, and Napoleon III, in gratitude for political services ren- 
dered, gave him the charge of an important agricultural institution 
near Paris. 

He is a ready writer, and has given us a book on 
manures, which has been translated and published in this country 
as well as in England. The work contains many ideas that take 
with the farmers, and there is realty much in it that is good for 
them to read. A second edition of this work was issued a year 
or two ago ; the attention of the author had been called to a num- 
ber of errors in his first edition, so plain that he could not deny 
that they were such ; yet he refused to allow them to be corrected, 
insisting that the book should be published just as it was at first, 
mistakes and all. This little incident, related to me by Dr. 
Gilbert when in this country a short time ago, shows how much 
regard this investigator and agricultural instructor has for the 
truth. 

This work contains the doctrine of the assimilability of the free 
nitrogen of the atmosphere ; and this makes the book popular, for 
it is a popular doctrine with the average intelligent farmer who 
gives any thought to the question of the nitrogen supply, and who 
believes in the renovating virtue of clover. And there are some 
who believe in the doctrine apparently because thej^ think it ought 
to be so. A prominent agricultural investigator, now in charge 
of an important experiment station in this country, is recently 
13 



194 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

quoted, by the horticulturist to whom he made the remark, as fol- 
lows : "While the question is not settled, I am inclined to the 
opinion that, if nature in furnishing so abundant a supply did not 
give plants the ability to use it, she is not so wise as she is 
represented." While intelligent men think and talk in this way, 
it is not out of place to discuss this very important question, and 
see what grounds there are for the doctrine to rest upon. If it is 
wrong it is pernicious, as all wrong doctrines are, and it should 
be exposed. 

These researches were carried out by all the parties on the same 
general plan. The plants were grown in soils containing either no 
nitrogen compounds at all, or accurate^ known quantities ; so 
that it could be determined at the end of the experiment just how 
much nitrogen the crop had gained from that source. Taking 
account of the fact that the atmospheric air always contains a small 
quantity of nitrogen compounds, besides its large quantity of 
uncombined nitrogen, the plants were supplied either with meas- 
ured quantities of air, so that the possible amount of combined 
nitrogen that they could get from that source could be estimated ; 
or they were supplied with washed air from which all combined 
nitrogen had been removed, so that they could get none at all 
from that source. The amount of combined nitrogen in the seed 
was determined by careful analysis of a sample of the kind of 
seed planted. At the end of the experiment the whole quantity of 
combined nitrogen in the products was no less carefully deter- 
mined, by the usual methods of chemical analysis. Evidently, 
if the combined nitrogen in the products of the experiment 
exceeded that in the soil, seed, and air from which the plant 
could get its supplies of food, then free, uncombined nitro- 
gen must have been forced into combination during the growth of 
the plant. 

Boussingault's first experiments, in 1837, '38, and '39, were not 
so carefully conducted as his later ones in 1851, '52, and '53 ; the 
plants were grown in free air, but protected from the rain, from 
which they might otherwise have obtained a considerable quantity 
of combined nitrogen. Clover appeared to be able to gain nitro- 
gen, over and above what was supplied to it, but oats gained 
none. But, since the clover had access to a certain though 
exceedingly small amount of combined nitrogen in the air with 
which it was in free contact, there is no proof here, as Boussin- 



NITROGEN : WHY AND WHERE CROPS MUST GET IT. 195 

gault himself allowed, that there was any assimilation of free 
nitrogen. In his later series, the plants were supplied with air 
previously deprived of all compounds of nitrogen ; and this time 
neither leguminous nor cereal plants made any gain in nitrogen. 

Ville's experiments were carried on from 1851 to 1856. In 
these, several plants' were grown together in a large, iron-framed 
glazed case. His results were various ; in the case of some 
plants and some series of trials there was no gain of nitrogen ; in 
others there was a gain, amounting to from four to five times as 
much as was contained in the seed and any other accessible sup- 
ply. In still other cases there was forty times as much combined 
nitrogen in the crop as was supplied. The power of gaining 
nitrogen was not confined to leguminous plants, although they 
seemed to possess it in greater degree- than the cereals — wheat, 
rye, or Indian corn. These startling contradictions of the results 
obtained by the well known Boussingault excited so much interest 
that a committee of the French Academy of Sciences, one of the 
most renowned scientific associations in the world, was delegated 
to watch over some new experiments made by Ville. After dis- 
charging their duty as well as they could, for they could not be 
expected to keep watch at all hours of the day and night during 
a three months period of growth of the experimental plants, they 
could state no other conclusion than that this new experiment, 
made by Ville under their supervision, was consistent with the 
conclusions that he had drawn from his previous labors. 

Finally, in 1857, '58, and '59, seeing that it certainly could not 
be considered as a settled question, Lawes, Gilbert, and Pugh 
took the subject in hand. I wish I could take the time to show 
here how carefully they went to work to guard their experiments 
from all possible sources of error ; for then your conviction might 
be as firm as mine, that free nitrogen is no food for plants. Let 
it suffice now to say that Boussingault, accepting their invitation 
to visit them while the experiments were in progress, was so well 
satisfied with the manner in which the work was conducted, as to 
declare that he would abide by their results, whatever they should 
turn out to be. Ville was also invited over to inspect their 
methods, but he never came. He was, however, prevailed upon 
to send over the identical case in which his own experiments were 
conducted, and in which such remarkable gains of nitrogen 
were made. 



196 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

As to the results of these last experiments, as has been already 
stated, they fully confirmed those obtained by Boussingault, and 
that renowned investigator could accept them without any change 
of his own views. And one of the most interesting features of 
these results was that, in Ville's iron-framed glazed case, they 
were precisely the same as under the glass shades used in the 
English experiments — there was a complete failure to get, not 
merely the large gains of nitrogen that Ville reported, but any 
gains at all. There were twelve of these shades, each nine inches 
in diameter and fort} 7 inches high, and with several plants under it, 
standing in a row, flanked by Ville's case. In order to show 
that all the necessary conditions for successful plant growth, except 
a supply of combined nitrogen, were fulfilled under these shades, 
several seeds were planted in a pot of garden soil, and put under 
one of them, and subjected to the same treatment during growth 
as the plants under the other shades ; the growth of these plants 
from these seeds was as healthy and normal as could be expected 
where they were so much crowded, and it was conclusively shown 
that nothing was lacking but room for their free development. 

Still some skeptics might say that if you should only allow a 
better chance to the plant, by giving it a vigorous start in the 
beginning, it might then be able to do what it could not do if 
starved and stunted from the outset in a barren soil. In order to 
meet such a criticism, the plants under some of the shades were 
supplied with a known quantity of ammonia salts, containing a 
known quantity of nitrogen, several times during the season ; but, 
although these plants grew more vigorously than those which 
received no other nitrogen than that contained in the seed planted, 
there was yet no gain of nitrogen over and above what was thus 
supplied. 

The question now naturally arises, How did Ville get such 
results, and especially how did he succeed in convincing the com- 
mittee of the French Academy that his results were correct, when 
conducting another experiment under their watchful inspection? 
How is it possible that the same apparatus should have yielded 
one result in Paris and another at Rothamstead in England? 
Can it be possible that Parisian nitrogen is any more easity 
assimilable than English nitrogen? I believe that his first results 
were the natural consequences of a leak into his apparatus, some- 
how and somewhere, of combined nitrogen in some form ; and I 



NITROGEN : WHY AND WHERE CROPS MUST GET IT. 197 

am not the only one to hold this belief. Such leakage could easily 
occur unless great care were taken to guard against it ; and some 
precautions that a trained chemist would naturally take might not 
be thought of by a trained watchmaker. I am assured, further, 
that the verdict of the committee of the Academy was secured 
through a fraud. This fraud consisted in the substitution, during 
the night previous to one of the latest visits of the committee, 
of more healthy and vigorous plants for the feeble ones which had 
grown in the case, and which showed by their appearance that they 
were suffering for want of some constituent of their natural food ; 
and as they had been supplied with everything but combined nitro- 
gen, it is reasonable to suppose that it was for want of this that 
they had suffered. The substituted plants, that had been put 
into the case that night, were the ones really analyzed, and used 
as evidence of the assimilability of free nitrogen. Dr. Pugh, 
who communicated this information to me, received it directly from 
one who saw the sickly plants in the case at night, and the 
healthy ones there the next morning. This piece of shameful 
history offers the only solution of what would otherwise be an 
inexplicable riddle. 

Furthermore, I believe in these results that have been given us 
by Boussingault, and by Lawes, Gilbert, and Pugh, because they 
are reasonable. They are in full accord with what we know of 
the chemical properties of nitrogen, and of the kind of food, other 
than nitrogenous, that the plant depends upon for sustenance. 

Any who have studied chemistry at all know that there are two 
sharply distinct classes or substances dealt with in that science, 
namely, the elementary substances, and the chemical compounds ; 
that the elements are bodies that we have not yet been able to 
break up into two or more different and distinct bodies ; that a 
compound body is made up by the chemical union of two or more 
of these elements; that oxygen, nitrogen, gold, silver, iron, etc., 
are elements ; and that water, ammonia, phosphoric acid, lime, 
etc., are compound bodies. Now the plant is made up entirely of 
compound substances — and, leaving for the moment its nitrogenous 
food out of consideration, with respect to all its other food it is 
absolutely certain that it feeds only on compound bodies or chemi- 
cal compounds ; this is one good reason why we should expect 
that it would not feed on the element, nitrogen, but on some of 
the various compounds of nitrogen which we know by experience 



198 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to be excellent plant food. Another good reason is that, of all 
the elements, nitrogen is the one most unwillingly forced into 
chemical combination ; there is not another element of common 
occurrence that is so well satisfied to remain alone by itself as 
nitrogen is. Very powerful chemical persuasion has to be brought 
to bear upon it, to get it out of its state of isolation ; never was the 
most confirmed old bachelor more obstinate in maintaining his 
bachelorhood. It would be singular, indeed, if the plant, while 
feeding as to everything else on chemical compounds only, should 
have the heavy work put upon it of forcing unwilling nitrogen into 
combination. It is evident enough from all our experience that it 
does not do that work if it can get nitrogen elsewhere — and there 
is not a particle of reliable proof that it does that work under any 
circumstances whatever. 

Other chemists in France have investigated this question on a 
small scale, but with contradictory results. There is not time to 
speak further of their work. But I must give a brief account of 
the experiments made by Prof essor Atwater, of Connecticut, within 
the past three or four years. These were made with peas, grown 
in sand which had been completely freed from plant food by wash- 
ing and strong heating, after which it could contain no nitrogen. 
The plants were fed with solutions applied to the sand, containing 
known quantities of all the nutrients required, including a certain 
amount of nitrogen compounds. They were left in the open air, 
except when necessary to put them under shelter to prevent them 
from getting any unknown quantities of nitrogen compounds from 
rain or dew. In all but one out of fifteen such experiments, car- 
ried on in two successive 3'ears, there was a gain of nitrogen over 
and above what was supplied in the seed and food. This gain was 
in two cases fully equal to all that the plants took from the nutri- 
tive solutions with which they were fed, and the plants, according 
to the observations of the experimenter, seemed the better able to 
make these gains, the more the conditions of their nourishment, as 
to the quantity and kind of food supplied, were like those of ordi- 
nary growth in the field. On the basis of his results, Prof. At- 
water estimated that an acre of peas, fairly well fed, might gather 
in, from some source other than the food supplied in the soil, from 
70 to 120 pounds of nitrogen. It would require over 700 pounds 
of nitrate of soda, costing about $19, to supply 120 pounds of 
nitrogen. 



NITROGEN : WHY AND WHERE CROPS MUST GET IT. 199 

The conditions of Prof. Atwater's experiments were such that 
there would seem to be no source from which this nitrogen could 
have been derived other than the atmosphere. But still he does 
not venture to claim for his results that they necessarily give sup- 
port to the doctrine that free nitrogen is assimilable. We are, 
then, naturally led to consider the atmosphere as a source of com- 
bined nitrogen. There is alwa} T s a minute quantity of ammonia 
there, in a gaseous form, and a minute quantity of nitrate. Ac- 
cording to the theory of an eminent French agricultural chemist, 
the millions of pounds of nitrates carried into the sea every year 
by all the great rivers, which is almost entirely the product of the 
wastage of the human and other animal inhabitants of the land — 
are converted, through the agency of the vegetable and animal life 
of the sea, into ammonia. This is given off into the air above the 
water, and wafted b} T the winds over the land. Thus, if this not 
unreasonable theoiy be true, there is provision for the Constant 
replenishment of the supply of combined nitrogen in the atmosphere. 

Although the quantity appears to be small — only one part in 
530,000 parts of air — yet in the layer of air, four miles high, over 
each acre of land there are about 140 pounds of this plant food, 
very precious to the crops if they can get hold of it. When we 
consider that the air is in constant motion, not only in horizontal 
directions but also upwards and downwards, it is not difficult to 
understand how a large portion of this ammonia may be brought 
in contact with vegetation and the soil, during the growing season. 
But, when it comes within reach, how can vegetation take posses- 
sion of it ? 

First. To some extent — no one can say how much — through 
the foliage. It has been proven by experiment that a plant can 
supply itself with nitrogen in this way, if its leaves are exposed to 
air containing ammonia gas. It is very natural that clover, with 
its great abundance of foliage, should be supposed to have the 
power to help itself to nitrogen compounds from the air more lib- 
erally than wheat with its much smaller leaf surface ; and this 
view appears to be supported by the well known fact that clover is 
a good crop to come before wheat, which needs nitrogen in the 
soil. But suctrvery few experiments as have been performed, to 
test this supposed special feeding power of clover on nitrogen 
compounds in the air, do not support this view ; and the beneficial 
effect of clover preceding wheat can be accounted for, at least to a 



200 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

large extent, in another way. Those who so strongly insist that 
clover feeds upon the air forget that in every arable soil, such as 
clover is usually raised in, there are many hundreds and often some 
thousands of pounds of nitrogen in chemical combination, although 
in forms not readily assimilable. , But, for all that, it may not be 
denied that, with the breezes almost constantly bringing fresh por- 
tions of air in contact with the foliage, at least a little and per- 
haps more than a little of their nitrogen may be gained in this 
way. But it should be noticed in this connection that many of 
Boussingault's first trials were made under very much the same 
conditions as those fixed by Prof. Atwater. In nearly all cases 
there were slight gains of nitrogen when the plants were grown 
with exposure to free air ; but they were very small, falling very 
far short of those made by Prof. Atwater's plants. 

But this ammonia of the air can also reach the plant by way 
of the roots, through the power possessed by the soil of absorbing 
gases within its pores. That such absorption of ammonia does take 
place has been proven by experiment. It is an operation that may 
go on ail the time, daj 7 and night alike, and during as much of the 
year as the soil is open to the access of the air. It cannot be told 
how much combined nitrogen may be brought within reach of the 
crops in this way, for it is about impracticable to determine with 
any degree of accuracy the rate of this absorption. Kcenig in Ger- 
many estimated it at about thirty pounds per acre and year ; but 
in such a manner that his result was not after all much better than 
a pretty reliable guess. If the quantity is as large as this, how- 
ever, it is a valuable contribution to the nitrogen supply. 

Perhaps you are acquainted with the history of that rather re- 
markable system of culture, that was carried on for a dozen years 
or more by Rev. Mr. Smith, on the Lois Weedon farm in England 
— the results of which furnish such a striking illustration of what 
can be accomplished bj' tillage alone. The fields were divided off 
into strips three feet wide. In the first year of the course, every 
alternate one of these strips was planted with three rows of wheat, 
a foot apart ; the spaces thus left between the rows being wide 
enough to permit full and complete culture by hand, during a 
large part of the growing season. The unoccupied three-foot 
strips were most thoroughly cultivated during the whole season ; 
largely by hand labor. In the following year these unoccupied 
strips were in their turn planted with wheat, in rows a foot apart, 



NITROGEN : WHY AND WHERE CROPS MUST GET IT. 201 

and the planted strips of the previous year were in their turn sub- 
jected to thorough tillage. Thus the system was continued for 
twelve years and without the use of a particle of manure. The 
results were somewhat astonishing. You will observe that on 
each acre of wheat only half was really occupied by the crop, in 
each year ; while the other half, consisting of the three-foot vacant 
spaces, was being cultivated in preparation for the next year. But 
on each acre so treated — only half of it really bearing a crop, and 
that half in rows a foot apart — the yield was as great as on 
manured land prepared for and sown with wheat in the ordinary 
manner. The average crop per acre was 25 bushels ; and in the 
eleventh year the yield amounted to 37 bushels, with 2 tons of 
straw. 

Now experience and experiment go to show that wheat is, 
generally, especially thankful for a manuring containing nitrogen ; 
on Mr. Lawes' experimental grounds any other constituent of 
manures could be spared better than the nitrogen ; hence it is 
reasonable to infer that the extremely thorough and unceasing 
tillage of the soil at Lois Weeclon, exposing as it did constantly a 
fresh and porous surface to the air, so facilitated this direct absorp- 
tion of ammonia, or (as it may yet appear) of nitrogen in some other 
shape, from that great reservoir, as to make these large crops pos- 
sible without the addition of any nitrogenous manure to the soil. 

There is yet another way, already incidentally named, for ni- 
trogen compounds in the air to reach the plant through the soil. 
Besides ammonia, there is always some nitrate in the air. Both 
compounds are veiy soluble in water, and consequently every 
rain will carry nitrogenous plant food to the soil. At several 
of the experiment stations, in Prussia, the quantities of nitrogen 
thus brought within the reach of vegetation during the year were 
carefully determined ; these quantities were found to be quite 
different in different places ; the largest amount was 21 lbs. to the 
acre, and the smallest 2 lbs. ; and it was also found that nitrogen- 
ous manures were most effective at that place where the natural 
supplj' of combined nitrogen was smallest. This is one observa- 
tion going to show that these natural supplies have an appreciable 
value. 

Various averages have been given for the quantity of combined 
nitrogen thus carried down to the soil in the course of the year. 
Where extremes may be so far apart, averages have to be taken 



202 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

with a considerable margin ; but we may perhaps allow that from 
ten to twelve pounds of nitrogen per acre will be provided for the 
crops or, rather, carried down to the soil every year ; some of it, 
however, in the cold season when no crop is growing. An acre's 
crop of clover requires about 100 lbs. of nitrogen ; of Indian corn, 
80 lbs. ; of timothy, 45 lbs. ; of potatoes, 44 lbs. Therefore the 
supply in the rain is far from sufficient, even if all of it should 
come at the right time, and be at once taken up by vegetation ; 
but such complete use of it is not at all probable. 

So much for the nitrogen that the crops may possibly gather 
from compounds of nitrogen in the atmosphere. Now, while still 
affirming that the principle is well established that there is, in the 
living plant, no power to cause nitrogen to enter into chemical 
combination, it must be granted that there seem to be evidences of 
such a power working, in quiet and unobtrusive ways, outside of 
the plant, or quite independently of its vital activity. Two discover- 
ies in this direction have been made by Berthelot, an eminent 
French chemist. He has shown, first, that through the electrical 
relations existing between the earth and the atmosphere, and es- 
pecial^ in the presence of certain very common vegetable products, 
nitrogen is quieth T persuaded into chemical combination. But we 
have not, as yet, the least idea how much or how little nitrogen is 
likety to be thus made available to vegetation. The importance of 
this discovery seems small in comparison with the later one, made 
known only last year. In this Berthelot found that free nitrogen 
is absorbed by clay — whether pure or mixed with sand — and is 
converted into some form of combination that is neither ammonia 
nor nitrate. When a pot of ordinary loam was exposed freely to 
the air, so that it might take possession of all the combined nitrogen 
that could reach it in the rain or dew, or by direct absorption of 
ammonia, it was found to contain considerably more nitrogen, 
taken up, by this newly discovered method, from the free nitrogen 
of the air, than was collected by all the other methods ; the action 
of the clay appearing to be entirely independent of the combined 
nitrogen already existing in the air. It was found, further, that 
this absorption of free nitrogen was dependent upon the coopera- 
tion of minute living organisms, called bacteria; for if the soil is 
previously sterilized, as it is called, by heating it up to the boiling 
point of water, when all such organisms are killed, and it is then 
exposed only to air filtered through cotton, through which no fresh 



NITROGEN : WHY AND WHERE CROPS MUST GET IT. 203 

supply of these organisms can make their way, this absorption of 
nitrogen ceases. 

This useful work of these organisms goes on most rapidly under' 
just those conditions of the soil and air that are most favorable for 
vegetable growth ; nitrogen is most rapidly absorbed in this way in 
summer, and the operation does not go on in winter. Berthelot 
estimated that at least from 25 to 30 pounds of nitrogen ma}- be 
absorbed, in the season from April to October, by the soil of an 
acre. This seems to me to be one of the most curious and inter- 
esting discoveries that has been lately made in regard to this nitro- 
gen question ; and it is the more interesting when regarded in 
connection with the fact that another kind of bacteria work upon 
the insoluble and unassimilable nitrogen compounds in the soil ; 
slowly converting them into nitrates, than which there is no better 
form of nitrogenous plant food. As friends or foes, these very 
minute beings stand in close relation to our comfort and happiness. 
From their apparent connection with many dangerous animal dis- 
eases, we have come to regard them much more as enemies than 
as friends ; and since it is now quite clearly proven that thej* are 
the cause of the pear blight, and their baneful influence in connec- 
tion with diseases of the vegetable kingdom is thus established, we 
have become still less kindly disposed towards them ; but by the 
time that air the phases of their work shall have been clearly made 
out, we may find that its sum total shows a beneficial balance in 
our favor. 

To sum up the whole matter — we find that there are five ways 
in which vegetation may get nitrogen more or less directly from 
the atmosphere : — 

First. By means of the ammonia compounds and nitrates, 
already formed there, and which are conveyed to the foliage and 
to the soil by the fogs, dews, and rains, and to the soil by the 
snows of winter. 

Second. B}^ the direct absorption of gaseous ammonia com- 
pounds from the air by the foliage. 

Third. By the absorption of gaseous ammonia compounds by 
the soil, in the same manner that any porous body will absorb any 
gas to which it is exposed. 

Then follow the two ways which involve the direct conversion of 
free nitrogen into nitrogen compounds, but not by the plant itself: 

Fourth. Through some electrical action, in the presence of pro- 



204 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ducts of vegetable growth ; this may take place, possibly, in the 
very tissues of the plant itself. 

Fifth. In ordinary arable soils, wherever the air penetrates 
them — and the more abundantly the freer the access of air, other 
conditions being favorable — by the help of a certain class of the 
living organisms called bacteria. 

In some of Boussingault's earlier experiments, in all of his later 
ones, and in alLof the experiments of Lawes, Gilbert, and Pugh, 
the plants were excluded from all of these sources of supply ; 
these experiments simply proved that plants can make no use of 
the free nitrogen of the atmosphere through any power possessed 
by them of working it up into compounds containing nitrogen. 
Ville pretended to exclude his plants in his iron-framed glazed 
case from all these sources of nitrogen, also ; but as they were 
somehow supplied with nitrogen compounds not mentioned in his 
account of his work, his experiments prove nothing. 

Prof. Atwater's experimental plants were excluded from the 
first source of supply only, the ammonia and nitrate brought down 
by the rain ; they had the full benefit of all the other sources, so 
far as free exposure to the air is concerned ; but the soil that he 
used was simply sand charged with known quantities of plant food. 
As sand has little power of absorbing gases, he himself does 
not think that much nitrogen would become serviceable in that 
way; and as Berthelot's results, where the assistance of the 
bacteria came in, were obtained with soils containing clay, it re- 
mains yet to be determined whether these bacteria will do the 
same work in a sand. Finding little else to stand upon, in ex- 
planation of his results, Prof. Atwater refers them, at least in part, 
to the electrical action above mentioned ; but further investiga- 
tions must show whether so large gains could be made in this way 
alone. It seems to me very doubtful, and, for my own part, I must 
consider his results as not yet satisfactorily explained. 

There is, I think, good and sufficient evidence, in this summing 
up of the several modes in which the crops may derive nitrogenous 
food from the atmosphere, and in my statement of the facts on 
which that summing up is based, — 

First. That nitrogenous food can be obtained from that source, 
directly or indirectly, in considerable quantity, under favorable 
conditions. 

And, Second, that there are possibilities of supply by some of 



NITROGEN : WHY AND WHERE CROPS MUST GET IT. 205 

these methods of transfer of nitrogen from the air to the plant, 
whose limits have not yet been determined. 

Therefore we can unhesitatingly admit that our crops may get a ' 
portion of their nitrogen from the air, as appears to be plainly 
shown by many experiments and much experience ; and we can do 
this without being in the least degree forced to admit that plants 
can assimilate free nitrogen, and without being forced to cast a 
shadow of a doubt on the reliability of the researches of Boussin- 
gault and of Lawes, Gilbert, and Pugh — investigators to whom 
the science and the art of agriculture owe such a very large share 
of the progress that has been made in the last thirty years, and 
whose trustworthiness we cannot afford to call in question. 

Discussion. 

President Walcott expressed the thanks of the Society to Pro- 
fessor Caldwell, for the conclusive paper which he had read. 

John B. Moore was called on and said he was glad that Pro- 
fessor Caldwell had demonstrated the correctness of the opinion 
which had been expressed here in previous years, that plants 
possess the power of in some way absorbing nitrogen from the air. 
He was surprised at the view of the lecturer, that M. Ville's 
experiments were not trustworthy ; his book caused a great deal 
of thought and did good. He thought that others than chemists 
could perform such experiments as those of M. Ville, and that, 
with his own practical knowledge of cultivation, he could apply 
the results of experiments as well or better than chemists. 

William H. Hunt said that he was in Paris when M. Ville was 
giving a course of lectures, and he attended one where the 
audience consisted of two persons besides himself, in a room that 
would accommodate three or four hundred persons. The courses 
were free, and the lectures on interesting subjects by good authori- 
ties were well attended. 

President Walcott said that formerly monsters were considered 
the worst enemies of the human race, but now minute organisms 
are. But these germs have themselves so many enemies that it is 
difficult to cultivate them when wanted as subjects of study. The 
results of experiments of Professor Schlosing on the power of 
bacteria to produce nitrification agree with those of Berthelot, 
quoted by Professor Caldwell. It was shown that the function is 



206 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

possessed by some soils more than others, and that plants have 
no power to do it without the assistance of bacteria. 

Mr. Moore said that for the last two or three years we had 
heard much of bacteria destroying plants, and he was glad to know 
that they produced some benefit to the soil. 

Professor Caldwell said that pear blight was the first instance 
where bacteria have been connected with vegetable disease. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder referred to an article in the "Pro- 
ceedings of the Twentieth Session of the American Pomological 
Society," by Professor J. C. Arthur, in which he gives an account 
of some experiments, going to show that pear blight is caused by 
bacteria, and said that it might all be true. We had been taught, 
and it seemed to him very probable, that nitrogen is very dormant 
and ineffective until brought into contact with other substances. 
We have long known the effect of ammonia on plants when it has 
been washed down out of the air by a shower, and this is more 
forcibl}* demonstrated in the greenhouse, by syringing the plants 
with a weak solution of ammonia. The proper administration of 
heat, light, air, and water are the most important points in the 
cultivation of plants. He was amazed to see how the professors 
differed in the results of their experiments in regard to nitrogen, 
and it looked to him quite probable that these differences were due 
to fraud. 

Professor Caldwell said that the subject of his paper today was 
suggested by a remark, made by Mr. Moore, when he (Prof. C.) 
read a paper on a kindred subject here last year, that plants get 
their nitrogen in some way from the air. The subject announced 
for today was a much broader one ; he had shown in his previous 
paper only what plants must get from the air ; he intended now to 
show that in every arable soil there is an immense supply of nitro- 
gen. The entire results of experiments on this subject must be 
based on trustworthy chemical analysis, and he wanted to show 
how the contradiction occurred ; it was entirely impossible to obtain 
such results as those of M. Ville b}' fair means. Lawes and Gil- 
bert would not have repeated their experiments, if it had not 
been necessar} T to demonstrate the incorrectness of M. Ville's 
statements. 

President Walcott said that nitrogen is the " mugwump" among 
gases. It stands around without much to do generally, but when 
a great occasion arises it comes in, yet it cannot be depended on 
for a permanent alliance. 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF FRUITS. 207 

The Chairman of the Committee on Publication stated that John 
B. Moore, who had been announced to speak on the " Growth of 
Plants " on the next Saturday, would be unable to do so, and that 
an opportunity would be afforded to discuss such subjects as might 
be brought up at that time. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 3, 1886. 

A duly notified stated meeting of the Society was holden at 11 
o'clock, the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

Edward L. Beard said that the Rose and Strawberry Show 
would be the next great exhibition of the Society, and spoke of 
the Challenge and other Vases, which had been offered as Special 
Prizes for Roses at previous exhibitions, and had excited greater 
interest than the Society's prizes. The money for these prizes 
had been raised by private subscription, but he thought the time 
had come when the Society could afford to pay them from its own 
funds. The results of the Spring Exhibition were most flattering, 
and, as he did not wish the Society to take a retrograde step, he 
moved that the Executive Committee consider the expediency of 
making an appropriation for Special Prizes for Roses at the Rose 
Show in June, on the basis of the list of Special Subscription 
Prizes offered last year. The motion was carried. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 

Executive Committee, were on ballot duly elected members of the 

Society : 

Clement M. Hammond, of Hyde Park. 

Charles G. Wood, of Boston. 

Dr. Hosea M. Quimby, of Worcester. 

Adjourned to Saturday, April 10. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 

The Nomenclature of Fruits. 

Hon. Marshall P. Wilder said that the object of the reform in 
the names of fruits, which the American Pomological Society is en- 



208 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

» 
deavoring to effect, is the suppression from the catalogues 

throughout our country of all long, improper, indelicate, irrel- 
evant, ostentatious, and superfluous titles, and to prevent any 
such appellations being hereafter applied to some of the most 
beautiful objects which the earth has ever brought forth. 

They desire to suppress all royal titles such as Emperor, King, 
or Prince ; all political titles such as President, or Governor ; all 
military titles, such as General, Colonel, or Captain ; all indelicate 
names like Hog-pen, Sheep-nose, or Big Bob ; all ostentatious 
names such as Excelsior, Ne Plus Ultra, and Stump the World ; 
and all long names, of which Doyenne Gris d'Hiver Nouveau and 
Vingt-cinquieme Anniversaire de Leopold I. are instances. The}' 
desire also to strike off the hundreds of Beurres and Doyennes 
from the names of our pears, where it is possible to do so, and 
hereafter to write simply Anjou, Diel, and Boussock in place of 
Beurre d'Anjou, Beurre Diel, and Doyenne Boussock. There are 
however some instances, such as the old Beurre Gris, Doyenne 
Blanc, and Doyenne Gris, where the Beurre and Doyenne must be 
retained, because the varieties bearing them are the original types 
of certain classes. Fortunately very few of the many pears 
originated in this countiy- have the term Beurre prefixed — he did not 
think of more than one ; and did not recollect that Doyenne has 
ever been applied to an American fruit. The term Beurre (butter) 
was originally applied to a pear of buttery texture, to distinguish 
it from one with breaking flesh ; but as all the latter class have 
now gone out of cultivation (except a few varieties used only for 
cooking) it has lost its significance, and the sooner it is dropped 
the better. Doyenne, Bon Chretien, and Calebasse were names 
designating classes of pears, with reference to form as the chief 
distinguishing mark ; but these have never been adopted in naming 
our American pears. The Massachusetts Horticultural Society 
about fortj T years ago established a classification of the forms of 
pears, of which the circle was the basis, and from this were de- 
duced, as modifications, the compound forms — ovate, obovate, 
pyriform — obtuse, acute, and ovate pyriform, etc. This classifi- 
cation has been adopted by Downing, Thomas, Barry, and 
other leading authors in their works on fruits ; indeed, no one 
who pretends to be a pomologist will undertake to describe pears 
without reference to this classification. 

It is desirable that names of fruits should consist of one word 



THE NOMENCLATURE OF FRUITS. 209 

only, having a meaning somewhat appropriate to the variety ; 
but sometimes we meet with obstacles to the application of this 
principle, as in the case of the Clapp's Favorite pear, there being 
also a Frederick Clapp and a Lemuel, Clapp. So, also, we cannot 
omit the word Winter from Winter Nelis, because there is an 
Autumn Nelis and a Barbe Nelis ; and other instances might be 
given. Among apples we have several Spitzenbergs, Russets, 
etc., words which should be dispensed with as far as possible, but 
we cannot always drop them. Again, the terms "Beauty" and 
" Choice," as well as " Favorite," not being distinctive appella- 
tions, are in most instances better dispensed with. There are 
man} T other terms which are senseless and useless, such as Seedling 
and Pippin (the latter of the same signification as the former, 
but applied 011I3* to apples) ; for all varieties of fruits are originally 
seedlings. Those renowned fruits — the Baldwin apple, the Bartlett 
pear, and the Concord grape — afford examples of short, appropriate, 
sensible, and easily remembered names, and it is to be hoped that 
in the future many such varieties may be added to those we already 
possess, and be dedicated to perpetual remembrance by equally 
appropriate names. In a word, we desire to establish a system of 
nomenclature which shall be pure and plain in its diction, pertin- 
ent and proper in its application, and which shall be an example, 
not only to our own, but to other countries. 

H. Welcl Fuller said that all would approve the remarks of Ex- 
President Wilder in regard to improper or irrelevant names. It 
is desirable that all names of fruits should have reference to 
locality, quality, or other characteristics. 

O. B. Haclwen said that those who originate new fruits worthy 
of cultivation, instead of giving them local names, should bring 
them before a horticultural society and have names bestowed b} 7 a 
competent committee, and then thej^ would go out with proper 
authority. An excellent apple which originated in Worcester 
County was called the Hog-pen, because the original tree sprang 
up near a hog-pen ; and this is the wsiy such names creep in ; but 
in this case the name was changed by the Worcester County Hor- 
ticultural Society to Holden Pippin, which all must admit to be a 
great improvement. The subject is a very important one, and not 
only apples and pears, but all fruits, large and small, and also 
ornamental trees, plants, and flowers should be named by horti- 
cultural societies after careful consideration. 
14 



210 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Colonel Henry W. Wilson spoke of the difficulty experienced by 
those unacquainted with the French language, in pronouncing the 
many French names of pears and other fruits, such as Glout 
Morceau, Duchesse d'Angouleme, and Louise Bonne of Jerse}* ; 
and the last two are also objectionable on account of their length. 
When the Clapp's Favorite pear was introduced it was proposed 
to name it the Wilder. Such names as Stump-the-World are not 
a credit to those engaged in the cultivation of fruit, and intelligent 
persons when the} T hear them ask why they are used. 

Mr. Wilder said, in reference to the Clapp's Favorite pear, that 
when it was introduced the Massachusetts Agricultural Club de- 
sired to possess the control of the variety, and give to it his name ; 
but Thacldeus Clapp, who originated it, preferred to have it 
dedicated to the family name, and a figure of the pear is carved 
on his monument in Forest Hills Cemetery. 

E. W. Wood, Chairman of the Fruit Committee, said that the 
Committee were veiy glad to adopt the change in the nomenclature, 
of fruits on account of the saving of labor to them by the shorten- 
ing of names. Last autumn he visited the fair of the Housatonic 
Valley Agricultural Society, where there was the best exhibition 
of apples he saw during the whole season, but many of the apples, 
and a majority of the pears, were wrongly named. There was no 
requirement that a dish of fruit must be rightly named to receive 
a premium. The case was the same at Natick, but at this } T ear's 
exhibition there it will be required that all fruits shall be correctly 
named, or the}' cannot receive prizes. Persons who visit the ex- 
hibitions of our Society are becoming more familiar with the 
names of fruits. "A rose by any other name would smell as 
sweet," but the speaker did not see how fruits could be intelli- 
gentl}' cultivated under wrong names. The multipHchry of names 
by which our fruits are known is sometimes perplexing ; the 
Baldwin apple has seven synonymes, and Downing describes one 
variety which has no less than forty. In reading the reports of 
the exhibitions of fruits, sometimes, owing to the multitude of 
synonymes, we do not know what we are reading about ; and 
therefore we want uniformity in names. There are seventy 
varieties of plums, of which the word " Gage " forms part of the 
name ; the originator of each hoped to get glory by using the name 
of Gage. Sometimes there may be a necessity for more than one 
word in a name. The speaker approved Mr. Hadwen's suggestion 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF HORTICULTURE. 211 

that new productions should be named by horticultural societies ; 
people claim the same right to name a fruit as to name a child, 
but if the suggestion could be adopted it would be of great benefit. 
The reform in nomenclature originated in the right place, the 
National Society, which will continue to revise the names of fruits. 

Mr. Wilder said that the American Pomological Society claims 
and exercises the right to change improper names. 

Rev. A. B. Muzzey said that from his long connection with our 
Society, which probably began earlier than that of any other per- 
son in the room except Mr. Wilder, he felt the deepest interest in 
it. Fifty years ago he began to cultivate fruit, and attached what 
many persons thought unnecessary importance to the correctness 
of the names. Cultivators should consult and compare their fruits, 
so as to be sure of their correct names. We might begin now and 
here, by the appointment of a committee on this subject. Mr. 
Muzzey spoke of the influence of the ladies in the completion of 
Bunker Hill Monument, which had remained a long time unfinished, 
and a source of mortification, until the ladies took hold of the work 
in a manner that led Judge Story to say, "The monument is 
built !" So here, in its lady members, this Society has the strong- 
est part of humanity, and the time will come when the ladies will 
not feel so diffident in speaking as the}' do now. 

Edward L. Beard thought it would be well for the Society to 
consider the best method of extending the interest in horticulture 
beyond the sphere in which its influence has thus far been exer- 
cised, and to points where there is at present much ignorance of 
horticulture and a great deficienc} 7 of horticultural taste. It would 
be exceedingly desirable to organize some broader system of 
encouraging, through local societies, a general improvement of 
all the productions of the soil. By this means we might get 
results which would be a great blessing to dwellers in our 
smaller towns. The question is how best to encourage the 
enterprise of local horticultural societies. The horticultural so- 
cieties in Worcester, Springfield, Newton, and other places have 
effected much good, and similar societies should be formed 
wherever possible. The people who come to our exhibitions see 
what are the best fruits and flowers, and admire them, but only a 
few have knowledge of how they are produced ; and we are bound, 
as the leading horticultural society of the county, to supply the 



212 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

want as far as we can. We may go on exhibiting, but until we teach 
people how to produce the fruits and flowers and vegetables here 
displayed, we have failed of the greatest results. 

John G. Barker expressed his approval of what Mr. Beard had 
said. As instancing the need of information, he said that he saw 
at the excellent agricultural exhibition at Ashby, last autumn, 
Clapp's Favorite pears, marked Pound ! At the exhibition of the 
Houghton Horticultural Society at Lynn, begonias were marked 
bignonias ; and other plants had equally incorrect names affixed. 
Cultivators have catalogues from which the}' might obtain the cor- 
rect names, but they will not take the trouble. He suggested that 
this society might send delegates to the local societies, who should 
note such errors as he had mentioned, and impart the information 
needed for the correct naming of the productions exhibited. As 
superintendent of Pine Grove Cemetery at Lynn, he was glad to give 
information to all who visit it ; but he had not thought it proper 
to label plants there. He thought that the information acquired, 
at the cemetery in regard to plants, shrubs, and trees had had a 
marked influence on those who had laid out grounds since he had 
been superintendent, and that, if those who have the care of public 
grounds would take the time and pains to give information to per- 
sons asking it, it would have a good influence. 

Mr. Hadwen said that he could recollect very well the first exhi- 
bition of the Worcester County Horticultural Society in 1840 ; at 
which there were very few fruits correctly named. He also re- 
membered when the only flowers generally seen were a few varie- 
ties of roses in June, and the tiger lily in autumn, but now he sees 
a great variety of flowers, and the growers can generally tell their 
names. Ladies have set as good an example as men in growing 
flowers, both here and at Worcester. Men have given their time 
to their farms, and consequently have been obliged to leave the 
cultivation of flowers largely to their wives. He sometimes brings 
home what he supposes to be a new plant, and Mrs. Hadwen tells 
him her mother had the same thing fifty years ago. 

Mr. Wilder said that we are very much indebted to ladies for 
the improvement apparent in the cultivation of flowers. He spoke 
of the time, very early in the history of this Society, when it was 
proposed to elect Mrs. Gore, wife of the Governor of this State, 
and Mrs. Griffith, of New Jersey, honorary members, but some 
thought the proposition of doubtful expediency, because a woman 



1 THE ADVANCEMENT OF HORTICULTURE. 213 

made trouble in the garden of Eden. As we go on in refinement, 
we shall not only have ladies at our side, but shall have more and 
more aid from them in the training of flowers. 

Edmund Hersey said that the Hingham Horticultural Society 
holds meetings for discussion every month, summer and winter. 
The influence of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society reaches 
to Hingham. They have learned from it how to arrange the 
plants at their annual exhibitions ; and he believes they have things 
as well arranged as any society except this. He suggested that 
we might follow the method of the Massachusetts Society for Pro- 
moting Agriculture, which as early as 1813 sent out circulars urging 
the formation of local societies. One existed in Hingham from 
1814 to 1830, which may have afforded the suggestion of forming 
the present one. He advised that some means be used to secure 
the formation of local horticultural societies ; wherever such a soci- 
ety is formed we shall have the strongest men cooperating with us. 

Joseph H. Woodford called attention to the fine display of 
flowers on the table, among which were a large collection of cam- 
ellias from C. M. Hovey, including his new seedling, Florence 
Hovey ; Rhododendron Veitchianum Icevigatum and other beau- 
tiful greenhouse rhododendrons from Mrs. Francis B. Hayes ; a 
fine seedling Amaryllis from Mrs. E. M. Gill, and beautiful or- 
chids from Robert Blair and F. L. Ames. Mr. Woodford added 
that village improvement societies are probably the strongest 
agents for beautifying towns. There is always local talent that 
can be utilized. 

Henry Ross agreed with all that had been said in favor of local 
societies. The Newton Horticultural Society has exerted a bene- 
ficial influence, not alone for the present, but for all time ; it will 
be seen more in the next generation than now. It has done a 
good work in the encouragement it has given to the cultivation of 
flowers in school grounds. 

President Walcott said that the whole question how best to ad- 
vance horticulture is a significant one, and everything the society 
can do for its advancement in a wider field should be done. Local 
improvement societies meet the want in a great measure. While 
a member of the State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, he 
was struck with the view taken by the superintendents of the great 
State institutions, of the influence of flowers and their cultivation 
on the inmates. At Tewksbury, the great dumping ground for 



214 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the refuse of humanity — brought there not by misfortune alone — 
Mr. Marsh, the superintendent, found the influence of flowers most 
beneficial ; and the superintendent of the Hospital for the Insane 
at Worcester, and others, would acknowledge the aid derived from 
flowers. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Discussions announced that 
on the next Saturday Hon. Marshall P. Wilder would read a paper 
on the " Ripening and Preservation of Fruit." 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, April 10, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
Vice President Benjamin G. Smith in the chair. 

No business being brought before the meeting, it adjourned to 
Saturday, May 1. 

MEETING FOR DISCUSSION. 
The Ripening and Preservation of Fruits. 

By Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, Dorchester. 

Mr. President: — In compliance with the request of Mr. Had- 
wen, Chairman of the Committee on Discussion, I have consented 
to address this meeting on the Ripening and Preservation of 
Fruits. 

So much has been written and said on this subject that I cannot 
expect to offer much, except in confirmation of what I have uttered 
in former addresses. 

The principles upon which success must ever depend are now so 
well established that it is only necessary to bring them to mind 
for our government. The preservation of apples through the win- 
ter months is now pretty well understood, but with the pear, 
grape, and other delicate fruits more care is requisite. 

The ripening of fruit depends on the saccharine fermentation ; this 
is followed by the vinous and acetous fermentations. To prevent 



THE RIPENING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 215 

these, and preserve fruit in all its beauty, freshness, and flavor, 
the temperature must be uniform, and kept below the degree at 
which the fermentation or ripening process commences. Mr. 
Robert Manning, in a prize essay, said — '" The ripening of fruit is 
the completion of the chemical process by which starch is trans- 
formed into sugar, and is the first step toward fermentation or 
decay ; therefore, whatever promotes fermentation will hasten the 
ripening ; whatever retards fermentation will tend to its preserva- 
tion." 

Late fruits may remain on the trees until severe frosts are 
feared, but should be gathered with great care. Summer pears 
should be picked some daj T s before the ripening process com- 
mences. A summer pear ripened upon the tree is generally infe- 
rior. In respect to the latter Mr. Patrick Barry has so aptly 
expressed nry own opinion that I use his language : " The process 
of ripening on the tree, which is the natural one, seems to act 
upon the fruit for the benefit of the seed ; as it tends to the forma- 
tion of woody fibre and farina. When the fruit is removed from 
the tree at the commencement of ripening, and placed in a still 
atmosphere, the natural process seems to be counteracted, and 
sugar and juice are elaborated instead of fibre and farina." Thus 
pears which become mealy and rot at the core if left on the tree 
to ripen, are juicy, melting, and delicious when ripened in the 
house. 

With the increase of fruits their preservation in the most perfect 
condition has become a matter of great importance ; various 
methods have been adopted, both in this and other countries, for 
this purpose, many of which have been failures. Nearly half a 
century ago the first houses of which I have any knowledge were 
built for the preservation of fruits by the retardation of their 
ripening. Most of these were controlled by ice ; others by the 
use of chemicals and apparatus with revolving fans to diffuse the 
cool air through the various rooms. 

About twenty years ago several patents were secured for the 
preservation and long-keeping of fruits and other commodities by 
Messrs. Shaler, Nyce, and Smith. Professor Nyce of Ohio had 
one of his houses built in Boston, to be controlled by ice, and 
many constructed upon his plan are still in use in our large cities 
and towns for the preservation of meats as well as fruits. 

Mr. Nathan Hellings, of Pennsylvania, also informs us of the 



216 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

method he pursued in 1868 in building a house for the preservation 
of fruit, which proved very successful. He used no chemicals or 
machinery, but regulated the temperature of the house by the use 
of ice, and was able to keep it at from 34° to 36°. The atmosphere 
was so cool and dry that no moisture was deposited on the walls, 
and there was no dripping from the ceiling. The most constant 
attention was given to the ventilation ; and light was entirely 
excluded, to prevent ripening and shrivelling. With these arrange- 
ments so perfected, no gases or mixtures of gases with atmospheric 
air were ever generated. His fruit, when brought out, retained its 
primitive freshness and health for a longer time than that we 
usually have from modern storehouses, and in these houses he 
kept apples two or three years in perfect condition. His houses 
are still in successful operation near Bristol, Pa. 

But the most common method for small establishments and pri- 
vate use is the construction of houses with walls of non-conducting 
materials, and with well drained and thoroughly cemented cellars. 
Such was the house built by M. Victor Paquet of Paris about 
forty 3 7 ears ago — which he managed without the use of ice or 
chemicals — an account of which was given in the illustrated Tran- 
sactions of this Society in 1847. The house was built with outer 
and inner walls, having a space of three feet between ; it was in 
fact a house within a house, and so arranged that the temperature 
could be controlled at will ; it was kept at a little below 40° 
Fahrenheit. Our climate differs so much from that of Paris that 
we cannot follow all of M. Paquet's plans. Suffice it to say that 
by this process, without the use of ice, he kept his fruits in perfect 
condition until June. 

On this plan, fruit houses may be constructed at a very moder- 
ate expense, in which fruits may be kept in all their beauty, 
freshness, and flavor through the entire season. The Anjou pear 
was exhibited before this Society as late as the month of May, by 
the late Mr. Gardner Brewer, from his retarding house. 

Mr. Charles F. Curtis, one of the fruit merchants of this city, 
informs me that there is no decided preference between a cold 
storage house controlled by chemicals and one where ice is used. 
Each has its advocates. 

The fruit house of Ellwanger & Barry, at Rochester, N. Y., is 
a building whose walls and floor are lined with straw and boards, 
with cellars underneath for storing fruit. When the mercury goes 






THE RIPENING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 217 

ten or twelve degrees below zero, a few degrees — three or four — 
of frost get in, but the boxes and barrels are all covered with 
straw mats and are never reached by the frost. 

When the late fall and winter pears are gathered they are put in 
bushel or half-bushel boxes, and placed on the north side of a 
building, outside of the fruit house and protected. They are kept 
there as long as the weather will permit ; by that time the room 
has got thoroughly cooled and ready to receive the fruit. They 
have both pears and apples there now in perfection. 

In the report of the Michigan Horticultural Society for 1882 is 
an account, by Mr. S. W. Dorr, of a fruit house constructed by 
him, on the cold air system, without the use of ice. He lays down 
the principle that, in order to keep fruit for any great length of 
time, the store-room must be frost-proof and kept at a low, even 
temperature — three or four degrees above freezing — with suffi- 
cient ventilation to carry off all moisture and impurities. He was 
able to keep his house within three degrees of freezing for five 
months ; and when the temperature outside changed sixty degrees 
in twenty-four hours, the change in the fruit room was impercep- 
tible. Again, when the thermometer fell to points varying from 
six to twenty degrees below zero, five days in succession, the 
temperature scarcely changed one degree in the fruit house. This 
result was effected by building a house with triple walls, fifteen 
inches in thickness, ten inches of which was filled with sawdust. 

One chief condition of success consists in the state in which the 
fruit goes to the cooler. It should be taken before any sound spec- 
imen begins to show ripeness, and no single fruit should be stored 
that has fallen to the ground ; for, however perfect it may seem, 
sooner or later that dropped fruit will make its presence known, 
and will often cause the decay of the whole package unless noticed 
in time ; which rarely happens when hundreds of bushels are 
piled one above another for a month or two. The fruits intended 
for cold storage houses should go directly from the orchard. 
The cause of so many failures — in storing pears, for instance — is 
that the fruit is often bought of different parties, much of it im- 
perfectly packed, and coming to hand in no condition to go to the 
cooler ; perhaps it has been gathered weeks previously, or carried 
long distances and become more or less bruised, and rendered in 
all respects unfit for keeping in this way. The past fall hundreds 
of bushels of Bartlett pears that were nearly ripe were stored by 
small fruit venders who knew nothing about the subject. 



218 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The after conditions of success may be briefly stated as follows : 
The perfect control of temperature, light, and moisture ; all experi- 
ence shows that, without such control, success cannot be attained. 
Storage apartments must be dark, dry. uniformly and moderately 
cool, and constructed so as to exclude at pleasure the variable 
external atmosphere. Apples may be kept at a lower temperature 
than pears — sa} T thirty-four to fort} 7- degrees. 

After many years of experience, both with and without ice, I 
have adopted a house built in a cool, shady aspect, with the 
door on the north ; and with a thoroughly drained and cemented 
cellar, having small double windows which may be opened or 
closed at pleasure. In this way I am enabled to keep my late fall 
and winter pears until February or March in good condition. 
Mr. John J. Thomas writes me that in a fruit room of this kind, 
by admitting air on cold nights, and closing the entrances when 
the air is warm, he has had sound Lawrence pears in March, and 
Josephine of Malines in April, and Baldwin apples in June. 

M}^ late fall and winter fruits, intended for long keeping, are 
allowed to remain on the trees until frost is apprehended. They 
are then gathered with great care into bushel boxes, and placed 
in tiers of boxes six or seven feet high, and covered with boards, 
on the north side of my fruit house, where they are kept until the 
ground begins to freeze. They are then removed to the cellar, and 
there piled up in the same manner, with thin strips of boards or- 
shingles between the boxes, until wanted for use ; when the boxes 
are looked over and the most mature are from time to time taken 
out. In this way I keep pears until March or April in perfect 
condition. 

In regard to the use of ice, I would say that where fruits are 
kept for some months under its influence at a very low temperature, 
they seem to lose much of their flavor ; the cellular tissue also 
seems to have become dry and to have lost its vitality, or power 
to resume the ripening process. Experience proves that, for the 
common varieties of the pear, about forty degrees of Fahrenheit is 
the temperature best suited to hold this process in equilibrium. 
The proper maturing of fruit thus preserved demands skill and 
science. Different varieties require different degrees of moisture 
and heat, according to the firmness of the skin and the texture of 
the flesh. Thus some varieties of the pear will ripen at a low tem- 
perature and in a comparatively dry atmosphere, while others are 



THE RIPENING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 219 

improved by a warm and humid air. Some varieties of the pear, 
ripening with difficulty and formerly esteemed only second rate, 
are now pronounced of excellent quality because the art of matur- 
ing them is better understood. Great improvement has been made 
in the handling, packing, and preservation of fruits, so that they 
are delivered in perfect condition from distant places, every class 
of fruit having its suitable style of package. So well is the art of 
keeping grapes now understood that we have them in our markets, 
in such fine order as to command from fifteen to twenty cents per 
pound, until the month of May. 

Discussion. 

H. Weld Fuller said that there was considerable range of tem- 
perature in the houses mentioned ; the essayist had advised forty 
degrees for pears, but he would like to hear something further in 
regard to temperature. 

Mr. Wilder replied that his remarks referred principally to 
pears, and more especially some varieties which, ripening early, are 
more delicate than others, and will not bear so low a temperature. 
The Bartlett pear may easily be kept for a long time in a cold 
house, but it. loses its flavor after being exposed to a low tempera- 
ture for two weeks. It is very important that the temperature 
should be uniform, and so low as to prevent fermentation. He 
once had a house controlled by ice, and found that forty degrees 
would hold fermentation in check. His cellar sometimes gets 
below freezing and then he covers with mats, as Ellwanger & Barry 
do. In reply to a question whether the important point is not 
that the temperature, whatever it is, must be uniform, he said 
that it is, but it must be kept within certain limits — not too high 
or too low. 

David B. Flint said that he once had a crop of very fine Easter 
Beurre pears which were frozen hard on the tree, but he sprinkled 
them with water so as to thaw them slowly, after which they hung 
on the tree for two weeks. They were then wrapped in paper 
and packed carefully in a box and put on a table in the cellar, and 
on Christmas Day he went to New York and shut up the house, 
and the pears were not looked at until he came back on the 9th of 
May, when he expected to find them rotten, but they were in per- 
fect condition and finely ripened ; and he distributed them among 



220 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

friends and physicians, for sick persons. He thought they must 
have been frozen while in the cellar, for it was half out of ground 
and had only an eight-inch wall, with a window of single glass near 
the pears. His partner once put a bushel box of pears into an 
out-house and forgot them until spring, when they were taken out 
in perfect condition. 

William H. Hills of Plaistow, N. H., said there are many things 
about the keeping of fruit that are difficult to explain. He sup- 
posed that keeping a uniform temperature would preserve fruit. 
Last fall the New Hampshire Agricultural Society offered pre- 
miums for Early Bough apples, and he wrapped his in paper and 
packed them in jars in gypsum to keep them until the exhibition. 
Some that he left in his office, which was warmed by a stove, kept 
to December and then dried up, while those which he took to the fair 
kept four days with difficulty. He did not understand how apples 
kept on the ground, when they would freeze on a shelf. He 
has kept apples sound in tight barrels while those in more open 
casks decayed. He has built a dry cellar, where the thermometer 
sometimes falls to twenty-eight degrees, and then if more warmth 
is desired, he puts in a lighted lamp, which raises it to thirty-two 
degrees or more, and here apples keep exceedingly well though 
the thermometer is as low as twenty-seven or twenty-eight degrees 
half the time. There has been much discussion as to whether 
apples should be kept dry or damp. He knew an instance where 
water got into a cellar, yet the apples kept well. 

Mr. Wilder said that the preservation of apples on the ground 
arises from the moisture in the ground extracting the frost ; as 
syringing plants, when frozen in the greenhouse, thaws them with- 
out injury. He had aimed, in his paper, to show how cheaply a 
fruit house can be made, and how fruit can be kept with a 
little care. 

Mr. Hills thought that freezing apples once might not injure 
them, but repeated freezing and thawing would, and handling 
while frozen would injure them. 

O. B. Hadwen said that it is one thing to cultivate apples and 
another to preserve them. We are fortunate in living in a section 
where fruits do not all ripen at one time ; especially the large 
fruits, such as the apple and pear, which extend over a long period. 
As Mr. Wilder had said, uniformly cool temperature is the impor- 
tant point ; if irregular, the ripening is a matter of uncertainty. 



THE RIPENING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 221 

It is not desirable to preserve fruits at the expense of losing their 
flavor. Housekeepers take fruits when in their best condition, 
and put them up in glass jars, and the flavor is preserved ; it is 
easily done, and they are always ready for use. The Gravenstein 
and Palmer apples are unrivalled in quality and can be kept in 
perfection ; pears also may be kept perfectly. He thought, as a 
rule, if we extend the keeping of fruits, we extend the price. 

Robert Manning thought that the most critical time in regard to 
keeping fruit is the warm days in autumn — the lovely Indian 
Summer days of October. Especial care is then needed to carry 
them past this time. They should be piled up on the north side 
of a building, or if kept inside the doors should be open during 
the night and closed by day. Last October was uncommonly 
warm, and therefore unusually difficult to keep fruit through. 

Mr. Wilder said, in answer to an inquiry, that everything de- 
pends on the condition of fruit when it is placed in the storehouse. 
His superintendent watches the picking of his fruit with the 
greatest care ; every fruit is handled as carefully as an egg. The 
dealers in Boston who buy pears in the market to keep in the cool 
houses often suffer loss from the careless way in which the fruit 
has been handled. Fruit placed in the storehouse bruised and in 
uneven condition as to ripeness will never keep. 

Mr. Hadwen said that fruit designed to be kept should be picked 
before it is too ripe. He had kept green Boussock pears for four 
weeks. It is especially desirable in gathering winter apples, such 
as Baldwins or Greenings, which ars wanted to keep late, that 
they should not be too ripe. 

The Chairman, Benjamin G. Smith, said that shippers begin 
gathering apples two or three weeks before it is generally done. 

E. W. Wood agreed with Mr. Manning that the time of warm 
autumn weather is a critical one in the keeping of fruit. He gen- 
erally picks his Anjou pears about the tenth of October, and last 
year they ripened about the end of that month and he had to send 
them to market. Every year apples are found under leaves, per- 
fectly sound, in the spring. He thought those who store apples like 
to have the temperature as low as 30° and from that to 28°. Every 
year they get caught and frozen, but this is not considered an 
injury if the fruit is not wanted for immediate use. His father 
had stored apples in the cellar and found them frozen, but he 
allowed them to thaw without moving and they came out in per- 



222 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

feet condition. They must not be shaken while frozen. People 
ask why fruit does not keep as well as it used to, but they are 
thinking of old-time cellars in the country, where there were no 
furnaces, and the cellars had to be banked up to keep out the 
frost. He thought the opinion of dealers is that houses where ice 
is used are apt to be damp from the waste of the ice, and that con- 
sequently the flavor is not as good and the fruit does not keep as 
well as where chemicals are used. In the cold storage house on 
North street, which is five stories high and a hundred and fifty feet 
deep, with an engine in the attic, and kept cool b}* the use of chem- 
icals, it is so dry that matches laid anywhere will light with perfect 
ease, and he was under the impression that fruit comes out of such 
a house with better flavor than from an ice house. Cold storage is 
a great convenience to' fruit growers ; Bartlett or other pears can be 
stored when there is a surplus, and put on the market as it will 
bear them, thus producing a very beneficial effect by equalizing 
prices and preventing the gluts that were so common formerly. 
The Vicar is the only kind that was carried through to the first of 
February this year. 

Mr. Hills said that fruit from different soils will vary in keep- 
ing ; he watches his fruit and picks that of trees on warm soils first ; 
if he followed the opposite course, those on warm soils would be 
all on the ground before he got to them. 

Joseph H. Woodford said that all depends on the time of pick- 
ing ; if fruit is left on the tree till fully ripe it will not keep. The 
sooner a pear is picked, after it attains its full size, the better. He 
was lately in Central America, and when he went to buy some 
bananas to bring home the dealers asked him whether he wanted 
full ripe, or two-thirds, or three-quarters. They said full ripe fruit 
would not keep but two days, while two-thirds ripe would keep till 
he got home ; and it did, but did not have the flavor of fully grown. 
The interruption of the ripening process is what keeps fruit, but 
the temperature must be uniform after this interruption. 

Mr. Flint said that he once kept nine or ten barrels of apples 
on the trees till the 9th of November, when his neighbors thought 
they were spoiled, but he piled the barrels up on the north side of 
a building until Christmas, and then put them in the stable and 
covered with straw, and they kept finely till April. 

Mr. Wood said that Mr. Flint's apples probably kept cool on 
the tree. He once picked some Roxbury Russet apples very 



THE RIPENING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 223 

carefully and left them in piles on the ground until they were covered 
with a foot of snow ; they were afterwards packed in barrels in 
coal ashes and opened the middle of June, when thej 7 were very 
nearly perfect — plump, with the flesh crisp and juicy, and of find 
flavor when others had lost their flavor. The air was excluded 
from them and the temperature was even. Fruit rooms in 
dwelling houses, even though separated from the furnace cellar, 
do not compare with farmers' cellars for keeping fruit. 

Mr. Wilder said that the last season was one of the worst he 
had known for keeping fruit. The opinion that fruit, when kept 
in houses where cold is produced by chemicals, comes out with 
better flavor than that kept in ice houses may be correct, but there 
is difference of opinion on that point. 

Referring to this being the last of the series of meetings 
for discussion, Mr. Wilder said that he could not allow the 
occasion to pass without expressing the great interest he felt in 
these discussions, and the pleasure and profit he had derived 
from being able to attend so many of them. Next to the exhibi- 
tions of the Society, nothing has conduced so much to its popular- 
ity and usefulness as these weekly discussions. The bringing 
together of persons, interested in the same objects, to compare the 
results of their experience, is the most powerful agenc} r in advanc- 
ing progress and improvement in our age, and so it will continue 
to be in all coming time. The knowledge obtained at these meet- 
ings is valuable to all those who attend them, and moreover is very 
widely disseminated by the publication of our proceedings. Many 
of the papers read have been printed in full, not only in our 
American journals, but also in the horticultural journals of Eng- 
land. He therefore felt a deep interest in the perpetuation of these 
meetings, and hoped that they might be continued from year to year, 
and that the Society might go on, with increasing prosperity, long 
after he should have been consigned to the bosom of mother earth. 

The meeting then adjourned without day. 

The following letter from Parker Earle, .President of the 
American Horticultural Society, was received by Mr. Wilder too 



224 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

late to be incorporated into his paper, but is deemed, by the Com- 
mittee on Publication, of sufficient interest to be printed here. 

Cobden, III., April 10, 1886. 
My Dear Mr. Wilder : — 

I have just now returned from my winter home on the Gulf 
Coast, and find your letter awaiting me. My son tells me that he 
dropped you a line explaining the delay. 

I am glad you are preparing a paper on the important topic of 
" The Ripening and Preservation of Fruits." I am very willing to 
contribute suggestions from my own experience, which has mostly 
been confined to cold storage for exhibition purposes, and to re- 
frigeration during transportation. I have also been a frequent 
visitor to cold storage 1 houses which were carding fruits for com- 
mercial purposes. 

The best results I have known in cold storage on a large scale 
have been accomplished without ice, but by ice-making machinery 
— the Pictet system, or the Boyle system will do this — where the 
cold is produced in the storage rooms by the circulation of refrig- 
erated brine, at a temperature of 16° Fahrenheit, through extensive 
systems of iron pipes placed in the tops of the cooling rooms ; the 
amount of brine circulated (and hence the amount of the cold 
produced in a given room) being regulated by stopcocks. This 
system is perfectly adapted to large or moderate sized establish- 
ments, and the degree of cold can be adapted to the varying wants 
of the rooms with ease and certainty. 

Next to this come the cold houses where large bodies of ice 
are stored above the fruits, the amount of cold being determined 
by the sliding of doors or valves. In all cases the houses should 
be constructed with several dead air spaces in the walls, and floors 
(very cheaply secured by successive linings of building paper, sep- 
arated by strips of wood). In smaller rooms the ice can be in- 
troduced daily, according to the wants of the produce stored ; and 
the degree of cold easily determined by the quantity. For this 
purpose an ice pan, with proper drainage, can be arranged in the 
upper part of any room sufficiently isolated from external influ- 
ences, and the ice put in as wanted. 

The most successful refrigerator cars are built upon this plan. 
The Tiffany car, which is b} T far the best adapted of any for the 
transportation of fruits, is constructed with a V shaped ice pan 



THE RIPENING AND PRESERVATION OF FRUITS. 225 

(~"\^^^-"") running the entire length of the car ; this pan being 
filled through the top of the car. This pan reaches to within one foot 
of the wall of the car on eachs ide. The operation is simply this : , 
The warm air, laden with surplus moisture, rises from the load of 
fruit below, passes over the ice, which cools the air and condenses 
the moisture, and the air descends cold and comparatively dry. 
The result is constant circulation of the air in the car (or the 
room) without any machinery, or any ventilation ; and the con- 
stant cooling of the cargo, with an atmosphere sufficiently dry for 
the good of the fruit. It is all done by that force which causes 
heat to ascend and cold to descend. It makes no difference 
whether the storage room be on the ground or on wheels. 

There is no doubt that the durability of all fruits is increased 
by a proper amount of cold. But it has been a common belief 
that fruits exposed to artificial cold would, when taken out, decay 
much more rapidly than they natural^ do. I think this is a de- 
cided mistake when the cold has not been excessive. For instance, 
the exhibits of apples and other fruits from certain States, made 
at the great International Exhibition of Fruits in connection with 
the World's Exposition at New Orleans, were in part placed in 
cold storage in that city several months before they appeared on 
our tables. It was generally expected that the}'' would melt down 
in a Very few days. But they lasted in a most surprising manner. 
As a general thing they lasted for a good many weeks upon the 
exhibition tables. I particularly recall some plates of Maiden's 
Blush apples, from Pennsylvania, which were in cold storage for 
three months, and then stood upon our tables in Horticultural 
Hall, which was nearly all glass in walls and roof, in good condi- 
tion for over two months. In fact, the manner in which this cold * 
storage fruit, from many States and from across the sea, endured 
the exposure in our moist and often quite warm palace of horticul- 
ture was a surprise and gratification to all who had any knowledge 
of the facts. 

My own experience in the transportation of strawberries, rasp- 
berries, blackberries, and other fruits to market in Tiffany cars, 
and the excellent keeping quality the}' have shown when taken 
out, has been most encouraging. 

For all these purposes we want no chemicals, no machinery for 
the circulation of the air, and no ventilation ; simply perfect isola- 



226 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tion from outside influences, the right amount of ice, or other 
cooling agency, and a free chance for the air of the apartment to 
come in contact with the ice, or cooling pipes, to deposit its moisture 
and part with its heat. 

I have the honor to remain, with great regard and esteem, 

Very truly yours, 

Parker Earle. 



ERRATA. 

On page 66, line 9 from bottom, for "serenity" read "endurance. 
On page 67, line 2, for "tutors" read "teachers." 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Prefatory Note ......... 3 

Business Meeting, January 2, 1886; Address of President Moore, pp. 5, 6; 
Address of President Walcott, 6-11 ; Vote of Thanks, 11 ; Committee on 
President's Address, 11; Appropriations, 11, 12; Letter from Mrs. 
Mary E. Whitmore, 12; Schedule of Prizes Ready, 12; Meetings for 
Discussion Announced ........ 12 

Business Meeting, January 9 ...... 12 

Meeting for Discussion, Postponed ...... 13 

Business Meeting, January 16 ; Report of Committee on Publication and 

Discussion read ...... -n 

Meeting for Discussion; A Trip to the Tropics, by Joseph H. Woodford, 

pp. 13-20; Discussion, 20-24; Fruits that Promise Well . . . 24-28 

Business Meeting, January 23; Vote concerning Forestry at Farmers' 

Institutes ......... 28 

Meeting for Discussion; The Forest Interests of Massachusetts, by 
William C. Strong, pp. 29-36; Discussion, 36-41; The Most Desirable 
Varieties of Fruit ...... , 41-43 

Business Meeting, January 30; Reports of Meetings, p. 43; Decease of 
George W. Pierce and of Henry P. Kidder announced, pp. 43, 44; Com- 
mittees on Nomination and Forestry Legislation appointed . . 44 

Meeting for Discussion; Forestry, by Rev. J. B. Harrison, pp. 44-48; 

Discussion ......... 48 49 

Business Meeting, February 6; Report of Treasurer read, p. 49; Resolve 
concerning Sinking Fund, 49; Memorial of Henry P. Kidder, pp. 49, 50; 
Members Elected ........ 51 

Meeting for Discussion; The Gladiolus, by William E. Endioott, pp. 

51-59; Discussion ........ 59-64 

Business Meeting, February 13; Report concerning Forestry Legisla- 
tion, p. 65; Memorial of George W. Pierce . . . . 65,66 

Meeting for Discussion; Bulbs and Tubers for Out-door Culture, by 

Mrs. T. L. Nelson, pp. 66-76; Discussion ..... 77-78 

Business Meeting, February 20; Transactions of Norfolk Agricultural 

Society presented ...... 79 

Meeting for Discussion; The Food Question, by Edward Atkinson, pp. 

79-99; Discussion ....... 99-103 



11 CONTENTS. 

Business Meeting, February 27; Election of Member of. the Vegetable 

Committee, p. 103; Prizes for Bulbs ...... 103 

Meeting for Discussion; Vegetable Growing, by "Warren W. Rawson, 

pp. 103-120; Discussion . . . . . . . . 121,122 

Business Meeting, March 6; Proceedings of American Pomological 

Society presented, pp. 122, 123; Members Elected .... 123 

Meeting for Discussion; The Progress of Orchid Culture in America, 

by Edward L. Beard, pp. 123-148 ; Discussion . . . 148-151 

Business Meeting, March 13 ; Protection of Birds .... 151,152 

Meeting for Discussion; Homestead Landscapes, by George Austin 

Bowen, M.D., pp. 152-167; Discussion ...... 168-170 

Business Meeting, March 20 ....... 171 

Meeting for Discusston; The Care and Embellishment of Cemeteries, 

by John G. Barker, pp. 171-189; Discussion ..... 189-192 

Business Meeting, March 27 ...... 192 

' 6eting for Discussion; Nitrogen: Why the Crops Must Have It and 
Where they Must Get It, by Prof. G. C. Caldwell, pp. 192-205 ; Discus- 
sion ... . ..... 205-207 

Business Meeting, April 3; Special Prizes for Roses, p. 207; Members 

Elected 207 

Meeting for Discussion ; The Nomenclature of Fruits, pp. 207-211 ; Ex- 
tending the Influence of the Society ...... 211-214 

Business Meeting, April 10 . . . . . . . 214 

Meeting for Discussion; The Ripening and Preservation of Fruits, 
by Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, pp. 214-219 ; Discussion, 219-223 ; Letter 
from Parker Earle . . . , . . . . . 223-226 



TRANSACTIONS 



OP THE 




assatjpstfls forlicdteal Stoettjj, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



PART II. 




BOSTON : 

PRINTED FOB THE SOCIETY. 

1887. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



f$fosatjmsrfte Horticultural Stocidg, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



PART II. 




BOSTON : 
PRINTED FOE THE SOCIETY 

1887. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



^mmhintt* °§mtmi\tm%\ gf mt% 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, May 1, 1886. 

The meeting of April 10 having adjourned to this day was 
called to order by the President, Henry P. Walcott, but no 
quorum was present and the meeting 

Adjourned to Saturday, June 5. 



4 
BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, June 5, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by 
the Executive Committee, were, on ballot, duly elected members 
of the Society : 

Edward C. Cabot, of Brookline. 

T. R. Callender, of Wellesley Hills. 

Varnum Frost, of Belmont. . 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



232 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, July 3, 1886. 

A duly notified stated meeting of the Society was holden at 11 
o'clock, the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

The President reported that the Executive Committee had ap- 
proved the appropriation of $235 for prizes for roses at the Rose 
Show in June, in addition to the amount previously appropriated. 
The appropriation was unanimously voted by the Society. 

William C. Strong moved that in compliance with the regula- 
tions of the State Board of Agriculture a prize of $10 be offered 
for the best plantation of ship timber, and that the prizes offered 
last year for the best reports of awarding committees be offered 
the present year. 

The motion was unanimously carried. 

On motion of Edward L. Beard, it was voted that the Secre- 
tary be authorized to send to the meeting of the Society of Amer- 
ican Florists, in Philadelphia, August 18, a letter expressing the 
sympathy of this Society with the aims and efforts of the Society 
of Florists, and that William J. Stewart be the bearer of the 
letter, as the representative of this Society. 

Charles Ripley, of Dorchester, and 
Luther ^Idams, of Brighton, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee as mem- 
bers of the Society, were, on ballot, duly elected. 

Adjourned to Saturday, August 7. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, August 7, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

The President, as Chairman of # the Executive Committee, re- 
ported a recommendation that some preparatory action be taken 



PHOTOGRAPH OF AMERICAN FLORISTS. 233 

by the Committee on Establishing Prizes, in reference to the meet- 
ing of the American Pomological Society in this city, in 1887 ; 
and also that the same Committee consider the subject of Fores- 
try Prizes. The report was unanimously adopted. 

Agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, the President ap- 
pointed the following Committee to nominate suitable candidates 
for the various offices of the Society for the year 1887 : Wil- 
liam C. Strong, Chairman ; C. H. B. Breck, Edward L. Beard, 
Charles N. Brackett, Charles F. Curtis, Francis H. Appleton, C. 
M. Atkinson. 

Adjourned to Saturday, September 4. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, September 4, 18 Q '6. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holclen at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. William C. 
Strong, Chairman of the Committee to nominate candidates for 
officers and standing committees for the next 3'ear, reported a 
printed list which was accepted. It was voted that the Commit- 
tee be continued and requested to nominate candidates in place of 
any who might decline before the election. 

On motion of William C. Strong, it was voted, as the sense of 
the meeting, that the Committee on Plants and Flowers should 
award, during the present month, such gratuities as they deem for 
the interest of the Society, not to exceed $200, in anticipation of 
the approval of the Executive Committee and of the Society at 
the October meeting. 

The Secretary presented, in behalf of William J. Stewart, a 
photograph of members of the Society of American Florists, 
taken in the grounds of George W. Childs, at Philadelphia. It 
was voted that the picture be accepted and that the thanks of 
this Society be presented to Mr. Stewart therefor. 

Julius A. Palmer, Jr., of Boston, and 
Francis B. Snow, of Dorchester, 

having been recommended by the Executive Committee as mem- 
bers of the Society, were, on ballot, duly elected* 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



234 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, October 2, 1886. 

A stated meeting of the Society, being the Annual Meeting for 
the choice of officers and standing committees, was holden at 11 
o'clock, Vice-President C. H. B. Breck in the chair. The Record- 
ing Secretary stated that the requirements of the Constitution and 
By-Laws in regard to notice of the meeting had been complied with. 

Agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, the chair appointed 
Charles L. Fowle, Wiliiam H. Spooner, and Robert Manning a 
Committee to receive, assort, and count the votes given, and re- 
port the number. 

The polls were opened at a quarter past eleven o'clock, and it 
was voted that they be kept open for one hour. It was also voted 
that the check list be used. 

The Chairman reported from the Executive Committee a recom- 
mendation that an additional appropriation of $200 be made for 
the Committee on Plants and Flowers for gratuities. The appro- 
priation was unanimously voted. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee, were, on ballot, duly elected members : 

Duncan Aird, of Belmont. 
George Mc William, of Whitinsville. 
Edward J. Forster, M. D., of Charlestown. 
John H. Haines, of Roxbury. 

The polls were closed at a quarter past twelve o'clock, and the 
Committee to receive, assort, and count the votes, after attending 
to that duty, reported 

The whole number of ballots cast . . .48 
Necessary for a choice ..... 25 

And the persons having the number necessary for a choice 
were, agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, declared by the 
presiding officer to have a majority of votes, and to be elected 
Officers and Standing Committees of the Society for the year 
1887. 

Adjourned to Saturday, November 6. 



VOTE TO DISPOSE OF BONDS. 235 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, November 6, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Societ} 7 was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, re- 
ported from that Committee a recommendation that the Society 
appropriate $6,000 for prizes for the year 1887. Also, that in 
view of the meeting of the American Pomological Society, an ad- 
ditional sum, not exceeding $500, be appropriated for Special 
Prizes for Fruits at the Annual Exhibition. 

The report was accepted, and, agreeably to the Constitution 
and By-Laws, laid over until the stated meeting in January. 

On motion of William H. Spooner, it was Voted, That the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements make inquiries in regard to a more spa- 
cious hall for the Annual Exhibition. 

On motion of Edward L. Beard, it was unanimously Voted, 
That the Finance Committee be authorized to dispose of the 
bonds purchased as a Sinking Fund, and apply the proceeds 
towards to the payment of the mortgage debt on the Society's 
building. 

The following named persons, having been recommended by the 
Executive Committee for membership in the Society, were, on 
ballot, duly elected : 

Elbridge Baker, of Wellesley. 

William P. Rich, of Chelsea. 

William H. Teel, of West Acton. 

Leverett M. Chase, of Roxbury. 

Professor William G-. Tousey, of College Hill. 

John W. Scott, of Nahant. 

Allen V. Abbott, of Boston. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 4. 



236 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 4, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Vegetables was read by 
Charles N. Brackett, Chairman, accepted, and referred to the 
Committee on Publication. 

The Annual Report of the Committee on Plants and Flowers 
was read by Joseph H. Woodford, Chairman, accepted, and 
referred to the Committee on Publication. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Fruits asked for further 
time to prepare his report, which was granted. 

The President as Chairman of the Executive Committee, pre- 
sented the Schedule of Prizes for 1887 with the recommendation 
that $3,300 be appropriated for Prizes and Gratuities for Plants 
and Flowers instead of the $3,000 previously recommended, and 
also that the Schedule be referred back to the Committee for 
Establishing Prizes, for amendment, so as to leave a balance of 
$150 for gratuities. The report was accepted, and the Schedule 
was referred as therein recommended. 

It was Voted, That notice be given, in the report of the meeting 
in the daily papers, to all members who wish to discuss the Sched- 
ule, that it will be considered at the next meeting of the Society, 
and that when this meeting adjourn it be for one week. 

The Committee of Arrangements were authorized to secure the 
Great Hall of the Mechanics' Building for the Annual Exhibition 
in 1887, on the most favorable terms. 

The President read the following Report and Vote, which had 
been addressed to him : — 

Sir : The Committee appointed at the meeting of the Society held 
on the second day of January, 1886, to consider the suggestions 
made by the President in his inaugural address in regard to the 
necessit}' of procuring better accommodations for the exhibitions 



REPORT ON A BUILDING FOR THE SOCIETY. 237 

of the Societ} 7 than it now enjoys, beg to report : That, in their 
opinion, the building owned by the Society cannot be altered to 
meet the requirements, either in space or convenience, of an ex- 
hibition of plants which would properly illustrate the actual devel- 
opment and importance of Massachusetts Horticulture. More 
space is required for our exhibitions, and space into which large 
plants can be easily and safely transported without the risk which 
attends their transportation to the second or third story of any 
building ; and more space is absolutely needed for the unsurpassed 
and inestimably valuable library of the Society. 

Your Committee has examined various sites in different parts of 
the city with the view of recommending the purchase of a piece 
of land and the erection upon it of a new building adapted to the 
actual needs of the Society. It has not been possible, however, 
to find any piece of unoccupied land in a suitable locality and of 
sufficient size for this purpose. Your Committee, nevertheless, 
has caused to be prepared a plan which is now submitted for your 
consideration, of a proposed horticultural building, which they 
believe will, if it can be built, afford the Society all the accommo- 
dations it will require, and they recommend that the President of 
the Society be authorized, in the name of the Society, to petition 
His Honor the Mayor of Boston for autborhVy to erect a building 
of this general character on the Public Garden of the city at some 
convenient point on Boylston Street. 

It seems to be peculiarly fitting that the exhibitions of the So- 
ciety should be held in the garden of the city, and it is the opin- 
ion of your Committee that if this scheme can be adopted the 
usefulness of the Society will be greatly extended, to its own ad- 
vantage and to the benefit of the people of Boston. It is sug- 
gested, in case this plan can be adopted, that a portion of the 
second story of the building should be finished as offices and 
offered to the city of Boston for the use, without rent, of the Mu- 
nicipal Board of Park Commissioners, who very properly would 
thus become closely associated with our Society, whose influence 
might properly be exerted in shaping and influencing the Park 
policy of the city. It is proposed to supplement the building with 
a large tent, to be used at the time of our principal exhibitions ; 
in which large plants could be grouped easily, safely, and 
effectively. The cost of such a building is estimated to be fifty 
thousand dollars, a sum of money which can be easily raised upon 



238 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the property of the Society. Your Committee recommend the 
passage of the enclosed Vote, and beg to be discharged. 

C. S. Sargent, ~\ 

C. M. Hovey, > Committee. 

F. L. Ames. ) 

The Vote, recommended by the Committee, is as follows : 

Voted, That the President of the Society be requested to peti- 
tion His Honor the Mayor of Boston, for authority to build, under 
conditions to be arranged hereafter, a building at some point on 
Boylston Street in 'the Public Garden, for the uses of the So- 
ciety. 

The Report was accepted and the Committee discharged, and 
the Vote was adopted. 

The following named persons, having been recommended for 
election as members of the Society, were, on ballot, duly elected : 

Edwin H. Jose, of Cambridgeport. 
Aaron Low, of Essex. 
Dr. Orren S. Sanders, of Boston. 
Augustus Andrews, of Dorchester. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 11. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 11, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

On motion of Edward L. Beard it was voted that the considera- 
tion of the Schedule of Prizes for 1887 be first in order. The 
Committee on Establishing Prizes reported the Schedule, amended 
in accordance with the instructions given on the 4th instant. The 
subject was fully discussed by Mr. Beard, the President, William 
J. Stewart, William C. Strong, Joseph H. Woodford, C. M. Hovey, 
andE. W. Wood, and the Schedule thus amended was then referred 
back to the Executive Committee for approval, agreeably to the 
Constitution and By-laws. 



DECEASE OF HON. MAESHALL P. WILDER ANNOUNCED. 239 

The annual report of the Fruit Committee was read by E. W. 
Wood, Chairman, accepted, and referred to the Committee on 
Publication. 

The annual report of the Library Committee was read by Wil- 
liam E. Endicott, Chairman, accepted, and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publication. Agreeably to a recommendation in this re- 
port, it was voted that the Society's Silver Medal be conferred 
upon George E. Davenport, in recognition of the services 
rendered by him to the Society by the presentation in 1875 of the 
valuable Herbarium of Ferns formed by him, and especially of his 
continued zeal in adding to it many rare and valuable specimens. 

Robert Manning read his Annual Report as Secretary and Li- 
brarian, which was accepted and referred to the Committee on 
Publication. 

Adjourned to Saturday, December 18, at 11 o'clock. 



BUSINESS MEETING. 

Saturday, December 18, 1886. 

An adjourned meeting of the Society was holden at 11 o'clock, 
the President, Henry P. Walcott, in the chair. 

President Walcott addressed the meeting as follows : 

It seems strange that an official announcement of the death of 
one of the oldest and earliest members of this Society should be 
in any sense a surprise ; and yet we who, within two short weeks, 
saw in this hall, busy with the affairs of his best-loved association, 
a man of eighty-eight years, who had carried the vigor of middle 
life into extreme old age — >we have felt the shock of a sudden 
parting. Marshall P. Wilder was a member of this Society since 
1830, president for several years, and member of the Executive 
Committee at the time of his death — always a leader here — he 
was an interested exhibitor and competitor at our latest exhi- 
bition. A loving admirer of our past, he gladly recognized the 
merits of the present time, and looked forward contentedly to a 
future improvement, though it might not be his work. 



240 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

We shall miss him and we shall mourn for him, yet was he su- 
premely fortunate in his death. 

" Why weep we, then, for him who, having won 
The bound of man's appointed years at last, 

Life's blessings all enjoyed, life's labors done, 
Serenely to his final rest has passed? 

* * * H 8 # 

And I am glad that he has lived thus long, 

And glad that he has gone to his reward ; 
Nor can I deem that Nature did him wrong, 

Softly to disengage the vital cord. 
For ere his hand grew palsied and his eye 
Dark with the mists of age, it was his time to die." 

Ex-President W. C. Strong said that the members of the So- 
ciety were in the presence of a great sorrow. Mr. Wilder had 
been with them so long and his presence had been such a benedic- 
tion that it was hard to give him up. The speaker moved that a 
committee be appointed to submit resolutions on the death which 
had occasioned so great a loss to the Society ; which motion was 
unanimously passed. 

The Chair appointed as that Committee Ex-Presidents Strong, 
Hovey, and Hyde, Edward L. Beard and Robert Manning. 

On motion of Benjamin G. Smith, the following persons were 
appointed a Committee to attend the funeral of Mr. Wilder, on 
the next day : 

The President, Henry P. Walcott. 

The Ex-Presidents, — 

r 

Charles M. Hovey, William C. Strong, 

James F. C. Hyde, Francis Parkman, 

John B. Moore. 

The Vice-Presidents, — 

John Cummings, C. H. B. Breck, 

Benjamin G. Smith, Frederick L. Ames. 

Members of the Executive Committee, — 

H. H. Hunnewell, Charles S. Sargent, 

H. Weld Fuller, William H. Spooner, 

and the following named members : — 

Robert Manning, John G. Barker, 

George W. Fowle, Edward L. Beard, 



APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1887. 241 

John Robinson, O. B. Hadwen, 

E. W. Wood, Francis H. Appleton, 

Joseph H. Woodford, John C. Hovey, 

Charles N. Brackett. 

The President, as Chairman of the Executive Committee, re- 
ported a recommendation that certain changes be made in the 
prizes proposed to be offered for Chrysanthemums, and that an 
additional sum of $154 be appropriated for Prizes and Gratuities 
for Plants and Flowers. The Schedule was then referred back to 
the Committee for Establishing Prizes. 

The President also reported, from the Executive Committee, a 
recommendation that the following appropriations be made for 
the year 1887 :— 

For the Library Committee, for the purchase of 
magazines and newspapers, binding of books 
and incidental expenses of the Committee . $300 

For the same Committee, to continue the Card 

Catalogue of Plates 100 

For the Committee on Publication and Discus- 
sion ........ 250 

For the Committee of Arrangements, — this sum 
to cover all extraordinary expenses of said 
Committee ....... 300 

Agreeably to the Constitution and By-Laws, all the appropria- 
tions recommended were laid over until the January meeting. 

The meeting was then dissolved. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS, 

FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



By JOSEPH H. WOODFORD, Chairman. 



The exhibitions during the year about to close have been of un- 
paralleled excellence. Competition has been stimulated by the 
largely increased premiums, and a general interest, manifested by 
both old and young members, to make our exhibitions worthy of 
the name and reputation of the leading Horticultural Society in 
this country has filled our halls to repletion on each exhibition 
day with the choicest plants and flowers. Constant additions to 
the list of competitors have made the arrangement of exhibitions 
somewhat embarrassing to your Committee, inasmuch as it has 
been difficult at times to know just how to apportion space for the 
different exhibits. Yet working in harmony with the able Com- 
mittee of Arrangements, we have incurred very few complaints of 
even seeming injustice or partialit} 7 ; and it has been, one of the 
aims of your Committee to treat all with the utmost courtesy and 
consideration, giving to each exhibitor, in the order of application, 
the best space left unoccupied, for the display of plants or flowers. 

The Society is to be congratulated on the success of its prize 
exhibitions, for never in its history has the quantity or quality of 
the exhibits been equalled. If more space is not soon ac- 
quired, your Committee, in conjunction with the Committee of Ar- 
rangements, will be compelled to limit contributors at our great 
exhibitions to allotments of space, which must be applied for 
in advance. 

We are glad to be able to report such an enthusiasm in floricul- 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 243 

ture, and the wonderful success of this year's exhibitions, and 
now beg leave to review the shows in succession, as they took 
place during the year. 

. Beginning with the 2nd of January, E. Sheppard placed upon 
the table some fine blooms of new and old Pelargoniums. Mrs. 
Francis B. Hayes showed a good plant of Epacris, and a variety of 
cut flowers from the greenhouse. C. M. Hovey exhibited eight 
plants of Helleborus niger in varieties, but mostly of muddy colors. 
Some of the varieties of this plant are desirable and are very 
useful when well grown and of clear colors. 

January 9. Mrs. A. D. Wood showed several pots of Freesia 
refracta alba, well flowered, and Mrs. F. B. Hayes and Mrs. E. 
M. Gill cut flowers in variety. 

January 16. Edwin Fewkes exhibited six pots of Roman Hya- 
cinths with numerous good spikes of flowers ; and Mrs. F. B. 
Hayes a large variety of cut flowers. 

January 23. David Allan was awarded a First Class Certificate 
of Merit for Urceolina pendula aurea, a bulbous plant, like Nerine 
in growth, with gracefully drooping flowers. John B. Moore & 
Son showed fine specimens of Hybrid Perpetual Roses Mad. 
Gabriel Luizet and Marquise de Castellane. Mrs. A. D. Wood 
arranged a nice vase of flowers. C. L. Allen & Co. were awarded 
a First Class Certificate of Merit for skill in the culture of Hinze's 
White and Black Carnations, the blooms shown by them being very 
fine. Mrs. F. B. Hayes showed a large variety of cut flowers. 
Jackson Dawson showed six varieties of Helleborus niger. 
Mrs. P. D. Richards exhibited Hepatica triloba in bloom, and va- 
rious wild berries from the wood. 

January 30. James Comley was awarded a First Class Certificate 
of Merit for a seedling Hybrid Tea Rose, which he has named Fran- 
cis B. Hayes ; color crimson tinged with magenta, quite fragrant 
and strong growing. Mrs. F. B. Hayes exhibited the new Rhodo- 
dendron Star of Flanders, and a large variety of cut flowers. C. 
M. Hovey brought a seedling Camellia. Jackson Dawson showed 
Lily of the Valley and Andromeda Japonica in pots, both well 
flowered. 

February 6 was the first prize day of the year ; and although 
the morning was very cold the exhibition proved a fine one. 
Mrs. A. D. Wood, who has been the largest cultivator of Free- 



244 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

• 

sia refracta alba, took the first prize for well-grown pans of that 
useful flower. Edwin Fewkes and Mrs. E. M. Gill took the first 
and second prizes for Roman Hyacinths. J. B. Moore & Son 
showed some excellent blooms of Hybrid Perpetual Roses. Mrs. F. 
B. Hayes exhibited splendid forced Lilacs and a large quantity of 
cut flowers. The fragrance of Lilacs at this inclement season of 
the year is very grateful ; and the blooms, of a delicate white, 
were shown in profusion. 

February 13. Mrs. F. B. Hayes exhibited plants of Eriostemon 
myrtifolium, and E. microphyllum ; also splendid cut flowers of 
Roses, Orchids, etc. Mrs. A. D. Wood contributed a hand- 
some vase of flowers. C. M. Hovey made a fine show of Aza- 
leas, Camellias, and other cut flowers. 

February 20. As the Spring approached, the exhibitions as- 
sumed greater magnitude, although as yet there had been little or 
no incentive in the way of prizes. Mrs. F. B. Hayes showed Rhod- 
odendron Veitchlanum, a grand plant, with large white fragrant 
flowers ; also two good Azaleas, a Dendrobium nobile, and a variety 
of cut flowers. J. B. Moore & Son showed fourteen varieties of 
Hybrid Perpetual Roses in perfection, among which were Duke of 
Teck, Mrs. Harry Turner, and Marquise de Castellane. C. M. 
Hovey showed about twenty varieties of Camellias, Mrs. E. M. Gill 
and S. S. Hovey, cut flowers in variety, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 
Freesia refracta alba, and Mrs. P. D. Richards a collection of 
ferns, mosses, and wild berries. 

February 27. The weather was very cold this morning, never- 
theless there was a fine exhibition. J. B. Moore & Son contrib- 
uted some beautiful Hybrid Perpetual Roses, among which were 
Mrs. John Twombly, Sir Garnet Wolseley and Fisher Holmes. 
Mrs. F. B. Hayes sent two pots of Rose Magna Charta in fine 
bloom, besides a large quantity of cut flowers. C. M. Hovey 
brought a large and varied collection of Camellias, and Edwin 
Fewkes and Jackson Dawson, Roses in variety. 

March 6. James Comley entered for the Prospective Prize a 
seedling Hybrid Tea Rose, to which he 1 has given his own name ; 
color pink ; of robust growth ; a cross between Baroness Roths- 
child and President. J. B. Moore & Son were awarded a First 
Class Certificate of Merit for superior culture of Hybrid Perpet- 
ual Roses, particularly Mad. Gabriel Luizet ; the blooms shown 
today were most beautiful. Jackson Dawson exhibited Roses 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 245 

grown on a Japan stock. The plants were taken from the open 
ground in November, and were of superior growth and quality. 
E. M. Wood & Co. presented some very large Cornelia Cook 
Roses. Norton Brothers showed fine blooms of Baroness Roths- 
child Roses. David Allan was awarded a First Class Certificate 
of Merit for a well flowered specimen of Cattleya Roezlii speciosa. 
A. W. Spencer exhibited a large plant of Dendrobium Wardia- 
num — a very fine specimen and well flowered. C. M. Hovey 
showed a large collection of Camellias, also Andromeda Japonica, 
Double Cinerarias, and Azaleas. Among the latter was a very 
large cluster of a fine white seedling, named Snowball. James 
O'Brien showed some C3 T clamens of remarkably vivid colors, and 
forced Lilacs. Mrs. F. B. Hayes sent a large display of Azaleas, 
Himalayan Rhododendrons, etc. E. Sheppard brought twelve pots 
of Cinerarias, and cut flowers in variety ; Mrs. E. M. Gill, a fine 
plant of Amaryllis Aurora and a quantity of cut flowers ; and 
S. S. Hovey and Mrs. A. D. Wood, cut flowers in variety. 

March 13. Jackson Dawson exhibited twelve pots of Hybrid 
Perpetual Roses grafted on the Japan stocks Rosa multiflora and 
R. parviflora — very fine bushy plants, and wonderfully floriferous. 
J. B. Moore & Son showed splendid blooms of Hybrid Perpetual 
Roses, including Baroness Rothschild and White Baroness. Theo- 
dore N. Vail contributed twelve pots of Cinerarias ; Mrs. F. B. 
Hayes, Roses, Azaleas, and elegant Rhododendrons ; C. M. 
Hovey, a fine collection of Camellias ; John L. Gardner, some 
extra large Neapolitan Violets ; Mrs. E. M. Gill, a variety of cut 
flowers; and Mrs. A. D. Wood, a nice basket of flowers; the 
whole making an excellent exhibition. 



SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 24, 25, and 26. 

The grand Spring Exhibition opened March 24, and was 
at once conceded by all who visited it to surpass any of its 
predecessors. On entering the Lower Hall we were greeted with a 
fine collection of Azaleas contributed by the veterans of our Soci- 
ety, Hon. Marshall P. Wilder and C. M. Hovey. Azalea exquisita, 
from Mr. Wilder, was fully seven feet in diameter ; and Azalea 
Suzette, from Mr. Hovey, was of about the same size — both evi- 
2 



246 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



dently companions of these gentlemen in their youth. A Bronze 
Medal was awarded to Miss Dove, of Andover, for Ouvirandra 
fenestralis, or Lace Plant, a native of Madagascar. This was 
a fine specimen, fully four feet in diameter, and was displayed 
in a large tub in the Lower Hall. 

The arrangement of the Upper Hall, which was completely 
filled with plants and flowers, was in excellent taste, the table and 
platforms being so conveniently placed as to allow visitors free 
access to view the different exhibits from all sides. At the rear 
end of the Hall, on a receding stage, was arranged a grand col- 
lection of sixty Indian Azaleas, contributed by Arthur W. Blake. 
These consisted of the newest and choicest varieties, and were 
completely covered with their pure and beautiful flowers. At the 
rear of this fine group, and interspersed among it, were grace- 
fully drooping Palms, the whole forming one of the most brilliant 
features of the show. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses, in pots, were staged by Jackson Dawson, 
Mrs. F. B. Hayes, N. T. Kidder, and E. Sheppard. Cut blooms 
of Hybrid Perpetual Roses were shown in profusion by J. B. 
Moore & Son, Mrs. F. B. Hayes, S. Niel, W. H. Elliot, E. Shep- 
pard, N. S. Simpkins, and Mrs. E. M. Gill. 

Orchids were shown in great variety by F. L. Ames, David 
Allan, H. H. Hunnewell, E. W. Gilmore, N. T. Kidder, and W. 
A. Manda. The collection of orchids staged by David Allan 
was most beautifully interspersed with choice Adiantums and 
other ferns ; thereby greatly adding to the gorgeous beauty of 
their flowers. Some of the most beautiful of the orchids exhib- 
ited were as follows : 



Cattleya amethystoglossa, 
' ' Lawrenceana, 
" Triance, 
Coelogyne Jlaccida, 

1 ' cristata, 
Cymbidium Linawianum, 
Dendrobium Ainsworthii, 
densiflorum, 
Dominii, 
Linawianum, 
nobile, 



Dendrobium Wardianum, 

Odontoglossum Alexandras, 
" nebidosum, 

" Pescatorei, 

" Roezlii album, 

" triumphans, 

Phalamopsis Schilleriana, 

" Stuartiana punctata, 

Cypripediums in variety, 

Lselias " " 

Oncidiums " " 



splendidissimum, Vandas 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 247 

The Dendrobium nobile presented by David Allan was a grand 
specimen with over four hundred flowers. 

Hardy shrubs and herbaceous plants were shown by C. M. 
Hovey ; Cyclamens by James O'Brien, and E. Sheppard ; Hardy 
Primroses by Joseph Tailby, and Edwin Fewkes ; Cinerarias by 
E. W. Gilmore, E. Sheppard, and George Seaverns ; Violets, in 
pots, by N. T. Kidder, S. Mel, and E. Sheppard — those from Mr. 
Kidder were very fine. Carnations, of six varieties and in large 
bunches, came from J. A. Foster. C. M. Hovey showed a fine 
collection of Camellia blooms, a plant of Gesnera macrantha, 
and a good collection of Azaleas and Pelargoniums. 

The prizes for Dinner Table Decorations were well competed for, 
W. A. Manda carrying off the first prize. The foundation of his de- 
sign was a well branched plant of Bilbergia, which afforded a 
collection of natural vases holding the water and the flowers — 
a very novel and effective arrangement. The other prize winners, 
in order, were J. O'Brien, Mrs. E. M. Gill, C. M. Hovey, and 
Miss S. W. Story. 

A Bronze Medal was awarded to Weigand Brothers, for Wei- 
gand's Giant Mignonette, bearing the largest spike of that de- 
lightfully fragrant flower that has been yet produced here. 

John N. May was awarded a Silver Medal for the new Tea 
Rose The Bride. This is a sport from Catharine Mermet, in 
color white, but very slightly tinged with pink on the outside pe- 
tals ; as beautiful in form as its parent, and fully as floriferous — 
a valuable acquisition to the list of White Tea Roses. 

W. A. Manda made a grand display of forced herbaceous 
plants, from the Botanic Garden of Harvard University, and they 
attracted a great deal of attention, as it was quite a new feature 
of our exhibitions to have this class of plants so largely shown in 
pots at this season of the year. Jackson Dawson staged some 
good seedling Azaleas ; also Primroses and forced hardy shrubs. 
E. W. Gilmore shewed in his collection of plants some very fine 
specimens of Calceolarias ; and he was awarded a gratuity for 
elegant arrangement of plants to produce a good general effect. 
N. S. Simpkins exhibited three pots of English Primroses, which 
for beauty of growth and profusion of flowers received the praise 
of every one who saw them. 

A First Class Certificate of Merit was awarded to Charles J. 
Powers for a new double white Narcissus ; and the same to 



248 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Denys Zirngiebel for Pinks: La PuriteY white, and Andalusia, 
yellow fringed. They had the appearance of being splendid vari- 
eties and of great promise. 

Gratuities were awarded to S. S. Hovej T , E. Sheppard, and 
George Seaverns, for cut flowers in variety ; J.B. Moore & Son for 
three vases of splendid Hybrid Perpetual Roses; and Mrs. F. B. 
Hayes for a general display of flowers and plants, among the latter 
of which was a remarkably large specimen of Cocos Weddelliana. 
Gratuities were also awarded to H. H. Hunnewell for plants and 
cut flowers ; F. L. Ames, for orchids and cut flowers ; and David 
Allan, for ferns, orchids, and cut flowers. 

The display of Dutch Bulbs was the most extensive and the 
most beautiful ever witnessed in our halls. C. M. Hovey and C. H. 
Hovey contributed pots of these elegant and show} 7 flowers by the 
hundred, and their exhibition alone was a revelation to many of 
what a feast of beauty can be spread out — and at very little ex- 
pense or trouble — by any one who is disposed to cultivate these 
easily grown plants. 

Their method of flowering these plants is as follows : — They 
procure the bulbs in September or October and pot them in good 
rich soil, and then bury the pots in a cold frame. The object 
gained by burying the pots is that when the roots of the bulbs be- 
gin to grow they will not be forced upward and out of the pots, 
the weight of earth on top holding the bulbs firmly in place. About 
a month before the bulbs are wanted in flower, the pots are 
brought into a moderate greenhouse, where, if they are properly 
watered and attended to, they are sure to produce an abundance 
of splendid fragrant flowers. Bulbs are the easiest of all plants 
to flower well, for they are already grown to produce flowers when 
we buy them. 

The General Union of Holland for the Promotion of the Culti- 
vation of Bulbs may well be esteemed a public benefactor, for in 
its desire to increase the cultivation of bulbs it has furnished, to be 
offered by our Society, gold and silver medals for Iryacinths in 
bloom. Our friends abroad not only grow the bulbs for us, but by 
their munificence stir up a competition for skill in flowering them ; 
giving us both the benefit of the flowers and the honor of wearing 
medals which they provide. 

At this exhibition C. H. Hovey won the First Prize, a Gold 
Medal, for fifty pots of Hyacinths ; these being a very superior col- 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 249 

lection of well flowered bulbs. C. M. Hovey won the Silver Gilt 
Medal and the Silver Medal, as second and third prizes, for 
collections of fifty pots. 

The names of the bulbs in the collection taking the Gold Medal 
are as follows : 

Agnes, bright carmine. Josephine, brilliant red. 

Argus, dark blue, white eye. La Grandesse, white. 

Baron Von Tuyll, deep purple. Laurens Koster,double,dark blue. 

Blanchard, white. Lord Derby, rich red. 

Blondin, porcelain blue. Lord Wellington, pale pink. 

Bouquet Tendre, delicate rose. Louis Philippe, double, light blue. 

Canning, deep porcelain blue. Mad. Zoutman, double, deep pink. 

Charles Dickens, soft rose. Mrs. Beecher Stowe, rich rosy red. 

Circe, very dark red. Norma, waxy pink. 

Cissa, sky blue. Paix de PEurope, white. 

Cosmos, deep rose. Pelissier, very dark red. 

Czar Peter, porcelain lilac. Pieneman, deep rich blue. 

Fabiola, pink, carmine striped. Queen Victoria, white. 

Garrick, double, blue. Seraphine, very delicate pink. 

General Pelissier, light blue. Veronica, carmine red. 

Gertrude, rosy pink. Vesta, white. 

Ida, fine yellow. Von Schiller, deep crimson 

striped. 

N. T. Kidder carried off the Society's first prize for twelve 
pots of Hyacinths ; C. H. Hovey the second ; and CM. Hovey 
the third. N. T. Kidder took the first prize for six pots of Hya- 
cinths ; Edwin Fewkes the second, and C. M. Hovey the third. 
CM. Hovey took the first prize for three pots of Hyacinths ; 
N. T. Kidder the second, and C H. Hovey the third. C M. 
Hovey took the first prize for one Hyacinth, and C H. 
Hovey the second. N. T. Kidder took the first and second 
prizes for a pan of ten Hyacinths, and C M. Hovey the third. 

Tulips, in pots, were shown in great profusion by CM. Hovey, N. 
T. Kidder, and C H. Hovey. The show of Narcissus, Daffodils, and 
Jonquils, by C M. Hovey, was superb, and the general display of 
spring bulbs by him was grand in the extreme. Lilies of the Val- 
ley, in pots, very fully flowered and very fragrant, were exhibited 
by Jackson Dawson, E. L. Beard, and C M. Hovey, and Ane- 
mones by Jackson Dawson. 



250 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

After following the Schedule of Prizes in the above report, we 
noticed that a great many other plants of special merit were placed 
on the stands and tables, but space will not allow of a detailed ac- 
count of them ; suffice it to say that the Spring Exhibition of this 
year will long be remembered as being replete with everything es- 
sential to make it appreciated by the public, and well worthy of 
our Society. 

April 3 % C.M. Hovey entered for the Prospective Prize his seedling 
Camellia, Florence Hovey ; color mauve crimson, flower large and 
S3 T mmetrical. Mrs. F. B. Hayes exhibited some very fine flowers of 
Himalayan Rhododendrons, such as R. Henderianum, R. Veitchi- 
anum, R. arboreum, R.jasminoides, etc. ; also a good variety of cut 
flowers of Roses, Azaleas, Lapagerias, etc. Mrs. E. M. Gill was 
awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for a seedling Amaryllis — 
Italia — beautifully striped with crimson on a white ground, clear in 
color, vigorous in habit and of a good form. A. W. Spencer and 
F. L. Ames each exhibited well flowered plants of Dendrobium 
chrysotoxum ; Edwin Fewkes pots of tulips, and Miss S. W. Story 
cut flowers in variety. Jackson Dawson presented a noble plant 
of Rosa multijlora, from Japan. The flowers are white, single, 
and in great panicles, very fragrant : it is a splendid lawn plant, 
being entirely hardy in this climate. This plant had, by careful 
computation, two thousand four hundred flowers and buds on it, 
and was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit. 

April 10. A very large collection of pans of forced hardy 
plants was presented by W. A. Manda, among which were Aqui- 
legia oxypetala^ A. glandulosa and A. coerulea. A. glandulosa 
was particularly fine ; color light blue, tipped with white ; large 
flowers, and dwarf in habit. A First Class Certificate of Merit 
was awarded for it. C. M. Hovey contributed a collection of Cam- 
ellia blooms, a seedling Amaryllis, and Rhododendron Countess 
of Sefton. Miss S. W. Story and S. S. Hovey brought a variety 
of cut flowers. 

April 17, Robert T. Jackson was awarded a First Class Certificate 
of Merit for Primula viscosa var. nivalis ; pure white in color ; 
flowers compact, foliage thick and glossy, and plant dwarf in habit. 
Mr. Jackson also showed a collection of polyanthus primroses, includ- 
ing Golden Laced and Hose-in-hose. E. Sheppard showed four- 
teen new varieties of Pelargoniums in fine large trusses ; also, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 251 

Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and Heaths. E. H. Hitchings made 
quite an interesting display of that harbinger of Spring, the He- 
patica triloba, both blue and white ; also, Tussilago, etc. 

April 24, C. M. Hovey entered for the Prospective Prize the 
seedling Azalea Memory of Mrs. Hovey ; color white, with lower lip 
shaded greenish yellow. He also showed Azaleas Eulalia Hovey 
and Mrs. J. R. Carter, and a plant of Rhododendron Duchess of 
Sutherland. Miss A. C. Kenrick showed blooms of Magnolia 
conspicua and Mrs. F. B. Hayes a plant of Rhododendron Coun- 
tess of Haddington. Mrs. P. D. Richards exhibited native flowers 
in variety and and a large collection of Ferns, Mosses, etc., from 
the wild woods. 

May 1. As usual at this season of the year, all cultivators of the 
soil are so busy in their gardens and greenhouses that they do not 
find time to devote to our Saturday exhibitions. Consequently 
the contributions have been somewhat curtailed of late; and more 
particularly today, when only two exhibitors appeared, Mrs. E. M. 
Gill and Miss S. W. Story; each of whom exhibited cut flowers in 
variety. In Mrs. Gill's collection we noticed some good large 
pansies. 

MAY EXHIBITION. 

May 8. 

This being a u prize day," although every one having to do with 
plants and flowers is very busy at this season of the year, a fair 
show was made, which resulted in drawing a goodly attendance, 
notwithstanding the weather was rainy. C. M. Hovey was the 
only exhibitor of Pelargoniums in pots ; and although his plants 
did not show that superior excellence in cultivation usually seen in 
his exhibits he was awarded the first and second prizes for Fancy 
and Zonale Classes. Mr. Hovey was also awarded the second and 
third prizes for three Indian Azaleas, the first prize not being 
awarded. N. T. Kidder received the first prize for a single plant 
of Azalea, the variety being Distinction ; and Hon. Marshall P. 
Wilder took the second prize with Louis Van Houtte. C. M. 
Hovey's first prize collection of Hardy Bulbs was very good, 
while J. H. Woodford's second prize collection was only ordinary. 
Mrs. E. M. Gill received the first prize for a Basket of Flowers. 



252 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Her collection of fifty blooms of Pansies was composed of very 
large and fine specimens, and she received the first prize for the 
same ; J. H. Woodford being second, and E. Sheppard third. 

Hardy Herbaceous Plants were exhibited in great profusion ; 
these are to be commended for permanent gardens, as a judicious 
selection will insure continuous bloom throughout the whole sea- 
son. 

The collection of Orchid blooms from David Allan was a lovely 
feature of this exhibition, and was greatly admired. Mrs. F. B. 
Hayes sent a fine collection of greenhouse and hard} 7 flowers, 
among which were Himalayan Ehoclodendrons, Double Flowering 
Cherries, (the common and Waterer's varieties), Magnolias? 
Daphne Cneorum, and Japan Pears with very large and showy 
flowers. N. T. Kidder exhibited fine Gloxinias ; and David 
Allan some good Auriculas. This plant is hardy when protected 
from the sun by shading with evergreen boughs. E. Sheppard 
showed fine trusses of Pelargoniums. 

The collection of Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs shown by W. A. 
Manda, from the Botanic Garden, was very interesting. Robert 
Manning brought a large vase of cultivated Trillium grandiflo- 
mm, which was remarkably fine and showed a decided improvement 
in consequence of generous garden treatment. Wild flowers were 
shown by Mrs. P. D. Richards, E. H. Hitchings, and C. W. San- 
derson. The display was large and varied, and attracted much 
attention. Prof. W. P. Wilson sent from North Carolina Asarum 
Canadense, A. arifolium, (Wild Ginger), and Chrysoganum 
Virginianum. There were cut flowers in profusion from Miss 
S. W. Story, J. H. Woodford, and Mrs. L. P. Weston. 

May 15. The exhibition of Herbaceous Perennials and other 
hardy plants and shrubs was remarkably good today. The Flower- 
ing Apples shown by Mrs. F. B. Hayes deserve special notice, as 
they are very floriferous and highly ornamental as lawn trees. 
Miss A. C. Kenrick showed blooms of Magnolia Soulangeana, M. 
Lennei, and M. speciosa. Cut flowers were shown in profusion by 
Mrs. L. P. Weston, Mrs. E. S. Joyce, and Mrs. E. M. Gill. 

May 22. As the Spring progressed, the interest in our Saturday 
exhibitions increased. Another interesting and instructive show of 
garden shrubs, herbaceous plants, and wild flowers, was made 
today, and a great number of appreciative visitors were present. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 253 

Among the numerous collection from the Botanic Garden were 
Iris Iberica and some splendid Cactus blooms. From the Arnold 
Arboretum Jackson Dawson brought eight varieties of Lilacs, 
some of them much superior to any now in general cultivation — 
notably Syringa pubescens and $. villosa. 

J. W. Manning also showed a large number of Flowering 
Shrubs, all of which were named. The other contributors were 
Miss S. W. Story, J. H. Woodford, Mrs. E. M. Gill, Edwin 
Sheppard, Mrs. L. P. Weston, and E. H. Hitchings. Mrs. P. 
D. Richards brought fifty species of wild flowers, including ten 
varieties of native violets. James W. Clark brought the Wild 
Mandrake, {Podophyllum peltatum), Mrs. H. L. T. Wolcott,Pan- 
sies ; CM. Hovey, a Hydrangea and Tulips ; and Frank Forbes a 
bouquet of wild flowers. 

May 29. The exhibition was enlivened by a grand collection 
of forty-three named varieties of tender Rhododendrons and 
seventy-two varieties of hardy kinds, the first of the season, from 
H. H. Hunnewell, foreshadowing what might be expected at the 
prize exhibition for this class of shrubs on the next Saturday. 

Mrs. F. B. Hayes also contributed a large collection of flowers 
and foliage from trees and shrubs, among which were twelve va- 
rieties of Japan Maples, four varieties of Hawthorns, six varieties 
of Lilacs, and three varieties of Horse Chestnuts. Hon. Marshall 
P. Wilder sent a large collection of Tree Pseonies, among which 
was a fine seedling named for him by the originator, Dr. J. P. 
Kirtland, and a seedling of his own, named Mima. 

J. W. Manning made an interesting show of herbaceous plants, 
and he was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for Onosma 
stellulata. The same award was made for Gaillardia grandi flora 
maxima, to W. A. Manda ; who staged a large collection of her- 
baceous plants besides. J. H. Woodford showed six pans of Clem- 
atis, in great variety. E. H. Hitchings showed a fine collection 
of native plants, imcluding a large vase of Azalea nudiflora, very 
beautiful and fragrant. 

RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 5. 

This Exhibition of Rhododendrons was the most extensive and 
complete within the recollection of the oldest members of our So- 



254 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ciety. The largest contributor to this grand show was H. H. Hun- 
newell, who placed in the Society's vases over one hundred named 
varieties of tender and an equal number of hardy kinds, which, 
with a line of brilliant Azaleas between, completely filled a 
large table running the whole length of our hall. In view of this 
unprecedented display, your Committee voted unanimously that the 
very highest tribute of appreciation within their power should be con- 
ferred upon this sumptuous exhibition, and therefore the Society's 
Gold Medal was awarded to Mr. Hunnewell, for his magnificent 
display. 

Some of the most beautiful varieties (nearly all half-hardy) 
were as follows : 



Bacchus. 
Baron Schroeder. 
Baroness Rothschild. 
Crown Prince. 
Duchess of Bedford. 
Duchess of Edinburgh. 
F. D. Godman. 
Frederick Waterer. 
George Paul. 
Helen Waterer. 
James Mcintosh. 
John Walter. 
Kate Waterer. 



Lady Grey Egerton. 
Marie Stuart. 
Martin *F. Sutton. 
Michael Waterer. 
Mrs. Arthur Hunnewell. 
Mrs. W. Agnew. 
Princess Mary of Cambridge . 
Ralph Sanders. 
Sigismund Rucker. 
Sir Joseph Whitworth. 
William Austin. 
W. E. Gladstone. 



Most of the prizes for Rhododendrons were taken by Mrs. F. B. 
Hayes, she having filled a large table with these blooms ; which, 
taken with the other flowers shown by her, made by themselves a 
Some of the finest of her varieties were 



grand exhibition. 



Auguste Van Geert. 

Austin Layard. 

Baroness Lionel de Rothschild. 

Brice Findlay. 

Charlie Waterer. 

Countess of Cadogan. 

Countess of Ilchester. 

Countess of Normanton. 

Duchess of Bedford. 



Duke of Portland. 
Earl Cadogan. 
Earl Haddington. 
E. W. Waterer. 
Frank Gomer Waterer, 
Jack Waterer. 
John Maclure. 
Lady Harcourt. 
Lady How. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 255 

Lord Selborne. Oliver Haywood. 

Lord Wolseley. Omer Pacha. 

Marchioness of Lansdowne. P. H. Waterer. 

Miss Alice de Rothschild. Princess Louise. 

Mrs. F. Hankey. Princess of Wales. 

Mrs. Layard. Purity. 

Mrs. Russell Sturgis. Robert Marnock. 

Mrs. Tom Agnew. Samuel Morley. 

Mrs. Tritton. Sir Richard Wallace. 

Mrs. Williams. The Queen. 

Nero. Victoria. 

Mrs. Ha3 T es, E. Sheppard, and C. M. Hovey showed some fine 
trusses of Azaleas. Tree Pseonies were shown by Hon. Marshall 
P. Wilder ; German Iris by A. H. Fewkes and J. W. Manning ; 
Clematis in variety by J. H. Woodford ; Hardy Trees and Shrubs 
by J. W. Manning ; one hundred bottles of cut flowers, each, by 
Mrs. A. D. Wood, Mrs. L. P. Weston and Mrs. E. M. Gill ; 
Native Plants by Mrs. P. D. Richards and E. H. Hitchings. 

A varied collection, and one of unusual excellence was brought 
from the Botanic Garden by W. A. Manda ; included in it was 
a large plant, of Sarracenia jlava, well flowered, for which he was 
awarded a Bronze Medal. W. H. Spooner exhibited the Stanwell 
Perpetual Scotch Rose, which is hardy, fragrant, and a perpetual 
bloomer. 

Denys Zirngiebel was awarded a First Class Certificate of 
Merit for Myosotis Empress ; a new kind, of deep blue color. 

Jackson Dawson brought from the Arnold Arboretum eighteen 
new seedling Rhododendrons, for which he was awarded a Silver 
Medal. He also exhibited a very large collection of beautiful 
new flowering shrubs, all named. 

Sewall Fisher exhibited seven varieties of new seedling Carna- 
tions possessing good qualities sufficient to warrant the Commit- 
tee in awarding the Society's Bronze Medal. 

E. L. Beard staged five well bloomed plants of Cattleya Mendelii. 
There were a great many other interesting features in this exhibi- 
tion, which, coupled with those of the preceding one as noted, 
have made these days memorable in the history of our Society. 
The}' mark many degrees of progress in the cultivation of Hardy 
Flowering Shrubs. 



256 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mrs. P. D. Richards staged about seventy species and varieties 
of Native Plants, including nearly all that were then in blossom in 
this vicinity ; a very interesting collection for the student, as they 
were all named. E. H. Hitchings also presented a large collec- 
tion of named native flowers, including eight native Orchids, 
viz : 

Aretliusa bulbosa, Cypripedium pubescens (rare) , 

Calypso borealis, Liparis liliifolia, 

Corallorhiza innata, Orchis spectabilis, 

Cypripedium acaule, Pogonia verlicittata. 

June 12. The interest in floriculture was certainty on the in- 
crease, for this exhibition was the best we have ever seen 
when not a " prize day" — although the grand show of roses, 
made by our principal growers, was only a forerunner of the 
i i feast of roses " to occur at the Annual Rose Exhibition a few 
days later. 

Extensive displays of roses were made by W. H. Spooner, 
Warren Heustis & Son, B. G. Smith, and J. S. Richards. Among 
Mr. Spooner's collection we noticed several fine varieties of Moss 
Roses. John B. Moore & Son contributed Paul's new single Hy- 
brid Perpetual Roses, White and Crimson. Jackson Dawson 
brought from the Arnold Arboretum a collection of nineteen 
species of roses, which were of great interest to botanists. 

H. H. Hunnewell contributed seventy named varieties of Rho- 
dodendrons ; the following were noted as among the finest : 

Duchess of Connaught, Mrs. Walter, 

Jack Waterer, Purity, 

Madame Cavalho, The Queen. 
Marshall Brooks, 

Mrs. F. B. Hayes also sent a splendid collection of Rhododen- 
drons ; some of the more striking were 

Charles Noble, Mrs. Hey wood, 

Congestum nigrum, Oculatum nigrum, 

Conspicua, Sir Joseph Whitworth (very 
Delicatissimum, dark color) . 

Fastuosum flore pleno, Surprise (very fine truss) , 

John Spencer, William Cowper. 
Lady Rowe, 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 257 

Mrs. Hayes was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for 
a new seedling Clematis, flowers very large, color light lavender 
with purplish bars ; a very handsome flower. 

F. C. Hook exhibited a large collection of Aquilegias, of clear 
delicate colors, fine forms, and in great variety ; for which he was 
awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit. Jackson Dawson 
showed a new Hydrangea from China, hardy, and of a soft yel- 
low color, for which the same award was made. He also showed 
a large collection of hardy flowering shrubs, gathered from the 
four quarters of the globe. 

W. A. Manda brought from the Botanic Garden an interesting 
collection of herbaceous plants. J. W. Manning had also a large 
collection of plants of the same class ; among them we noticed a 
fine spike of Lilium monadelphum. Collections of cut flowers 
were shown by Miss S. W. Story, Mrs. L. P. Weston, Mrs. E. S. 
Joyce, Mrs. E. M. Gill, Mrs. A. D. Wood, and Miss E. M. Har- 
ris. E. H. Hitchings brought wild flowers from the woods, in- 
cluding a large vase of Kalmia latifolia. 

June 19. It is not usually the case that flowers in great vari- 
et} T are brought in on the Saturday just preceding one of our 
great prize exhibitions, but today proved an exception, for very 
interesting collections from various exhibitors were presented. 
Among them was a fine display of Aquilegias from A. H. Fewkes, 
to which was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit. Mr. 
Fewkes also showed five varieties of good Moss Roses, and vari- 
ous other flowers. 

J. W. Manning exhibited nine varieties of Herbaceous Pseonies — 
Sulphurea, Alba, Old Pink, Claptoniana, Fulgida, Humeii, Louis 
Van Houtte, Bicolor, and Delachii. William Hobson showed 
thirty- three varieties of Dianthus barbatus, and B. G. Smith a 
large collection of Roses, Pseonies, etc. E. H. Hitchings brought 
a large collection of wild flowers, including Kalmia latifolia of a 
very deep pink color. 

ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 

June 22 and 23. 

The Annual Exhibition of Roses, Stove and Greenhouse Plants, 
and Cut Flowers, at this season of the year is looked forward to 



258 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

by all lovers of the beautiful in nature as an event of great 
importance. Great anxiety is also manifested by the expected 
exhibitors, and much care is exercised in the selection of the vari- 
ous specimens for exhibition. The season has been propitious, 
and the " Queen of Flowers" is dressed in her best robes waiting 
only the gardener's pleasure when she shall be introduced to her 
admirers at the Hall. The various exhibits are arranged and the 
large hall is completely filled with a collection of floral beauty 
unrivalled by any previous exhibition. 

Beginning with the schedule numbers in order, the awards were 
as follows : 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — To Warren Heustis & Son, the first 
prize for twelve Merveille de Lyon ; these were superb, both in 
size and color. David Allan and John B. Moore & Son, for Alfred 
Colomb ; David Allan, and Mrs. F. B. Hayes, for Baroness Roths- 
child ; Mrs. F. B. Hayes, and John B. Moore & Son, for John 
Hopper ; W. H. Spooner, for Merveille de Lyon ; Mrs. F. B. 
Hayes, and David Allan, for Mad. Gabriel Luizet : J. B. Moore & 
Son, for Mad. Victor Verdier; J. B. Moore & Son, for Thomas 
Mills ; W. H. Spooner, for six new varieties sent out since 1882. 

For seventy-two blooms, J. B. Moore & Son were awarded the 
first prize, and Warren Heustis & Son the second. For thirty-six 
blooms, J. S. Richards took the first prize, and J. B. Moore & Son 
the second. For eighteen blooms, W. H. Spooner received the first 
prize, and J. S. Richards the second. For nine blooms, J. S. 
Richards received the first prize, and Mrs. F. B. Hayes the second. 
For six Moss Roses, J. B. Moore & Son received the first prize. 
For three varieties of Moss Roses, in clusters, Edwin Fewkes re- 
ceived the first prize, J. B. Moore & Son the second, and W. H. 
Spooner the third. For the display of Hybrid Tea Roses, J. S. 
Richards was first, and Warren Heustis & Son second. For the 
general display, filling one hundred bottles, W. H. Spooner was 
first, J. S. Richards second, J. B. Moore & Son third, Edwin 
Fewkes fourth, and B. G. Smith fifth. 

One of the great features of the Rose Show was the spirited 
competition for the special prizes offered by the Society. These 
prizes were of such value as to call forth the best exertions of our 
rose growers, and a lively contest was the result ; and a large col- 
lection of splendid blooms was staged. 

The first prize for twenty-four blooms of Hybrid Perpetual Roses 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 259 

(no duplicates) was awarded to David Allan ; the second prize to 
J. S. Richards. 

The prize for twelve varieties of Hybrid Perpetual Roses, to J. 
L. Gardner. 

The prize for eighteen varieties of Hybrid Perpetual Roses, to 
J. S. Richards. 

The prize for six varieties of Hybrid Perpetual Roses, to J. B. 
Moore & Son. 

The prize for a general display of Roses grown in open culture — 
all classes except Hybrid and Moss, to C. M. Hovey. 

The prize for a Table Decoration of Roses, to J. H. Woodford. 

The first prize for twenty-four varieties of Hybrid Perpetual 
Roses, by an amateur, to J. L. Gardner ; the second to J. S. 
Richards. 

Stove and Greenhouse Plants. — The first prize for five was 
awarded to J. L. Gardner, who also took the first prize for a Speci- 
men Flowering Plant with Rhynchospermum jasminoides. 

F. L. Ames took the first prize for a Specimen Foliage Plant, 
and C. M. Hovey the second ; the plant in both cases being 
Dracaena Linden i. 

Orchids. — F. L. Ames was awarded the first prize for twelve 
Orchids, viz : — 

Aerides expansum, Epidendrum vitellinum majus. 

Cattleya Mendelii, Lwlia Schroederi, 

Cymbidium Lowianum, Masdevallia Harry ana, 

Cypripedium barbatum superbum, Odontoglossum Alexandras, 

Cypripedium caudatum roseum, Odontoglossum Cobbianum, 

Dendrobium thyrsijlorum. Vanda tricolor. 

The second prize was awarded to David Allan. 

The first prize for six Orchids was awarded to David Allan ; 
the second prize to F. L. Ames ; and the third to Thomas Greaves. 

F. L. Ames took the first prize for a specimen Orchid with 
Lailia purpurata, and Thomas Greaves the second with Cattleya 
Mendelii. 

Herbaceous P^eonies. — The first prize was awarded to John 
C. Hovey for a very fine assortment, as follows : — 

Cambridge, Perfection, 

Dorchester, Rosea Elegans, 

F. B. Hayes, Rubra Superba, 

Grandiflora, Festiva, 

Norfolk, Splendens. 



260 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The first eight in the list are seedlings, raised by John Richard- 
son of Dorchester, and are not only remarkable for their very double 
fine forms and brilliant colored flowers, but also for their great size 
when compared with most of the imported varieties. A number of 
them have been exhibited and noticed in former reports of our Com- 
mittee, viz. : Perfection was awarded a Silver Medal in 1869 ; 
Dorchester received a First Class Certificate of Merit in 1870 ; 
Rubra Superba the same in 1871, and Grandiflora the same in 
1883. 

The second prize went to Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. 

Sweet Williams. — The prizes were awarded to E. Sheppard, 
L. W. Goodell, and Edwin Fewkes, in order as named. 

Vase oe Flowers. — Mrs. E. M. Gill, took the first prize, 
Mrs. A. D. Wood the second and Miss S. W. Story the third. 

A Bronze Medal was awarded to Edwin Fewkes & Son for 
Delphiniums having splendid compact spikes and beautiful colors. 
Denys Zirngiebel showed Delphinium BrecMi, the new Clove 
Pink Mrs. Simkins, and an improved Candytuft. Robert Man-^ 
ning exhibited a large vase of Actinidia polygama, in fine bloom, 
which was much admired. This is a comparatively new climber 
from Japan, not only beautiful in flower and foliage but (when 
the pistillate and staminate parts are both present) producing 
fruit of pleasant flavor. 

W. A. Manda made a fine display, from the Botanic Garden, of 
orchids, stove and greenhouse plants, and cut flowers. David 
Allan's orchids were again shown interspersed with ferns, palms, 
and cut flowers, which gave his collection a very beautiful appear- 
ance. 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Miss Mary L. Vinal, and E. H. Hitch- 
ings brought great quantities of wild flowers from the woods, 
which attracted much attention. Numerous other contributors 
made excellent displays of flowers, the aggregate of which, added to 
the graceful decorations of the Hall, produced a grand effect, 
fully appreciated by a large number of visitors. 

July 3 will long be remembered as one of the " rosy " days ol 
the year. Since the grand annual show on the 22d and 23d of 
June, 3*our Committee had caused to be constructed a stage, run- 
ning the whole length of the centre table in the Lower Hall, for the 
purpose of exhibiting roses in the Society's vases, singly, and in 
a manner such as to give visitors a chance to study each rose by 



i "vt) t?towprs 2fi"^ 
EEPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND ^ 

itself, and to see the beauty of each individual flower. The vet- 
eran rose-growers were appealed to, and they came forth in their 
strength, contributing not less than seven hundred of the choicest 
blooms, which made the hall not only radiant 'with beauty but 
redolent with their delicious fragrance. Your Committee feel con- 
siderably elated at the success of this arrangement, for it was 
conceded b}^ all who saw it to be the very best table of Roses ever 
exhibited before our Society. 

A Silver Medal was awarded to John B. Moore & Son for their 
grand show, comprising one hundred and sixty named varieties of 
Hybrid Perpetual Roses, with a large number of duplicates. 

J. S. Richards staged over two hundred unnamed varieties of 
Etybrid Perpetual Roses, and he was awarded a Bronze Medal. 
Warren Heustis & Son staged fifty Hybrid Perpetual Roses, and 
Mrs. F. B. Hayes sent in about one hundred and fifty. 

This exhibition comprised in its entirety a " feast of roses " 
never to be forgotten. It was undoubtedly the finest display of 
roses, considering the lateness of the season, ever made in this 
country. 

A wonderful and novel display of hardy Alpine Sempervivums 
was made by John C. Hovey, comprising forty-five species and 
varieties ; and he was awarded a Bronze Medal. The names are 
as follows : 

Acuminatum. Grlobiferum. 

Arachnoideum. Grandiflorum. 

Arenarium. Heterotrichum. 

Assimile. Heuffeli. 

Arvernense. Hirtum. 

Boutignianum. Hispidum. 

Braunii. Hutesi. 

Calcareum. Longifolium. 

Chrysanthum. Lamotti. 

Compactum. Montanum. 

Cornutum. Neilrichi. 

Dollianum. Niederi. 

Elegans. Patens. 

Fimbriatum. Pilosella. 

Flagelliforme. Powelli. 

Glaucum. Reginae Amaliae. 

3 




JSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Rubicunda. Spinosum. 

Ruthenicum. Stenopetalum. 

Rupestre . Tectorum . 

Schlehani. Tectorum rusticum. 

Snittspani. Tomentosum. 

Sordidum. Triste. 
Soboliferum. 

John L. Gardner was awarded a Silver Medal for Japan Irises 
{Iris Kcempferi) , shown in rose boxes ; they were remarkably 
fine blooms of this species. 

This day also marked the beginning of our weekly Saturday 
shows ; and as our report is liable to be too verbose for publication 
if we enter into detail with each exhibition, we will only notice 
those features of each presenting uncommon interest. The prizes 
are always recorded, and as the Committee's record list is printed 
herewith for the information of those interested, it will not be neces- 
sary in this report to detail the names of all the prize-takers. 

July 10. Japan Irises were shown today by John L. Gardner, 
James F. C. Hyde, and E. Fewkes & Son. Those shown by Mr. 
Gardner were magnificent blooms and gave evidence of great skill 
in cultivation. 

John B. Moore & Son showed several large vases of superior 
blooms of Hybrid Perpetual Roses. 

Samuel P. Fowler was awarded a First Class Certificate of 
Merit for seedling Asclepias tuberosa of various shades of yellow. 

The collections of Flowering Shrubs and Plants from the Arnold 
Arboretum and Botanic Garden, and the displays of Hardy Her- 
baceous Plants and Native Plants by our usual exhibitors, were all 
quite full and received favorable comment from a large attendance 
of visitors. 

July 17 was Prize Day for Hollyhocks, and the display was very 
large. Besides those offered for prizes, collections were shown by 
C. F. Curtis, W. S. Ward, George Seaverns, Miss E. M. Harris, 
and Mrs. E. S. Joyce. The show of wild flowers was also very 
full. Mrs. Richards' collection comprised between sixty and 
seventy species. Mrs. H. D. Wilmarth presented a large vase of 
the beautiful Sabbatia chloroides, including a white variety. 
Frank C. Hyde showed about one hundred species and varieties of 
wild flowers. The displays of herbaceous plants were also large 
and good. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 263 

July 24 was Prize Day for Perennial Phlox and Sweet Peas. 
The latter flower has deservedly come to the front of late, and is 
being very greatly improved. We noticed in M. B. Faxon's dis- 
play twelve named kinds, some of them very beautifully colored. 
We look for much more extended cultivation of this very fragrant 
flower in the immediate future. The display of Hollyhocks was 
also very fine, particularly the exhibit made by J. F. C. Hyde, for 
which he was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit. 

Rare plants exhibited today were a great attraction. F. L. 
Ames presented Gattleya GasJcelliana with fifty-one gorgeous 
flowers, and he was awarded the Society's Silver Medal. David 
Allan showed Grammatophyllum Ellisii, a new orchid from Mad - 
agascar, and it was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit. 
C. M. Hovey showed a yellow Hedychium, Eugenia myrtifolia, 
and flowers of Stuart ia pentagyna. 

Mrs. F. B. Hayes sent a most beautiful new Godetia with white 
flowers blotched with carmine ; also a Scabious of novel form and 
color, together with Gloxinias, Achimenes, etc. W. H. Spooner 
again showed the Stanwell Perpetual Scotch Rose. Walter Blanchard 
showed some very beautiful Double Poppies, pure white edged with 
carmine. Collections of flowers were also shown by E. Fewkes & 
Son, Miss E. J. Burbank, W. A. Manda, E. Sheppardand others. 
The Hydrangea plants shown by J. L. Gardner were very fine, 
particularly the Otaksa, which occupied the centre of the stage, 
and presented a grand appearance. Native Plants in large variety 
were displa} T ed by Mrs. P. D. Richards and E. H. Hitchings. 

July 31. Another full exhibition today and several things of 
unusual excellence. J. W. Manning showed a large collection of 
Herbaceous Plants, among which was lAlium superbum, with a 
stalk ten feet long, surmounted with twenty-one flowers. W. H. 
Spooner showed the Perpetual Scotch Rose Stanwell, which was 
in its second blooming of this season. J. F. C. Hyde was 
awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for splendid blooms of 
Double Hollyhocks. Jackson Dawson brought from the Arnold 
Arboretum nine species of Hard}' Heaths and seven species of 
Hypericums. 

Severance Burrage staged a collection of wild flowers, including 
Lilium Philadelpliicum, color reddish chocolate — a very distinct 
variety, found at Osterville ; and Lygodium palmatum, found in 
West Newton. W. A. Manda, Mrs. Richards, and Mr. Burrage 



264 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

made good and varied showings of Native Ferns. Mrs. P. D. 
Richards, Frank C. Hyde, Miss Mary L. Vinal, and E. H. Hiteh- 
ings showed very interesting collections of wild flowers. 

August 7. The exhibition of wild flowers today was some- 
thing wonderful, and showed the indefatigable perseverance of our 
collectors. Severance Burrage showed one hundred and eighty 
species and varieties, all named, while Mrs. P. D. Richards and 
E. H. Hitchings had each nearly as many. E. H. Hitchings 
presented a large vase of Lilium superbum, which well deserved 
its specific name. W„ H. Spooner again showed the Perpetual 
Moss Rose Salet. This is a fine variety and blooms all summer. 

August 14. The principal attraction today was Gladioli. The 
best shown were by James Cartwright. M. B. Faxon filled fifty 
vases with new and old varieties of Sweet Peas, and he was 
awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit, for superior culture of 
this most beautiful and fragrant flower. 

F. L. Ames was awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for 
Cattleya Eldorado Amesiana. Among Mrs. F. B. Hayes' collec- 
tion of beautiful flowers, we noticed Bignonia prcecox, one of the 
most beautiful of that genus. Warren Heustis & Son made an 
excellent display of Hybrid Perpetual Roses, and N. T. Kidder 
made a fine display of Achimenes. 

August 21 was Prize Day for Asters, and the display exceeded 
any ever before recorded, both in quality and quantity. The cen- 
tre table running the whole length of the hall was covered by M. 
B. Faxon, who placed thereon for display two thousand three 
hundred blooms ; besides one hundred blooms on another table 
for prizes. He was awarded the First Prizes in the Pseony and 
Victoria Classes, and the Second Prize for Pompons. Besides 
those whose names appear in the Prize List, more or less exten- 
sive displays were made by S. S. Hovey, W. W. Rawson, W. 
Patterson, Mrs. F. B. Hayes, Miss S. W. Story, P. T. Jackson, 
Warren Heustis & Son, and Mrs. E. M. Gill, there being in all 
thirteen contributors. 

J. Warren Clark showed seedling Gladioli of rare excellence, 
and he was awarded a Silver Medal therefor. He was also 
awarded a First Class Certificate of Merit for a seedling Gladiolus 
named Excelsior, having sixteen expanded flowers. 

Warren Heustis & Son filled a large vase with La France Roses, 
of garden culture. This is probably the best garden rose } T et in- 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 265 

troduced, for it is very fragrant, of good color, and always in 
bloom. 

August 28. A very large collection of Single Dahlias was shown 
by W. A. Manda, filling one hundred and fifteen bottles ; and as 
the blooms were of superior excellence, they were awarded a Silver 
Medal. A First Class Certificate of Merit was given to Denys 
Zirngiebel, for improved Asters. Elegant specimens of La France 
Roses were shown by Mrs. F. B. Hayes and Warren Heustis & 
Son. 

September 4. This was Prize Day for Annuals, and besides 
the competing collections W. A. Manda filled the entire centre 
table, comprising seven hundred vases. J. L. Gardner exhibited six 
well-grown Fuchsias, for which he was awarded a First Class Cer- 
tificate of Merit. J. W. Clark made another display of fine seed- 
ling Gladioli, and H. B. Watts showed a large collection of Le- 
moine's superb new hybrids, among which was Enfant de Nancy ; 
very remarkable for its deep velvety crimson color. A First Class 
Certificate of Merit was awarded to Mr. Watts for them. George 
S. Tuttle showed very handsome Liliputian Dahlias, he having the 
finest strain in this vicinity. Mrs. P. D. Richards displayed sev- 
enteen species of Solidago, and nineteen species of Asters, all 
correctly named — each genus "native and to the manor born." 
The collections of plants and flowers by other exhibitors taxed 
the hall to its utmost capacity, making altogether a fine show. 

This was the last of the regular Saturday Exhibitions, and it is a 
pleasure to record that, owing to the interest manifested in these 
weekly shows, nearly all the prizes offered in the Schedule have 
been taken ; although this left but a small balance for gratuities. 
Nevertheless, the innate love for the beautiful by which our con- 
tributors are animated has not been deadened by mercenary mo- 
tives, — they have given freely of their abundance, and have 
thereby made our weekly shows a procession of grand successes. 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

September 14, 15, and 16. 

The Annual Exhibition was memorable for its completeness in 
every particular. In fact, the contributions were so extensive as 
to embarrass the Committee of Arrangements, by the excess of 



266 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

horticultural treasures which were poured in from all the famous 
greenhouses, conservatories, and stoves in this vicinity. Enough 
jplants were massed on the allotted platforms to fill effectively a 
much larger hall than we have at our disposal. Yet when these 
plants were arranged, under the guidance of the skilful and effi- 
cient head gardeners of the several establishments represented, 
never did the Hall present such a grand appearance. 

One of the principal attractions was the tanks of Water Lilies 
and Nelumbiums which were placed near the entrance. Here 
were seen, and appearing perfectly at home in their native ele- 
ment, specimens of the order of Nymphseacese ranging from the 
magnificent Victoria regia down to the most diminutive member. 
The flowers of Nymphoea Devoniensis, JV. dentata rubra, and 2T. 
Zanzibariensis shown by N. S. Simpkins, were the largest and 
best specimens ever exhibited, and of the finest colors. For the 
first, Mr. Simpkins was awarded the Society's Silver Medal. 

Edmund D. Sturtevant was also awarded a Silver Medal for a 
new variety of Victoria regia, the flowers of which on first open- 
ing are pure white, but before the end of the second day gradu- 
ally change to dense pink or deep red — a very curious transforma- 
tion. 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs. — W. C. Strong was awarded 
the first Hunnewell prize for these, having shown a fine collection ; 
which was used to decorate the stairway and entrance. 

Stove and Greenhouse Plants. — The prizes for six Green- 
house or Stove Plants were awarded to S. R. Payson, F. L. 
Ames, G. A. Nickerson, and N. T. Kidder, in order as named. 

Specimen Flowering Plants.- — The first and third prizes foi 
the best three went to David Allan, and the second to F. L. 
Ames. For one Flowering Plant, the first, second, and third, 
to F. L. Ames, David Allan, and N. T. Kidder, respectively. 

Variegated Leaved Plants. — The prizes for the best six were 
taken by F. L. Ames, N. T. Kidder, and C. M. Hovey 
The first and second prizes for single specimens were 
awarded to G. A. Nickerson, for Crotons Queen Victoria and 
Variabilis, two magnificently colored plants nearly eight feet high 
and densely clothed ; the third prize to J. L. Gardner, for Eurya 
latifolia, a very large specimen. 

Caladiums. — Finely colored plants were shown \>y N. T. Kidder. 

Ferns and Lycopods were exhibited in great profusion by 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 267 

F. L. Ames, David Allan, N. T. Kidder, G. A. Nickerson, and 
CM. Hovey, and they were generally very large and well-grown 
specimens. 

Dracaenas, Crotons, and Palms. — Very fine specimens were 
shown by H. H. Hunnewell, E. W. Gilmore, F. L. Ames, and 

G. A. Nickerson. 

Nepenthes were shown by S. R. Pay son and F. L. Ames. 

Orchids came from F. L. Ames, E. W. Gilmore, David Allan, 
C. M. Hovey, W. A. Manda, and H. H. Hunnewell. 

Cut Flowers. — The stands of flowers of one hundred and 
fifty bottles each were very fine, and were kept in good condition 
by renewals every day. Prizes for these were awarded to Mrs. 
E. M. Gill, C. M. Hovey, and W. K. Wood, in order as named. 

The Baskets of Flowers were also of great excellence, and 
reflected the good taste of the fabricators. The prizes went to J. 
O'Brien, Mrs. A. D. Wood, Mrs. E. M. Gill, and Miss S. W. 
Story, in order as named . 

Dahlias. — The large flowered kinds were not equal in quality 
to those shown last} r ear, but the Liliputians far exceeded in quality 
all at past exhibitions, those shown by George S. Tuttle deserving 
special mention for excellence in form and colors. 

W. A. Manda's collection of Plants from the Botanic Garden 
deserves special mention. It was arranged at the far end of the 
Hall, extending up into the alcove, in a pleasing and graceful 
manner, and forming a splendid bank of tropical foliage such as 
is but rarely seen, even in an exhibition of the magnitude of ours. 

J. L. Gardner staged a fine collection of stove and greenhouse 
plants. Among the latter were excellent examples of Fuchsias. 

H. H. Hunnewell was awarded a First Class Certificate of 
Merit for Davallia Figiensis, a fern with dark glossy green foliage, 
and the same for seedling Dracaenas. W. C. Strong showed a 
large collection of Foliage of Variegated Trees and Shrubs. 
Other exhibits of excellence were made by numerous persons, 
which added to the general effect, and the whole produced a grand 
show of which the Society may justly feel proud. 

October 2. Although no prizes were offered for flowers toda}', 
a fair exhibition was made by eight of our regular contributors, 
proving that the interest in our shows still exists, and will con- 
tinue to the end of the year, only to begin again with the incom- 



268 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

ing of the New Year. W. H. Spooner showed a large bunch of 
the Moss Rose Salet, confirming what we had before seen of its 
habit of blooming all the season. 

October 23. E. W. Wood showed a fine plant of Chrysanthe- 
mum Alexandre Dufour, an avant-courier of what was to come a 
little later on. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 
November 10, 11, and 12. 

The Chrysanthemum Exhibition this year was not of such supe- 
rior excellence and finish as we recollect two years ago, yet if 
some of our older growers are not as successful as they could 
wish there are others coming forward to fill up the gaps, so that 
as the year draws to a close we do not lack for a continuation of 
bloom, at a season when summer's glorious flowers are no more. 

The plants, when critically examined, were not quite equal to 
those of the two preceding years. Yet, when viewed en masse, 
they presented a wealth of color and brilliancy fully compensating 
for any deficiency in the individual flowers. The upper hall was 
filled with plants in pots, while in the lower hall three long tables 
were filled with cut flowers, orchids, and ferns. 

The new Seedling Chrysanthemums shown this year deserve 
more than a passing notice, for some of them were of exceeding 
excellence, and we have no doubt that on further acquaintance 
they will prove so good as to obtain a high place in the estimation 
of growers. Our worthy President, Dr. Walcott, presented ten 
fine plants ; one of which, B. 25, received a Silver Medal last year, 
and now fully sustained the commendation for wealth of bloom and 
beauty of color (deep yellow) that it received when first exhibited. 
Dr. Walcott was awarded the Society's Silver Medal for his gen- 
eral collection of seedlings, and First Class Certificates of Merit 
for C. 22, a large pink Japan variety, and Nevada, a large white 
Chinese variety. C. 10, which was certificated last year, still main- 
tained its position for beauty of form and color, yet like all the other 
Chinese varieties, this season, the plants exhibited were not well 
grown. Arthur H. Fewkes' collection of seedlings was remark- 
ably superior. They were grown from seed which had been cross- 
fertilized by hand, and the successful results of this S3 T stematic 
crossing showed plainly in the abundance of flowers and the bushy 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 269 

habit of plants grown naturally, without pinching. His method 
is to be , commended as the right one to produce new colors and 
plants of superior quality. He was awarded the Society's Silver 
Medal for his general collection of seedlings, and First Class 
Certificates of Merit for President Hyde, a large Japanese Gold- 
en-ball ; Lizzie Gannon, a Japanese variety of medium size and 
plump, quilled, clear yellow flowers ; and H. A. Gane, a Japan- 
ese flower, pink in color, of large size — the plant very florif er- 
ous. The seedlings above enumerated show an advance in the 
right direction, and the method of attaining them is hereby com- 
mended. 

Mrs. M. J. Plumstead showed cut blooms of seedling Chrysan- 
themums, one of which presented a delicate clear pink complex- 
ion ; and so fine a form, that it was deemed worthy of a name : 
your Committee named it " Mrs. Leighton" and awarded it a 
First Class Certificate of Merit. 

Edwin Fewkes & Son staged about one hundred plants, which 
taken as a whole were the best collection exhibited. Messrs. 
Fewkes received the first prize for Thirty Plants, and the first 
prizes in all the classes of cut blooms they competed for. Presi- 
dent Walcott's general collection of Chrysanthemum plants (not 
entered for competition) showed careful cultivation, the plants 
having attained very great size and being well flowered. Mrs. 
Francis B. Hayes showed about thirty plants. Edwin Sheppard 
exhibited some fine plants and an endless variety of cut blooms. 
J. W. Scott, gardener to George Abbott James, and P. Malley 
staged some fine plants. Hon. Marshall P. Wilder also staged 
thirty plants of sturdy growth and well flowered. William Mar- 
tin showed some fine plants of Japanese kinds, and some well 
grown standards. W. A. Manda showed some of the best grown 
Chinese and Pompon varieties in the Hall, but as they were not 
entered in competition they received only gratuities. 

The most noticeable feature of our show was the scarcity of 
Chinese flowers, most of the growers saying their plants of that 
class " went blind " this year, but they are unable to account for it 
in a satisfactory manner so that the trouble may be avoided in the 
future. It will be well to compare notes and try to arrive at a 
solution of the difficulty. 

The display of Orchids was very good. F. L. Ames's collection 
was handsomety interspersed with ferns and palms, thus giving 



270 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

his stand a very finished appearance. He received the first and 
second prizes for three plants, as follows : 

Cattleya gigas imperialism Miltonia Clowesii, 
Cattleya marginata, Oncidium varicosum, 

Codogyne Massangeana, Vanda coerulea. 

William Martin, gardener to N. T. Kidder, received the third 
prize for three plants, and the second prize for a single plant. 

Mr. Ames received the first and third prizes for single plants — 
Renanthera coccinea and Cypripedium Harrisianum respectively. 
We also noticed several other very beautiful plants in Mr. Ames's 
collection, viz : 

Cattleya fausta crispa, Tillandsia Lindenii vera, 

Oncidium Mogersii, Vriesia brachystachys. 

W. A. Manda brought also a good collection of orchids and 
cut flowers from the Botanic Garden. 

Norton Brothers showed the following roses in perfection ; 
Mermet, The Bride, William F. Bennett, American Beauty, 
Perle des Jardins, and La France. 

Charles F. Evans, of Philadelphia, showed a new white rose 
called The Puritan, one of Bennett's hybrids. This rose is re- 
markable for wealth of foliage close under the bud, pure white 
color, and sturdy growth. It was awarded a First Class Certifi- 
cate of Merit. 

John Henderson of Flatbush, N. Y., exhibited a new Tea Rose 
named Pere Gontier. This rose is crimson scarlet in color, of 
good fragrance, and larger than Bon Silene but similar in form. 
It possessed enough good qualities to warrant the Committee in 
awarding it a First Class Certificate of Merit. 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, had a fine collection of Roses, Ca- 
mellias, Lapagerias, and other cut flowers, and Edwin Sheppard 
presented a large variety of Pelargonium flowers, which, with 
their vivid colors, made a bright spot on one of the tables. Other 
exhibitors contributed to this annual show, and by their offerings 
aided to make it worthy of our Society and a splendid ending of 
the year's successful exhibitions: 

J. W. Manning, having gained the greatest number of first 
prizes for Herbaceous Plants during the season is entitled to the 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 271 

Society's Silver Medal, and Mrs. L. P. Weston, being second, is 
entitled to the Bronze Medal. The first prize for Annuals was 
taken by Mrs. E. M. Gill the most times and she is entitled to the 
Society's Silver Medal, and as Miss S. W. Story was second she is 
awarded the Bronze Medal. 

Special prize No. 137, offered by a Member of the Society 
for the best six blooms of any Hybrid Perpetual rose, to be judged 
by a scale of points, was not awarded. Special prize, No. 138, 
offered by another Member for the best twelve blooms of Mer- 
veille de Lyon was awarded to Warren Heustis. The sum of $62 
was awarded in prizes from the " Hunnewell Premiums" for 
Rhododendrons and Azaleas. 

The amount appropriated by the Society for the use of our 
Committee was $3,235. Of this amount, $2,276 has been 
awarded in prizes in accordance with the Schedule, and $929 in 
gratuities. 

We close this report with congratulations to the Society on the 
success of its exhibitions. 

Jos. H. Woodford, 
Robert T. Jackson, 

DeNYS ZntNGIEBEL, 

Edwin Fewkes, \ Committee. 

Warren H. Manning, 
F. L. Harris, 
David Allan. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR PLANTS 

AND FLOWERS. 



January 2. 

Gratuities: — 

C. M. Hovey, Hellebores in variety, $2 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, and Heath in pot, . . . 2 00 
Edwin Sheppard, Cut Flowers, 1 00 

January 9. 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, Freesias in pots, 3 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " 1 00 

January 16. 

Gratuities: — 

Edwin Fewkes, six pots of Roman Hyacinths, 1 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 1 00 

January 23. 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, Vase of Flowers, 1 00 

John B. Moore & Son, Six Hybrid Perpetual Roses, . . . 1 00 

Jackson Dawson, Hellebores in variety, 1 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, . 1 00 

January 30. 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 2 00 

Jackson Dawson, Lily of the Valley and Andromeda Japonica, . 1 00 

February 6. 

Freesia Refracta. — Four pots in bloom, Mrs. A. D. Wood, . 4 00 

Roman Hyacinths. — Six six-inch pots, Edwin Fewkes, . . . 4 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 3 00 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, Freesias in pots, 2 00 

John B. Moore & Son, Koses, 1 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 3 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 273 



February 13. 
Gratuities: — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, $2 00 

*' " " " Roses, 1 00 

'* " " " Eriostemon myrtifolium and E. micro- 

phyllum, ........... 1 00 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, Vase of Flowers, 100 

February 20. 
Gratuities: — 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Orchids, Azaleas, and Cut Flowers, . . 5 00 

February 27. 

Gratuities: — 

John B. Moore & Son, fourteen Hybrid Perpetual Roses, . . 2 00 
Edwin Fewkes, five " " "... 1 00 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, two Roses in pots, Magna Charta and Em- 
ily Laxton, 2 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 3 00 

C. M. Hovey, Cut Camellias, 2 00 

March 6. 

Gratuities:— 

Alfred W. Spencer, Dendrobium Wardianum, . . . . 2 00 

Mrs. F. B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 3 00 

C. M. Hovey, Camellias, . . . 2 00 

Edwin Sheppard, Cinerarias and Cut Flowers, . . . , 2 CO 

James O'Brien, Cyclamens, 1 00 

Jackson Dawson, fourteen varieties of Roses on Japan stock, . 1 00 

E. M. Wood & Co., Cornelia Cook Roses, 100 

Norton Brothers, Baroness Rothschild Roses, 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Amaryllis and Cut Flowers, 1 00 

March 13. 

Gratuities: — 

Jackson Dawson, twelve Hybrid Perpetual Roses, on Japan stock, . 5 00 
John B. Moore & Son, Hybrid Perpetual Roses, Baroness and White 

Baroness, 2 00 

Theodore N. Vail, twelve pots of Cinerarias, 2 00 

C. M. Hovey, Camellias, 2 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 2 00 






274 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 24, 25, and 26. 

Indian Azaleas. — Six named varieties, in pots, Arthur W. 

Blake, . . $15 00 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 12 00 

Third, Arthur W. Blake, . . 10 00 

Two named varieties, William Martin, gardener to Nathaniel T. 

Kidder, . . . 6 00 

Second, Arthur W. Blake, 4 00 

Specimen Plant, named, William Martin, . . . . 5 00 

Second, Arthur W. Blake, 4 00 

Four named varieties, in not exceeding ten-inch pots, Arthur W. 

Blake, . . 10 00 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 8 00 

Third, Arthur W. Blake, 6 00 

Single plant, of any named variety, in not over an eight-inch pot, 

Arthur W. Blake, . . 3 00 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Three plants, distinct named varieties, 

Jackson Dawson, . 8 00 

Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 6 00 

Single named plant, William Martin, 4 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, 3 00 

Six cut blooms, distinct named varieties, John B. Moore & Son, . 4 00 

Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 3 00 

Tender Roses in Vases. — Twelve blooms of Bon Silene, Samuel 

Neil, . 3 00 

Twelve blooms of Catherine Mermet, W. H. Elliott, . . . 5 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, 4 00 

Twelve blooms of Cornelia Cook, W. H. Elliott, . . . . 5 00 

Second, N. S. Simpkins, ........ 4 00 

Twelve blooms of Marechal Niel, W. II. Elliott, . . . . 5 00 

Twelve blooms of Niphetos, Edwin Sheppard, . . . . 5 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 4 00 

Twelve blooms of Safrano, Samuel Neil, 3 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, 2 00 

Twelve blooms of Souvenir de la Malmaison, Edwin Sheppard, . 5 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 4 00 

Orchids. — Six plants in bloom, Frederick L. Ames, . . . 15 00 

Second, David Allan, gardener to Robert M. Pratt, . . 12 00 

Third, E. W. Gilmore, . . . ... . . 10 00 

Three plants in bloom, H. H. Hunnewell, 8 00 

Second, David Allan, 6 00 

Third, Frederick L. Ames, 5 00 

Fourth, William Martin, 4 00 






PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 275 

Single plant in bloom, David Allan, . . . . . $5 00 

Second, Frederick L. Ames, 4 00 

Third, Frederick L. Ames, 3 00 

Fourth, E. W. Gilmore, 2 00 

Stove ok Greenhouse Plant. — Specimen in bloom, other than 

Azalea or Orchid, named, H. H. Hunnewell, . . . 6 00 
Hardy Flowering Shrubs and Herbaceous Plants, Forced. — 

Six in pots, six distinct varieties, C. M. Hovey, . . . 10 00 

Cyclamens. — Six pots in bloom, James O'Brien, . . . . 6 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, . . . . - . . . 4 00 

Three plants in bloom, Edwin Sheppard, 3 00 

Second, James O'Brien, 2 00 

Single plant in bloom, Edwin Sheppard, . . . . . 2 00 
Heaths. — Three plants in bloom, the second prize to Mrs. F. B. 

Hayes, 3 00 

Primroses. — Double-flowered, the second prize to C. M. Hovey, . 4 00 
Hardy Primroses or Polyanthuses. — Six plants of distinct vari- 
eties, in bloom, Joseph Tailby, 4 00 

Second, Edwin Fewkes, 3 00 

Cinerarias. — Six varieties, in bloom, in not over nine-inch pots, E. 

W. Gilmore, 8 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, 6 00 

Third, George Seaverns, 4 00 

Single plant, in bloom, E. W. Gilmore, 3 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, 2 00 

Violets. — Six pots, in bloom, William Martin, . . . . 4 00 

Second, Samuel Neil, 3 00 

Third, Edwin Sheppard, 3 00 

Pansies. — Six distinct varieties in pots, in bloom, Edwin Sheppard, 4 00 

Second, William Ward, . . 3 00 

Third, S. S. Hovey, 2 00 

Fifty cut blooms, in the Society's flat fruit dishes, 'Edwin Shep- 
pard, 3 00 

Second, William Ward, . . 2 00 

Third, S. S. Hovey, ......... 1 00 

Auriculas. — Twelve in pots, in bloom, the second prize to David 

Allan, 4 00 

Carnations. — Display of cut blooms, not less than six varieties, in 

vases, J. A. Foster, ........ 5 00 

Camellias. — Display of named varieties, cut flowers with foliage, 
not less than twelve blooms, of not less than six varieties, 

C. M. Hovey, 5 00 

Six cut blooms, of not less than four named varieties, with 

foliage, C. M. Hovey, 3 00 

Second, C, M. Hovey, 2 00 

Centre-Piece for Dinner Table. — Best designed and best kept 

during the exhibition, W. A. Manda, 20 00 



276 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Second, James O'Brien, . . . . . . . . $ 15 00 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 12 00 

Fourth, C. M. Hovey, . . 10 00 

Special Prizes for Bulbs, offered by the General Union of Holland for the 
Promotion of the Cultivation of Bulbs. 

Hyacinths. — Fifty named bulbs, in fifty pots, forced in pots, not more 
than two of any one variety, 

C. H. Hovey, the First Prize, a Gold Medal. 

C. M. Hovey, the Second Prize, a Silver Gilt Medal. 

C. H. Hovey, the Third Prize, a Silver Medal. 

Society's Prizes. 

Hyacinths. — Twelve distinct named varieties, in pots, one in each 

pot, in bloom, William Martin, $10 00 

Second, Charles H. Hovey, 8 00 

Third, C. M. Hovey, . . . . 6 00 

Six distinct named varieties, in pots, one in each pot, in bloom, 

William Martin, . . . . . . . . . 6 00 

Second, Edwin Fewkes, . 5 00 

Third, C. M. Hovey, . . " . 4 00 

Three distinct named varieties, in pots, one in each pot, in bloom, 

C. M. Hovey, 4 00 

Second, William Martin, 3 00 

Third, Charles H. Hovey, . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Single named bulb, in pot, in bloom, C. M. Hovey, . . . 2 00 

Second, Charles H. Hovey, 1 00 

Three pans, ten bulbs of one variety in each pan, William Martin, 6 00 

Second, William Martin, 4 00 

Third, C. M. Hovey, 3 00 

Tulips. — Six six-inch pots, six bulbs in each, in bloom, C. M. Hovey, 5 00 

Second, Charles H. Hovey, . . . . . . . 4 00 

Third, William Martin, . . 3 00 

- Three six-inch pots, six bulbs in each, in bloom, C. H. Hovey, . 4 00 
Polyanthus Narcissus. — Four seven-inch pots, three bulbs in each, 

in bloom, Charles H. Hovey, 6 00 

Second, C. M. Hovey, 4 00 

Hardy Narcissus and Daffodils. — Best display, C. M. Hovey, . 8 00 
Jonquils. — Four six-inch pots, six bulbs in each, in bloom, Charles 

H. Hovey, 3 00 

General Display of Spring Bulbs. — C. M. Hovey, . . 15 00 
Lily of the Valley. — Six six-inch pots, in bloom, Jackson 

Dawson, . . . . 6 00 

Second, C. M. Hovey, . ... . . . . . 4 00 

Third, Edward L. Beard, 3 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 277 



Anemones. — Three pans, Jackson Dawson, 
Second, Jackson Dawson, . 



Gratuities: — 

W. A. Manda, Herbaceous Plants, forced, 
" " " Primula obconica, .... 
" " " Orchids, 

David Allan, Ferns, Cut Flowers, and Orchids, 

Arthur W. Blake, Display of Azaleas, 

Frederick L. Ames, Orchids and Cut Flowers, 

H. H. Hunnewell, Plants and Cut Flowers, 

Miss Sarah W. Story, Table Design, 

C. M. Hovey, Azaleas and Pelargoniums, 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, General Display of Flowers and 
" " " " Cocos Weddelliana, . 

E. W. Gilmore, elegant arrangement of flowering plants, 
" " " six Calceolarias, .... 

Jackson Dawson, Azaleas, Primroses, and forced Shrubs 

John B. Moore & Son, three vases of Roses, . 

N. S. Simpkins, three pots of English Primroses, 

C. M. Hovey, Gesnera macrantha, 

Arthur H. Fewkes, Collection of Narcissus, 

S. S. Hovey, Cut Flowers, . . . . . 

Edwin Sheppard, " " . . 

George Seaverns, " " 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Plants and Mosses, 



Plants , 



$4 


00 


3 


00 


25 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


15 


00 


10 00 


10 00 


10 00 


5 


00 


10 


00 


8 


00 


3 


00 


5 


00 


4 00 


3 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



April 3. 
Gratuities: — 

Frederick L. Ames, Dendrobium chrysotoxum superbum, . . 3 00 
Robert Blair, gardener to Alfred W. Spencer, Dendrobium chryso- 
toxum, . . . . . . . . . . . 1 00 

Mrs. F. B. Hayes, Rhododendrons and other Cut Flowers, . . 3 00 

C. M. Hovey, Cut Camellias, 2 00 

Miss Sarah W. Story, Cut Flowers, 1 00 

Edwin Fewkes, four pots of Tulips, 1 00 

April 10. 

Gratuities : — 

W. A. Manda, pans of Forced Hardy Plants, 3 00 

C. M. Hovey, Camellias, 1 00 

April 17. 
Gratuities: — 

Robert T. Jackson, twenty-four bottles of Polyanthus Primroses, . 1 00 

Edwin Sheppard, Pelargoniums, etc., 1 00 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Plants, 100 

4 



278 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



April 24. 
Gratuities: — 

C. M. Hovey, three pots of Azaleas, $1 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Rhododendron Countess of Haddington, . 1 00 

Miss Anna C. Kenrick, Magnolia conspicua, 1 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Flowers, 1 00 

Mat U 

Gratuities: — 

Miss Sarah W. Story, Cut Flowers, 1 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " 1 



00 
00 



ilAY EXHIBITION. 

Mat 8. 

Pelargoniums — Four named Show or Fancy varieties, in pots, 

Charles M. Hovey, 

Second, Charles M. Hovey, .... 

Six named Zonale varieties, " " " 
Second, ...""" . . . . 

Indian Azaleas. — Three plants, in pots, named, the second prize 

to Charles M. Hovey, 

Third, ". " " ........ 

Hardt Bulbs. — Collection of blooms, C. M. Hovey, 

Second, Joseph H. Woodford, . 

Basket op Flowers. — Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Pansies. — Fifty cut blooms, in the Society's flat fruit dishes, Mrs. 

E. M. Gill, 

Second, Joseph H. Woodford, 

Third, Edwin Sheppard, 

Herbaceous Plants. — Largest and best arranged collection, 

named, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 

Second, J. W. Manning, 



Gratuities: — 
David Allan, Orchids, 

" " Auriculas, . 

William Martin, Gloxinias, 
Robert Manning, Trillium grandiflorum, 
W. A. Manda, Collection of Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs, 
Edwin Sheppard, Cut Pelargoniums, 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 
Miss Sarah W. Story, " " 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " 

J. H. Woodford, " " 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild " 
C. W. Sanderson, " " 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Plants and Flowers, 



$8 00 
6 00 
8 00 
6 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

00 
00 

00 



2 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 279 

Mat 15. 

Gratuities: — 

W. A. Manda, Shrubs and Herbaceous Plants, . . . $3 00 

J. W. Manning, Herbaceous Plants, 2 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Pansies and Cut Flowers, 2 00 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, Cut Flowers, Wild Flowers, and Shrubs, . 2 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Flowering Apples and Roses, . . . 1 00 

Miss Anna C. Kenrick, three kinds of Magnolias, . . . . 1 00 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, Cut Flowers, 100 

E. H. Hitchings, Wild Flowers, 2 00 

May 22. 
Gratuities: — 

W. A. Manda, Cactus and other Cut Flowers, 3 00 

J. W. Manning, Hardy Shrubs, named, 2 00 

Jackson Dawson, nine (two new) Syringas, . . . . . 1 00 

Edwin Sheppard, thirteen Tulips, named, 1 00 

Miss Sarah W. Story, Hardy Shrubs, 1 00 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, Cut Flowers, 2 00 

Joseph H. Woodford, " " 100 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " and Pansies . . . . 100 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Flowers, 3 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, " " 2 00 

May 29. 

Gratuities: — 

H. H. Hunnewell, Cut Flowers of named Rhododendrons, . . 5 00 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Blooms and Foliage of Trees and 

Shrubs, 5 00 

Marshall P. Wilder, two Seedling Paeonies, 2 00 

W. A. Manda, Hardy Perennials, 2 00 

J. W. Manning, " " 1 00 

Joseph H. Woodford, Clematis, 2 00 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Flowers, . . . . . . . 2 00 

RHODODENDRON SHOW. 

June 5. 

Rhododendrons. — Twenty-four tender varieties, named, Mrs. 

Francis B. Hayes, 10 00 

Twelve tender varieties, named, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, . , 6 00 

Six " " " " " " " 3 00 

Three " " " " una . . 2 00 
Single truss of any tender variety, named, Mrs. Francis B. 

Hayes, . . . . 1 00 



280 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Eighteen hardy varieties, named, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, . 

Second, C M. Hovey, 

Six hardy varieties, named, the second prize to C. M. Hovey, 
^Single truss of any hardy variety, named, Mrs. Francis B. 

Hayes, 

Hardy Azaleas. — Fifteen named varieties, one truss each, Mrs. 

Francis B. Hayes, . . . 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, 

Twelve named varieties, C. M. Hovey, . . . ' . 
Cluster of trusses, of one variety, C. M. Hovey, .... 
Second, C. M. Hovey, 

Society's Prizes. 

Tree Peonies. — Six named varieties, Marshall P. Wilder, 
German Iris. — Six distinct varieties, Arthur H. Fewkes, 

Second, J. W. Manning, 

Clematis. — Named varieties, cut blooms, J. H. Woodford, 

Second, J. H. Woodford, 

Hardy Flowering Trees and Shrubs. — Largest and best collec- 
tion, named, cut blooms, J. W. Manning, .... 
Native Plants. — Display of named species and varieties, one 
bottle of each, Mrs. P. D. Richards, ..... 

Second, E. H. Hitchings, 

Cut Flowers. — Display filling one hundred bottles, Mrs. A. D. 
Wood, 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . . . . . . . 

Herbaceous Plants. — Mrs. L. P. Weston, 

Second, J. W. Manning, 



Gratuities: — 

W. A. Manda, Display of Plants and Flowers, 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Rhododendrons and Azaleas 

Edward L. Beard, Cattleya Mendelii, 

Jackson Dawson, Shrubs, 

C. M. Hovey, Rhododendrons, etc., . 

J. S. Richards, " 

William H. Spooner, Perpetual Scotch Roses, 

Arthur H. Fewkes, Iris and Aquilegias, . 

Edwin Sheppard, Cut Flowers, 

Miss Ellen M. Harris, " " 

L. W. Goodell, " " . . 

Joseph H. Woodford, Vase of Flowers, . 

June 12. 
Gratuities: — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Rhododendrons, . 
H. H. Hunnewell, " 



$10 00 
6 00 
2 00 

1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



3 00 

3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 

5 00 

4 00 
3 00 



4 00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


15 


00 


10 00 


8 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 



1 00 



5 00 
5 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 281 



Jackson Dawson, Hardy Flowering Shrubs, 

William H. Spooner, Cut Blooms of Roses, 

Warren Heustis, " " " 

Benjamin G. Smith, " " " 

John S. Richards, " " " 

Miss Ellen M. Harris, Paeonies, etc., 

Joseph H. Woodford, Clematis, etc., 

John C. Hovey, Pyrethrums, 

J. W. Manning, Hardy Perennials, 

W. A. Manda, Cut Flowers, 

Miss Sarah W. Story, " " 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " 

Mrs. A. D. Wood, " " 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, " " 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Flowers, 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 



June 22 and 23. 

Special Prize, Offered by a Member of the Society. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Best twelve blooms of Merveille de 
Lyon, Warren Heustis, 

Special Prizes. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twenty-four of different varieties, 
David Allan, gardener to Robert M. Pratt, Silver Vase, value, 
Second, John S. Richards, Silver Vase, value, . 
Twelve Roses, of different varieties, named, John L. Gardner, 

Silver Vase, value, 

Eighteen Roses, of different varieties, named, John S. Richards, 

Silver Vase, value, 

Eighteen Roses of any six varieties, three of each, John B. Moore 

& Son, Silver Vase, value, 

General Display of Roses, grown in open culture, all classes ex- 
cept Hybrid and Moss, Charles M. Hovey, Silver Vase, value, 
Best and best kept design of Roses, in receptacles other than 

vases, Joseph H. Woodford, Silver Vase, value, . 
Amateurs' Prize, Twenty-four named roses, J. L. Gardner, Silver 

Vase, value, 

Second, John S. Richards, Silver Vase, value, 
Six blooms of Alfred Colomb, David Allan, . 

Second, John B. Moore & Son, . 
Six blooms of Baroness Rothschild, David Allan, 
Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, . 



$10 00 



30 00 


15 00 


15 00 


25 00 


25 00 


15 00 


18 00 


30 00 


15 00 


4 00 


3 00 


4 00 


3 00 



282 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Six blooms of John Hopper, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, . . $4 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Son, 3 00 

Six blooms of Marquise de Castellane, the second prize to John B. 

Moore & Son, 3 00 

Six blooms of Merveille de Lyon, William H. Spooner, . ' . 4 00 

Six blooms of Madame G. Luizet, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, . . 4 00 

Second, David Allan, 3 00 

Six blooms of Victor Verdier, John B. Moore & Son, . . . 4 00 

Twelve blooms of any other variety, JohnB. Moore & Son, . . 6 00 

Second, David Allan, . . 4 00 

1 Begular Prizes. 

Hardy Perpetual Koses. — Best six new varieties sent out since 

1882, the second prize to William H. Spooner, . . . 4 00 
Seventy-two blooms, not less than eighteen varieties, John B. 

Moore & Son, 20 00 

Second, Warren Heustis, • 15 00 

Thirty-six blooms, not less than ten varieties, John S. Richards, . 10 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Son, 8 00 

Six distinct named varieties, three of each, William H. Spooner, 8 00 

Second, John S. Richards, 6 00 

Three distinct named varieties, three of each, John S. Richards, . 4 00 

Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 3 00 

Moss Roses. — Six named varieties, three clusters of each, John B. 

Moore & Son, . . . . 6 00 

Three named varieties, three clusters of each, Edwin Fewkes, . 4 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Son, 3 00 

Third, William H. Spooner, 2 00 

Hybrid Tea Roses. — Display in boxes, John S. Richards, . . 6 00 

Second, Warren Heustis, , ., 4 00 

General Display of Hardy Roses, filling one hundred bottles, 

William H. Spooner, 10 00 

Second, John S. Richards, 9 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Son, 8 00 

Fourth, Edwin Fewkes, 7 00 

Fifth, Benjamin G. Smith, 6 00 

Stove and Greenhouse Flowering Plants. — Five distinct named 

varieties, in bloom, not Orchids, John L. Gardner, . . 15 00 
Specimen Plant in Bloom. — Named, other than Orchid, John L. 

Gardner, Ehyncospermum jasminoides, 6 00 

Specimen Foliage or Flowering Plant, new and rare, other than 

Orchid, Frederick L. Ames, Draccena Lindeni, . . . 4 00 

Second, C. M. Hovey, " " ... 3 00 
Orchid. — Twelve plants, named varieties, in bloom, Frederick L. 

Ames, 18 00 

Second, David Allan, 15 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 283 

Six plants, named, David Allan, $10 00 

Second, Frederick L. Ames, 8 00 

Third, Thomas Greaves, 6 00 

Single specimen, Frederick L. Ames, Lcelia purpurata, . . 6 00 

Second, Thomas Greaves, Cattleya Mendelii, . . . . 5 00 

Herbaceous Pjeonies. — Ten named varieties, John C. Hovey, . 6 00 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 5 00 

Sweet Williams. — Thirty trusses, not less than six distinct varie- 
ties, Edwin Sheppard, 3 00 

Second, L. W. Goodell, . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Edwin Fewkes, 1 00 

Vase of Flowers. — Best arranged, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . . . 5 00 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 4 00 

Third, Miss Sarah W. Story, 3 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, 2 00 



Gratuities : — 

David Allan, Orchids, Ferns, Palms, and Cut Flowers, . 
Frederick L. Ames, Orchids, Ferns, Palms, and Cut Flowers, 
W. A. Manda, Orchids and Stove Plants, . 

" " " Display of Plants and Flowers 
John L. Gardner, Ericas and Pelargoniums, 
Edwin Sheppard, Delphiniums, etc., 

" " Roses, .... 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " 
John S. Richards, " 
O. B. Hadwen, " , 

Robert Manning, Actinidia polygama, 
Denys Zirngiebel, Delphinium Breckii, etc., 
John L. Gardner, Iris Kcempferi, 
Charles M. Hovey, Kalmias, etc., 

" ** " Hydrangea, 
Robert T. Jackson, Plants and Flowers, . 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Basket of Flowers, 
Miss Sarah W. Story, Display of Cut Flowers 
Mrs. A. D. Wood, " " " " 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " " " 

Thomas Greaves, " " " " 

E. H. Hitchings, Native Flowers, 
Mrs. P. D. Richards, " " 

Miss Mary L. Vinal, " " and Grasses, 



15 00 


10 00 


10 00 


5 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


3 00 


3 00 


1 00 



July 3. 

Hybrid Perpetual Roses. — Twenty-four blooms, twenty-four dis- 
tinct named varieties, in vases, John B. Moore & Son, . 
Second, John S. Richards, • 



4 00 
3 00 



284 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Delphiniums. — Six named varieties, Edwin Fewkes & Son, . 

Second, Edwin Fewkes & Son, 

Third, Anthony McLaren, .... . 
Lilium Candidum. — Twelve spikes, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Second, Joseph H. Woodford, 

Cut Flowers. — Display, filling one hundred bottles, Mrs. E. M. 
Gill, 

Second, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 

Third, William K. Wood, . . 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, ...... 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 



Gratuities: — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, one hundred and forty Hybrid Perpetual 

Roses, . . 

Warren Heustis & Son, fifty Hybrid Perpetual Roses, 

J. W. Manning, Japan Iris, etc., 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, " " 

Charles M. Hovey, Native Rhododendrons, ..... 

Joseph H. Woodford, Grasses, 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, Cut Flowers, one hundred bottles, . 

Edwin Sheppard, Cut Flowers, 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, " " 

Frank C. Hyde, Wild Flowers, 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Native Flowers, . . . . . 

Jult 10. 

Japan Iris (Varieties of Iris Kcempferi). — Best collection, John L 

Gardner, 

Second, Edwin Fewkes & Son, . 
Third, J. F. C. Hyde, ..... 

Six named varieties, Edwin Fewkes & Son, . 
Vase op Flowers. — Best arranged, Miss S. W. Story, 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, . 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, .... 



Gratuities: — 
John B. Moore & Son, Hybrid Perpetual Roses 
Mrs. L. P. Weston, Cut Flowers, 
Miss Ellen M. Harris, " " 
Mrs. E. S. Joyce, " " 
Miss Sarah W. Story, " " 
Edwin Sheppard, " " 
Jackson Dawson, Hardy Summer Flowering Shrubs, 
Severance Burrage, Native Flowers, eighty species, 
Frank C.Hyde, " ? ' 



$4 00 
3 00 

2 00 

3 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 00 
2 00 
2 00 
1 00 



5 00 
2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 



8 00 
6 00 
5 00 
4 00 
3 00 
2 00 
2 00 
1 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 285 

July 17. 

Hollyhocks, Double. — Twelve blooms, twelve distinct colors, 

Edwin Sheppard, $4 00 

Second, Edwin Fewkes & Son, 3 00 

Six blooms, six distinct colors, J. F. C. Hyde, . . . . 2 00 

Second, Charles M. Hovey, 1 00 

Cut Flowers. — Display of one hundred bottles, Charles M. Hovey, 4 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 3 00 

Third, William K. Wood, 2 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, . . - . . . . 2 00 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

Edwin Sheppard, Hollyhocks, 2 00 

Miss Ellen M. Harris, " 100 

George Seaverns, " 1 00 

Charles F. Curtis, " 1 00 

John L. Gardner, Cypripediums, Gloxinia, and Heath, named, . 3 00 

C. M. Hovey, Aerides odorata and Hydrangea gymnodada, . . 1 00 

W. A. Manda, Cut Flowers, Display, 2 00 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " one hundred bottles, . . . 2 00 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, " " 1 00 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, " " 1 00 

Miss Sarah W. Story, " " 1 00 

Frank C. Hyde, Native Flowers, one hundred varieties, . . 1 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, " " 1 00 

July 24. 

Hydrangeas. — Two plants of different varieties, in tubs or pots, 

John L. Gardner, . . .'.'■• 5 00 

Pelargoniums. — Six double and six single varieties, named, one 

truss of each, C. M. Hovey, 2 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 1 00 

Perennial Phloxes. — Six distinct named varieties, one spike of 

each, Edwin Fewkes & Son, 3 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, 2 00 

Verbenas. — Thirty bottles, one truss in each, Isaac E. Coburn, . 3 00 

Second, C. M. Hovey, 2 00 

Sweet Peas. — Display of twenty-five bottles, J. F. C. Hyde, . . 3 00 

Se cond, William P. Martin, 2 00 

Third, Marshall B. Faxon, . 1 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, . . . . .-. . 2 00 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, ....... 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

Frederick L. Ames, Orchids, . . 5 00 

David Allan, " 2 00 



286 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Edwin Sheppard, Hollyhocks, . 
C. M. Jlovey, Eugenia and Hedychium, 
Joseph H. Woodford, Sweet Peas, . 
J. W. Manning, Flowering Shrubs, . 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 
Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " 

Miss Sarah W. Story, " " . 
W. A. Manda, " " . 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild Flowers, 
Miss Mary L. Vinal, " " . 



$2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



July 31. 

Stocks. — Six varieties, one cut plant of each, Edwin Sheppard, . 3 00 
Cot Flowers. — Display, filling one hundred bottles, Mrs. E. M. 

Gill, 4 00 

Second, C. M. Hovey, 3 00 

Third, William K. Wood, 2 00 

Native Flowers. — Mrs. P. D. Richards, 3 00 

Second, Severance Burrage, 2 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, 2 00 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

W. A. Manda, Stove and Greenhouse Herbaceous Plants and Ferns, 5 00 

Severance Burrage, Native Flowers, ninety varieties, . . . 2 00 

Frank C. Hyde, " " seventy-eight varieties, . . 2 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, " " 1 00 

Miss Mary L. Vinal, " " 1 00 

E. H. Hitchings, " " 1 00 

Jackson Dawson, Hardy Hypericums and Heaths, . . . . 1 00 

George Seaverns, Princess Beatrice Sweet Peas, . . . . 1 00 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, Dahlias and Hollyhocks, . . . . 1 00 

Mrs. E. S. Joyce, Cut Flowers, 100 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " 100 

, Miss Sarah W. Story " " 100 

Edwin Sheppard, " " 100 



August 7. 

Perennial Phloxes. — Ten distinct named varieties, one spike each, 

Edwin Sheppard, . 3 00 

Second, Edwin Fewkes & Son, 2 00 

Petunias. — Collection, filling thirty bottles, one spray in each, Ed- 
win Fewkes & Son, ... » .... 3 00 

Second, H. B. Watts, . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, L. W. Goodell, 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 287 

Cut Flowers. — Display, filling one hundred bottles, Mrs. E. M. 

Gill, . . $4 00 

Second, C. M. Hovey, • 3 00 

Third, William K. Wood, 2 00 

Native Flowers. — Collection, Severance Burrage, . . . 3 00 

Second, Mrs. P. D. Richards, 2 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning 2 00 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, i 00 

Gratuities: — 

C. M. Hovey, Pelargoniums, . . 1 00 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, Dahlias, 1 00 

W. A. Manda, Cut Flowers, 3 00 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " 



Miss. S. W. Story, 
L. W. Goodell, 
H. B. Watts, 
Edwin S. Hill, 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



E. H. Hitchings, Native Flowers, 1 00 



August 14. 

Gladioli. — Twenty named varieties, in spikes, James Cartwright, . 10 00 

Second, H. B. Watts, 8 00 

Ten named varieties, in spikes, Edwin Sheppard . . . . 6 00 

Six named varieties, in spikes, F. Bacheller, . . . . 5 00 

Second, H. B. Watts, 3 00 

Single spike, named, H. B. Watts, ...... 1 00 

Display of named and unnamed varieties, filling one hundred 

bottles, James Cartwright, . . . . . . . 8 00 

Second, H. B. Watts, 6 00 

Third, Edwin Sheppard, . . . . . . . . 4 00 

Phlox Drummondi. — Fifty bottles, not less than six varieties, Ed- 
win Sheppard, ......... 2 00 

Second, A. A. Hixon, 1 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, ...... 2 00 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

Frederick L. Ames, Orchids, etc., . . . . . . . 2 00 

Warren Heustis & Son, Roses, 2 00 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, Dahlias, 1 00 

George S. Tuttle, " (Pompon), 100 

E. W. Sewall, Poppies, 1 00 

C. M. Hovey, Pelargoniums, 1 00 



288 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 












. $3 00 


Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " 












2 00 


Miss Sarah W. Story, " " 












2 00 


William K. Wood, " " 












2 00 


W. A. Manda, " " 












2 00 


A. A. Nixon, " " 












1 00 


Edwin S.Hill, " " 












1 00 


John Parker, " " 












1 00 


Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " 












1 00 


William Martin, " " 












1 00 


E. H. Hitchings, Native Flowers, 










2 00 


August \ 


21. 













Asters. — Truffaut's Paeony Flowered, thirty blooms, not less than 

three varieties, Marshall B. Faxon, 

Second, L. W. Goodell, 

Third, James O'Brien, 

Victoria Flowered, thirty blooms, not less than eight varieties, 
Marshall B. Faxon, ........ 

Second, John L. Gardner, ........ 

Third, James O'Brien, 

Pompon, thirty sprays, not less than six varieties, one spray in 

each bottle, L. W. Goodell, 

Second, Marshall B. Faxon, 

Basket op Flowers. — Best arranged, James O'Brien, . 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 

Herbaceous Plants . — J. W. Manning, 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 



5 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


5 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


4 


00 


3 


00 


4 00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


2 


00 


1 00 



Gratuities: — 

Marshall B. Faxon, Display of Asters, 

James Cartwright, Gladioli, 

H. B. Watts, " 

E. Fewkes & Son, Dahlias, 

C. W. Hoitt, 

George S. Tuttle, " (Pompon), 

John C. Hovey, Amaryllis Hallii, . 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " 

W. A. Manda, " " 

John Parker, " " 

Miss Sarah W. Story, " " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " 

Mrs. Anna D. Wood, " " 

Warren Heustis & Son, " " 



8 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 289 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild Flowers, $1 00 

E. H. Hitchings, " " 1 00 

Frank C.Hyde, " " 100 

August 28. 

Lilium Lancifolium. — Twelve spikes, Herbert Gleason, . . 3 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 2 00 

Trop.-eolums. — Display, filling twenty-five bottles, Marshall B. 

Faxon, 3 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, ........ 2 00 

Third, Horace Eaton, 1 00 

Marigolds. — Twenty-five bottles, three flowers in each, the second 

prize to C. M. Hovey, 2 00 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 1 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, 2 00 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

J. W. Clark, Seedling Gladioli, 3 00 

H. B. Watts, Gladioli, 2 00 

Edwin Sheppard, Gladioli, Dahlias, and Asters, . . . . 3 00 

John L. Gardner, two Orchids, 1 00 

O. M. Holmes, Nelumbium luteum, 1 00 

Warren Heustis, Roses, 1 00 

George S. Tuttle, Pompon Dahlias, 1 00 

W. A. Manda, Nasturtiums and Marigolds, 1 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 2 00 

Marshall B. Faxon, " " 2 00 

William K. Wood, " " 1 00 

John Parker, " " 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " 1 00 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " 1 00 

Miss Sarah W. Story, " " 1 00 

Edwin S. Hill, " " . . . . . . 1 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards " " 1 00 

Frank Hyde, " «• 1 00 

September 4. 

Double Zinnias. — Twenty-five flowers, not less than six varieties, 

Edwin Sheppard, 3 00 

Second, James O'Brien, . 2 00 

Third, L. W. Goodell, 1 00 

Dianthus. — Annual and biennial varieties, collection filling fifty 

bottles, single trusses, L. W. Goodell, 4 00 

Second, H. B. Watts, 3 00 

Third, James O'Brien, . . . . . . . . 2 00 



290 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Cut Flowers. — Display filling one hundred bottles, James O'Brien, $4 00 

Second, William K. Wood, 3 00 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 2 00 

Herbaceous Plants. — J. W. Manning, . . . . . . 2 00 

Second, Mrs. L. P. Weston, . 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

W. A. Manda, Annuals, . . 3 00 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, Dahlias, etc., 2 00 

Warren Heustis & Son, Asters, 2 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Roses, etc., 2 00 

George S. Turtle, Dahlias, . . . . . . . . 100 

John Parker, " 1 00 

Mrs. Starkes Whiton, " 1 00 

H. B. Watts, cut spikes of Hardy Gladioli, . . . . . 1 00 

Marshall B. Faxon, Cut Flowers, 1 00 

Miss Sarah W. Story, " " 100 

Edwin Sheppard, " " 1 00 

Mrs. L. P. Weston, " " 100 

Edwin S. Hill, " " 1 00 

John Parker, " " 1 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Solidagos and Asters, 2 00 

Severance Burrage, Wild Flowers, 1 00 

Frank C. Hyde, " " 1 00 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

September 14, 15, 16, and 17. 

Hunnewell Premiums. 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs. — Display in pots of other than 
Native Evergreens of New England, named, William C. 
Strong, $8 00 

Society's Prizes. 

Greenhouse Plants. — Six Greenhouse and Stove Plants, of dif- 
ferent named varieties, one Croton admissible, Samuel R. 

Payson, . 40 00 

Second, Frederick L. Ames, . . . . . 30 00 

Third, G. A. Nickerson, 25 00 

Fourth, William Martin, gardener to Nathaniel T. Kidder, . 20 00 
Specimen Flowering Plants. — Three named varieties, in bloom, 

David Allan, . 15 00 

Second, Frederick L. Ames, 10 00 

Third, David Allan, 8 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 291 

Single specimen, named, not offered in any collection, F. L. 

Ames, $5 00 

Second, David Allan, 4 00 

Third, William Martin, 3 00 

Variegated Leaved Plants. — Six named varieties, not offered in 
the collection of greenhouse plants, Crotons and Dracaenas 

not admissible, Frederick L. Ames, 12 00 

Second, William Martin, 10 00 

Third, C. M. Hovey, 8 00 

Single specimen, named, not offered in any collection, G. A. Nick- 

erson, ........... 5 00 

Second, G. A. Nickerson, 4 00 

Third, John L. Gardner, 3 00 

Caladiums. — Four named varieties, William Martin, . . . 5 00 
Ferns. — Six named varieties, no Adiantums admissible, Frederick 

L. Ames, 8 00 

Second, David Allan, 6 00 

Third, G. A. Nickerson, . 4 00 

Adiantums. — Six named varieties, Frederick L. Ames, . . . 6 00 

Second, William Martin, 4 00 

Tree Fern. — Single specimen, named, C. M. Hovey, . . . 6 00 

Second, G. A. Nickerson, 4 00 

Ltcopods. — Four named varieties, William Martin, . . . 3 00 

Second, David Allan, 2 00 

Drac^nas. — Six named varieties, H. H. Hunnewell, . . . 8 00 

Second, E. W. Gilmore, . 6 00 

Crotons. — Six named varieties, in not exceeding six-inch pots, 

E. W. Gilmore, 6 00 

Second, Frederick L. Ames, 4 00 

Third, David Allan, 3 00 

Palm. — Single specimen, named, G. A. Nickerson, . . . . 6 00 

Nepenthes. — Three plants, named, Samuel K. Payson, . . . 6 00 

Orchids. — Six plants, named varieties, in bloom, Frederick L. Ames, 12 00 

Second, E. W. Gilmore, 10 00 

Third, David Allan, 8 00 

Three plants, named varieties, in bloom, David Allan, . . 8 00 

Second, Frederick L. Ames, 6 00 

Single plant, in bloom, Frederick L. Ames, . . . . . 5 00 

Second, C. M. Hovey, 4 00 

Third, David Allan, . 3 00 

Gladioli. — Best display, and best kept during the exhibition, filling 

one hundred bottles, H. B. Watts, 10 00 

Dahlias. — Twelve named varieties, Edwin Sheppard, . . . 4 00 

Second, John Parker, 3 00 

Six named varieties, Edwin Sheppard, 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Starkes Whiton, . 2 00 

Three named varieties, Edwin Sheppard, 2 00 

Second, Macey Randall, ...... . . 1 00 



292 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Liliputian Dahlias. — General display, filling twenty-five bottles, 

G. S. Tuttle, $3 00 

Second, Macey Randall, 2 00 

Third, Edwin Sheppard, 1 00 

Cut Flowers. — Best display, and best kept during the exhibition, 

filling one hundred and fifty bottles, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . 16 00 

Second, C. M. Hovey . . 14 00 

Third, William K. Wood, 12 00 

Basket of Flowers. — Best arranged, and best kept through the 

exhibition, James O'Brien, ....... 8 00 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 6 00 

Third, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . . . . . . . . 5 00 

Fourth, Miss Sarah W. Story, ....... 4 00 

Gratuities :— 

N. S. Simpkins, Collection of Nymphaeas, 20 00 

W. A. Manda, Collection of Plants, 25 00 

John L. Gardner, " " " 10 00 

H. H. Hunnewell, " " " 5 00 

W. A. Manda, " " Ferns, . . . . . 10 00 

David Allan, Gloxinias and Ferns, 5 00 

William C. Strong, Variegated Leaved Trees and Plants, . . 3 00 

J. W. Manning, Herbaceous Plants, 2 00 

Marshall B. Faxon, Pansies, 2 00 

Edwin Sheppard, Cut Flowers, 5 00 

George Seaverns, " " 5 00 

Mrs. F. B. Hayes, " " . . . . . ... 3 00 

John Parker, " " 2 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild Flowers, 3 00 

October 2. 

Gratuities : — 

Marshall B. Faxon, Pansies, 1 00 

L. H. Farlow, Odontoglossum grande, 1 00 

John Parker, Dahlias, 1 00 

Edwin Sheppard, " ......... 1 00 

W. H. Spooner, Moss Rose Salet, 1 00 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, Cut Flowers, 1 00 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild Flowers, 1 00 

Walter E. Coburn, " " 100 

October 23. 
Gratuity: — 

E. W. Wood, Chrysanthemum Alexandre Dufour . . . . ] 00 

October 30. 
Gratuity: — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, . ; . ... 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 293 

CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 

November 10, 11, and 12. 

Chrysanthemums. — Six Large Flowered, or Chinese, distinct named 
varieties, one plant in each pot, the third prize to John W. 

Scott, gardener to George A. James, ..... .$10 00 

Six Japanese, distinct named varieties, one plant in each pot, 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, . . . ... . . 16 00 

Second, E. A. Wood, 13 00 

Third, William Martin, gardener to Nathaniel T. Kidder, . 10 00 
Four Pompons, distinct named varieties, one plant in each pot, 

P. Malley, 10 00 

Specimen Plant, Large Flowered, or Chinese, named, P. Malley, 6 00 

Second, William Martin, 5 00 

Third, E. A. Wood, 4 00 

Fourth, J. W. Scott, 3 00 

Specimen Plant, Japanese, named, P. Malley, . . . . 6 00 

Second, Edwin Fewkes & Son, 5 00 

Third, William Martin, 4 00 

Fourth, John W. Scott, 3 00 

Specimen Plant, Pompon, named, P. Malley, . . . . 6 00 

Second, William Martin, . . . . . . . . 5 00 

Third, E. A. Wood, 4 00 

Fourth, J. W. Scott, . 3 00 

Specimen Plant, Anemone, named, P. Malley, . . . . 6 00 

Second, E. A. Wood, 5 00 

Specimen trained standard, any class, William Martin, . . 6 00 

Second, Edwin Fewkes & Son, 5 00 

Third, Edwin Sheppard, ........ 4 00 

Best display of thirty named plants, in pots, all classes, not less 

than ten varieties, Edwin Fewkes & Son, . . . . 30 00 

Second, P. Malley, 25 00 

Third, Marshall P. Wilder, 20 00 

Fourth, Samuel Neil, . . 15 00 

Fifth, J. W. Scott, 10 00 

Twelve Cut Blooms, Japanese, named, in vases, Edwin Fewkes 

& Son, 6 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, . 5 00 

Six Cut Blooms, Large Flowered, or Chinese, named, in vases, 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, 4 00 

Second, E. A. Wood, 3 00 

Third, P. Malley, 2 00 

Six Cut Blooms, Japanese, named, in vases, Edwin Fewkes & Son, 4 00 

Second, E. A. Wood, 3 00 

5 



294 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Display of twenty-four sprays, not less than twelve varieties, 
Large Flowered, or Chinese, named, in vases, Edwin Fewkes 

& Son, . . $8 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, . . . 6 00 

Third, J. W. Scott, 5 00 

Display of twenty-four sprays, not less than twelve varieties, 

Japanese, named, in vases, Edwin Fewkes & Son, . . . 8 00 

Second, Edwin Sheppard, 6 00 

Dhird, E. A. Wood, 5 00 

Fourth, J. W. Scott, . . . 4 00 

Display of twenty-four sprays, not less than twelve varieties, 

Pompons, named, in vases, Edwin Fewkes & Son, . . 5 00 

The fourth prize to Mrs. E. M. Gill, . . ... . 2 00 

Best arranged Basket of Blooms, Mrs. E. M. Gill, . . . 5 00 

Second, Mrs. A. D. Wood, 4 00 

Bouquets. — Best pair of Hand, James O'Brien, . . . . 5 00 

Second, Mrs. E. M. Gill, 4 00 

Orchids. — Three Plants, named varieties, in bloom, Frederick L. 

Ames, . . . 10 00 

Second, Frederick L. Ames, . . . . . . . 8 00 

Third, William Martin, . 6 00 

Single Plant, in bloom, Frederick L. Ames, 5 00 

Second, William Martin, 4 00 

Third, Frederick L. Ames, . 3 00 



Gratuities: — 
Henry P. Walcott, Chrysanthemums in pots, 
W. A. Manda, " " " 

Edwin Fewkes & Son, " " " 

Edwin Sheppard, " " " 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, " " " 

W. A. Manda, Collection of Orchids, . 
Frederick L. Ames, " " " Ferns, etc. 

C. M. Hovey, Maxillaria picta, 
Mrs. M. J. Plumstead, Seedling Chrysanthemums, 
W. S. Ward, two plants, " 

" " " Cut Flowers of " 

William Martin, " " " 

Mrs. E. M. Gill, " " " 

Edwin Fewkes, " " " 

Edwin Sheppard, " " " 

" " " " Pelargoniums, 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Cut Flowers, 
Norton Brothers, six named Roses, . 
Miss Sarah W. Story, Basket of Chrysanthemums, 

" " " " " " Flowers, 

Mrs. P. D. Richards, Wild Flowers, Mosses, and Ferns, 



(two hundred bottles) 



25 00 
25 00 
15 00 
10 00 
10 00 
10 00 
10 00 
2 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

10 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR PLANTS AND FLOWERS. 295 

December 14. 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Two plants of Cypripedium insigne, . $2 00 

GOLD MEDAL. 

Rhododendron Show, June 5. H. Hollis Hunnewell, Display of named 

Hardy and Tender Rhododendrons and 
Hardy Azaleas. 

SILVER MEDALS. 

Spring Exhibition, March 24-26. John N. May, Tea Rose The Bride. 
May 8. Nathaniel T. Kidder, Azalea Distinction. 

Rhododendron Show, June 5. Jackson Dawson, Seedling Rhododendrons. 
July 3. John L. Gardner, Iris Kcempferi. 
" " John B. Moore & Son, Display of Hybrid Perpetual Roses. 
" 24. Frederick L. Ames, Cattleya Gaskelliana. 
August 21. J. Warren Clark, Seedling Gladioli. 

" 28. W. A. Manda, Seedling Single Dahlias. 
September 4. J. W. Manning, Herbaceous Plants. 

" Mrs. E. M. Gill, Annuals. 
Annual Exhibition, Sept. 14-17. E. D. Sturtevant, Victoria regia. 

" " " " N. S. Simpkins, Nymphcea Devoniensis. 

Chrysanthemum Show. November 10-12. Henry P. Walcott, Seedling 

Chrysanthemums. 
" " " " Arthur H. Fewkes, Seedling 

Chrysanthemums. 

BRONZE MEDALS. 

Spring Exhibition, March 24-26. Weigand Brothers, Mignonette, Weigands' 

Giant. 
" " " " Alexander Meston, gardener to Miss Do-ve, 

Ouvirandra fenestralis. 
May 8. Marshall P. Wilder, Azalea Madame Louis Van Houtte. 
June 5. W. A. Manda, Sarracenia flava. 

" " Sewall Fisher, Seedling Carnations. 
Rose Exhibition, June 22, 23. Edwin Fewkes & Son, Seedling Delphiniums. 
July 3. John C. Hovey, forty-five species of hardy Alpine Sempervivums. 

" " J. S. Richards, Display of Hybrid Perpetual Roses. 
September 4. Mrs. L. P. Weston, Herbaceous Plants. 
" " Miss S. W. Story, Annuals. 

FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. 

January 23. David Allan, Urceolina pendula aurea. 

" " C. L. Allen & Co., skill in culture of Hinze's Carnations. 

•' 30. James Comley, Seedling Hybrid Tea Rose, Francis B. Hayes. 
February 20. Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Rhododendron Veitchianum. 



296 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



March 6. John B. Moore & Son, superior culture of Hybrid Perpetual Rose 
Madame Gabriel Luizet. 
" " David Allan, Cattleya Roezli speciosa. 
Spring Exhibition, March 24-26. Charles J. Powers, Narcissus cernuus 

flore pleno. 
" " " " Denys Zirngiebel, Carnations, La Purite, 

and Andalusia. 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Amaryllis Italia. 
Jackson Dawson, Rosa multiftora. 
W. A. Manda, Aquilegia glandulosa. 
Robert T. Jackson, Primula viscosa. 
J. W. Manning, Onosma stellulata, 
W. A. Manda, Gaillardia grandijlora Tna.xima. 
Denys Zirngiebel, Myosotis Empress. 
Mrs. F. B. Hayes, Seedling Clematis. 
F. C. Hook, Seedling Aquilegias. 
Jackson Dawson, Hydrangea vestita. 
Arthur H. Fewkes, Seedling Aquilegias. 
Samuel P. Fowler, Seedling Asclepias tuberosa. 
J. F. C. Hyde, Seedling Hollyhocks. 
David Allan, Grammatophyllum Ellisii. 
W. E. Endicott, Hardy Hybrid Gladioli. 
M. B. Faxon, New Sweet Peas. 
F. L. Ames, Cattleya Eldorado Amesiana. 
J. Warren Clark, Gladiolus Excelsior. 
Denys Zirngiebel, Improved Asters. 



April 2. 


CC 


3. 


cc 


10. 


cc 


17. 


May 


29. 


cc 


cc 


June 5. 


(C 


12. 


(( 


cc 


(C 


cc 


c c 


19. 


July 


10. 


cc 


24. 



August 7. 



14. 
21. 

28. 



September 4. H. B. Watts, New Gladioli. 

" " JohnL. Gardner, well-grown Fuschias. 

Annual Exhibition, September 14-17. H. H. Hunnewell, Davallia Fijiensis. 
" " " " " " Seedling Dracaenas. 

Chrysanthemum Show, Nov. 10-12. Chas. F. Evans, New Rose, The Puritan. 
" " " Henry P. Walcott, Seedling Chrysan- 

themum, C. 22. 
" " " Henry P. Walcott, Seedling Chrysan- 

themum, Nevada. 
" " " Mrs. M. J. Plumstead, Seedling Chrys- 

anthemum, Mrs. Laighton. 
" " " Arthur H. Fewkes, Seedling Chrysan- 

themum, President Hyde. 
" " " Arthur H. Fewkes, Seedling Chrysan- 

themum, Lizzie Gannon. 
" " " Arthur H. Fewkes, Seedling Chrysan- 

themum, H. A. Gane. 
" " " Arthur H. Fewkes, Seedling Chrysan- 

themum, Emily Selinger. 
" " " John Henderson, Tea Rose Pere Gontier. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



By E. W. WOOD, Chairman. 



The fruit product throughout the State has been unusually large 
the past season ; with the single exception of peaches, all species 
have produced abundant crops. The fruit buds on the peach 
trees were again killed during the winter, and the query, hereto- 
fore suggested in these reports, whether the frequent failure of 
the peach crop should not be chiefly attributed to the diseased and 
enfeebled condition of the trees, rather than to any meteorologic 
changes in recent years, as compared with former times when the 
peach was successfully grown, seems to have received a partial 
answer in the results of the past season. One grower, who has 
competed at every exhibition when prizes have been offered, has 
done so almost entirely with seedling fruit. While he has a large 
number of trees of the ordinary varieties, on which the buds were 
destroyed, his seedling trees have produced fruit of excellent 
quality, indicating that the failure is owing to the condition of the 
trees rather than to any changed condition of soil or climate. 

The competition for the prizes throughout the season has been 
larger than usual, owing in part to the abundance of fruit and 
also to the increased number of competitors, several having en- 
tered the lists who had not previously taken any part in the 
exhibitions. 

The Strawberry Exhibition was one of more than ordinary 
interest to the growers, as there was an unusual number of new 
varieties shown, affording a favorable opportunity of comparing 



298 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

their merits. The Belmont fully sustained the reputation given it 
in previous reports. As grown by the originators, Warren Heustis 
r & Son, it has shown more points of excellence than any berry 
presented at our exhibitions for the last three years. The plants 
have been widely distributed the past season and we shall soon be 
able to judge whether or not it is adapted for general cultivation. 
P. M. Augur & Sons, of Middlefield, Conn., again showed their 
seedling, the Jewell. They labored under the disadvantage of 
being compelled to pick their fruit the day before the exhibition, 
and it did not have the bright, fresh appearance of fruit picked 
in the immediate vicinity. The plants of this variety have been 
distributed the past season, and we shall probably have an oppor- 
tunity at the next exhibition of seeing the fruit under conditions 
equally favorable with those under which other varieties are shown. 
Hon. Marshall P. Wilder showed a new variety which he has 
named the Dorchester, and which in size, form, color, and quality, 
compared favorably with the best berries on exhibition. If it 
should prove vigorous in growth and productive it will take a front 
rank among the newer varieties. 

While the plan, adopted the past three years, of showing Straw- 
berries on plates affords the Committee the best possible oppor- 
tunity for judging the fruit, and is the most convenient method 
for the growers, it does not show the fruit to the best advantage 
on the tables. When this plan was adopted, the premiums were 
so small that the growers' convenience and the waste of fruit 
were matters of considerable importance ; but with the premiums 
almost doubled exhibitors will doubtless willingly conform to 
such regulations as will show the fruit to the best advantage. 
The Committee on Establishing Prizes have, in the Schedule soon 
to be issued, arranged the premiums for Strawberries in classes 
of four quarts, two quarts, and one quart, to be shown in baskets. 

The weekly exhibitions, held after the Rose and Strawberry 
Show, June 22 and 23, until the Annual Exhibition, September 
14 — 17, were well attended, and the quantity of summer fruit 
shown was unusually large, affording both visitors and growers the 
most favorable opportunity of comparing the merits of the different 
varieties; and, if supplemented by inquiries as to conditions of 
exposure and soil, with method of treatment, furnished all neces- 
san 7 information for their successful culture. There have been no 
new varieties of summer fruits shown deserving special notice, 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 299 

but the prizes have been taken by well-known kinds. The Fran- 
conia and Cuthbert Raspberries, the Versaillaise Currant, and the 
Dorchester Blackberry have been the successful competitors. 

At the Annual Exhibition the special premiums offered for the 
leading varieties among the different classes of fruits were all 
taken ; and the competition for the regular prizes, especially those 
for Apples and Pears, was unusually large. These fruits were 
not of as good size as in some previous years when the crop was 
not so large. This was especially the case with the Baldwin 
apple, and this marked difference is hardly accounted for by the 
abundant crop, as some other varieties equally fruitful attained their 
normal size, and some kinds have been unusualty good. Among 
the latter the Tompkins King has been remarkably fine, selected 
fruit of this variety having sold in the market here at five dollars 
per barrel, and the quantity not being sufficient to supply the 
demand, even at that price. The whole apple crop the past sea- 
son has met with ready sale at fairly remunerative prices, the 
export trade taking the surplus above the demand for the home 
market ; and at the present time, with the prices constant^ tending 
upward, the supply does not fully meet the demand. 

The display of Pears was fully equal to any made since the 
present plan of showing single dishes was adopted. The crop 
was an exceedingly large one ; but it is the testimony of the 
wholesale fruit dealers that they have not for several years dis- 
posed of the pear crop more satisfactorily than the past season. 
Maine, New York, Philadelphia, and portions of Canada have 
drawn upon the Boston market for a partial supply of this fruit. 
Nowhere is the pear grown in greater perfection than in the vicin- 
ity of Boston ; and, should the quantity be increased, the area of 
consumption may be widely extended. 

Native Grapes have been shown in liberal quantities. A pecu- 
liar feature of the display at the Annual Exhibition was that but 
a single dish of Concords was seen, while some of the more 
uncertain varieties were shown in considerable quantities, and the 
prizes were all taken. Some extra fine bunches of Niagara were 
shown by J. P. Hay ward, of Ashby, an extreme northern town 
bordering on the New Hampshire line. Growers whose vineyards 
were mostly of the earlier varieties disposed of their fruit at fair 
prices, but those who grew the Concords and later varieties and 
let them remain upon the vines, intending to supply the late trade, 



300 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

suffered from the first frosts and the fruit was sold in a damaged 
condition, with unsatisf actor}' returns. 

Foreign Grapes were shown in more than the usual quantity. 
David Allan presented a large number of varieties — among them a 
bunch of Victoria Hamburg weighing seven pounds, and a bunch 
of Syrian weighing eight pounds and four ounces. S. R. Payson 
and N. S. Simpkins also showed some large and well finished 
bunches. 

At the October and November exhibitions the later varieties of 
Apples and Pears are shown much larger in size and in better con- 
dition than at the Annual Show in September ; in fact, these 
exhibitions set before us the best types of these fruits as grown in 
this State ; and the exhibitions of the past season on October 2 
and November 10-12 were especially noteworthy for the quantity 
and quality of both apples and pears. 

Of new fruits shown, to which allusion has not already been 
made, C. A. Dickinson presented, September 4, a seedling pear 
of good size and quality, but, coming at the same time as the 
Bartlett, which it can hardly be claimed to excel in any desirable 
quality, its cultivation will naturally be confined to the amateur. 

There have been an unusually large number of seedling peaches 
shown, and among them some of good size and quality ; and could 
vigorous, healthy stocks be secured, on which to bud them, we 
might reasonably hope for better success in the cultivation of this 
most desirable, and, when good crops can be produced, profitable 
fruit. 

The Eaton Grape, as shown by John B. Moore &' Son, has 
attracted much attention. In size of bunch and individual 
berries and in its generally attractive appearance, it excels any 
native grape shown at our exhibitions. 

Of fruits entered for the Prospective Prizes, there are the Hayes 
Grape, the Belmont and Jewell Strawberries, and a seedling 
Peach by J. W. Page. In the judgment of the Committee, none 
of them have been sufficiently cultivated by others than the 
originators to justify awarding the prizes at the present time. 

Of the appropriation of $1,700 the Committee have awarded in 
prizes and gratuities $1,624, leaving an unexpended balance of 
$76. 

In reviewing the year, we find much to encourage the cultivators 
of fruit, both for commerce and domestic use. The most valuable 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON FRUITS. 301 

New England fruit, the apple, is becoming eveiy } T ear more exclu- 
sively the farmer's product, the limited grounds in the cities and 
larger towns not affording sufficient space to grow the trees. Pre- 
viously to 1876 an abundant crop was a disadvantage to the growers 
as the over-supply reduced the price below a paying one. In 
that year there were exported to foreign markets three hundred 
and forty thousand barrels. Since then the number of barrels 
has reached one and a half million in a single year, and the ship- 
ments the present year have sometimes in a single week exceeded 
eighty thousand barrels. The farmers have not yet realized the 
changed conditions and do not make fruit a principal or leading 
crop. It is generally an incidental and not infrequently an acci- 
dental one. The fact that we have in this State thousands of 
acres of cheap lands admirably adapted to the cultivation of 
fruit — most favorably situated to meet the demand for export 
trade, coupled with the fact that the farmers can send their fruit 
from Boston to the London market at less cost than the growers 
living within forty miles of that city, ought to make fruit one of 
the leading agricultural products of the State. 

E. W. Wood, 

Ben j. Gr. Smith, 

O. B. Had wen, Fruit 

Jacob W. Manning, 

Chas. F. Curtis, [ Committee. 

E. P. Richardson, 

Warren Fenno. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR FRUITS. 



January 2. 
Gratuities: — 

B. Seavey, Oranges, $1 00 

Winn & Ricker, Oranges and Lemons, ...... 2 00 

January 16. 
Gratuity: — 

Marshall P. Wilder, Pears, 1 00 

January 23. 
Gratuity: — 

A. McDermott, Pears, 1 00 



SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 24, 25, and 26. 

Winter Apples. — Any variety, William T. Hall, Northern Spy, . $3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Hunt Russet, 2 00 

Winter Pears. — Any variety, Warren Fenno, Duchess of Bordeaux, 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, Josephine of Malines, . . . . 2 00 

Gratuity: — 
C. C. Shaw, Collection of Apples, 2 00 

April 10. 
Gratuity: — 
W. C. Winter, Peaches, 1 00 

April 17. 

Gratuity: — 

George Hill, Strawberries, 1 00 

June 5. 

Gratuity : — 

L. W. Weston, Crescent Strawberries, 2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



303 



June 12. 

Gratuities : — 

George Hill, Sharpless Strawberries, $2 00 

C. E. Grant, Longfellow and Downing Strawberries, . . . 1 00 

L. W. Weston, Crescent Strawberries, 1 00 

William Doran & Son, Downing, Sharpless, and Manchester Straw- 
berries, 1 00 

W. C. Eustis, Downing and Sharpless Strawberries, . . . 1 00 

H. W. Killam, Cherries, 2 00 



June 19. 
Gratuities : — 

George Hill, Sharpless Strawberries, 

W. C. Eustis, Sharpless and Downing Strawberries, 



2 00 
1 00 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 

June 22 and 23. 

Special Prizes. 

Strawberries. — Four quarts of any variety, Warren Heustis & 

Son, Belmont, Silver Cup, value $20 00 

Second, N. S. Simpkins, Sharpless, 15 00 

Third, P. M. Augur, Jewell, 10 00 

Fourth, J. D. Fitts, Jersey Queen, . . . . • . 5 00 
Two quarts of any variety, to be judged by the following scale of 
points : — 

Quality, 50 

Productiveness, .... 20 

Form, 10 

Color, 10 

Size, . . . ... 10 

Warren Heustis & Son, Belmont, . . . . . . 12 00 

Second, W. C. Winter, Wilder, 9 00 

Third, E. W. Wood, Hervey Davis, 6 00 

Fourth, Joseph D. Fitts, Jersey Queen, 3 00 

For the best exhibition of a seedling Strawberry introduced within 
the last five years, and never having taken a prize, E. W. 
Wood, Gold, Silver Medal. 



"Regular Prizes. 
Strawberries. — Forty- eight berries of Bidwell, William Patterson, 



Second, Isaac E. Coburn, . 
Third, George V. Fletcher, 



4 00 
3 00 
2 00 



304 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Charles Downing, C. M. Hovey, 

Second, C. N. Brackett, 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith, 
Cumberland, Warren Heustis & Son, 
Hervey Davis, E. W. Wood, . 
Hovey, C. M. Hovey, . 
Jucunda, J. L. Gardner, 
Miner's Prolific, J. D. Fitts, . 

Second, Oliver E. Eobbins, 

Third, Isaac E. Coburn, 
Seth Boyden, Marshall P. Wilder 
Sharpless, William C. Winter, 

Second, William Doran & Son, 

Third, C. M. Hovey, 
Wilder, Marshall P. Wilder, . 
Twenty-four berries of Bidwell, Isaac E. Coburn 

Second, William Patterson, 
Brighton, Warren Fenno, 
Champion, Marshall P. Wilder, 

Second, J. D. Fitts, . 
Charles Downing, Isaac E. Coburn 

Second, L. W. Weston, 
Cumberland, William Patterson. 

Second, George L, Lovett, 
Hervey Davis, E. W. Wood, 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 
Jersey Queen, Marshall P. Wilder 

Second, J. D. Fitts, . 
Jucunda, J. D. Fitts, 
Manchester, Charles E. Churchill, 

Second, J. D. Fitts, . 
Miner's Prolific, Isaac E. Coburn, 

Second, J. D. Fitts, . 
Pioneer, E. W. Wood, . 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, 
Seth Boyden, J. D. Fitts, 
Sharpless, Marshall P. Wilder, 

Second, George L. Lovett, 
Collection of not less than six varieties, one 
Marshall P. Wilder, 

Second, J. D. Fitts, . 
One quart of any new variety not previously exhibited 
P. Wilder, Prince, . 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, Parry, 
Cherries. — Two quarts of any variety, I. P. Langworthy 
Early Black, . 

Second, S. Lockwood, Jr., Black Tartarian 



quart of 



each 



Marshall 



Knight' 



$4 00 
3 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



8 00 
6 00 

3 00 
2 00 

2 00 
1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



305 



Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, E. S. Converse, 

West's St. Peters, $6 00 

Second, E. S. Converse, Black Hamburg, . . . . 4 00 

Forced Peaches, any variety, W. C. Winter, Crawford's Early, . 3 00 

Second, W. C. Winter, Foster, 2 00 

Gratuities: — 

George L. Lovett, Strawberries, 2 00 

C. M. Hovey, " 1 00 

C. E. Grant, " ........ 1 00 

Albert Bresee, Seedling Strawberries, 2 00 



July 3. 

Strawberries. — Twenty-four berries of any variety, W 
Son, Belmont, ...... 

Second, W. Heustis & Son, Middlesex, 
Third, W. Heustis & Son, Cumberland, 
Cherries. — Two quarts of Black Eagle, J. L. Gardner, 
Black Tartarian, Charles F. Curtis, 
Coe's Transparent, S. Lockwood, Jr., . 
Downer's Late, S. Lockwood, Jr., 
Any other variety, S. Lockwood, Jr., Reine Hortense, 
Second, C. N. Brackett, Merriam, 



Heustis & 



3 00 
2 00 



00 
00 
00 



2 00 



00 
00 
00 



Gratuities : — 

M. W. Chadbourne, Currants, 1 00 

W. C. Winter, Peaches and Figs, 2 CO 

C. M. Hovey, Richardson Cherries, . 1 00 



July 10. 

Cherries. — Two quarts of any variety, Warren Fenno, Norfolk, . 2 00 

Second, (£f. Curtis, Hyde's Black, . . . . . . 1 00 

Raspberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Fran- 

conia, 3 00 

Second, J. B. Moore & Son, Souchetti, 2 00 

Third, William Doran & Son, Red Antwerp, . . . . 1 00 
Currants. — Forty-eight bunches of any Red variety, Benjamin 

G. Smith, Versaillaise, ........ 4 00 

Second, Hittinger Brothers, Versaillaise, 3 00 

Third, Edwin Hastings, " ' 2 00 

Forty-eight bunches of any White variety, W. K. Wood, Dana's 

Transparent, 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, White Gondouin, . . . . 2 00 



306 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Gratuities: — 
Hittinger Brothers, Four varieties of Cherries, .... 

C. N. Brackett, Two varieties of Cherries, 

r Mrs. E. M. Gill, Currants, 

W. Heustis & Son, Belmont Strawberries, ..... 

July 17. 

Raspberries. — Collection of not less than four varieties, two quarts 
of each, William Doran & Son, 
Two quarts of any variety, B. Judkins, . 

Second, William Doran & Son, .... 
Black Caps. — Two quarts of any variety, B. Judkins, 
Currants. — Twenty-four bunches of Versaillaise, William Doran 

& Son, 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Any other Red variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Fay's Prolific, 

Second, William Doran & Son, Red Dutch, 
Any White variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Dana's Transparent, 
Second, Benjamin G. Smith, French Transparent, . 

Gratuities : — 

W. Heustis & Son, Strawberries, 
Charles N. Brackett, Cherries, . 
Warren Fenno, Cherries and Currants, 
A. S. Mcintosh, Cherries and Raspberries, 
S. Lawrence, Fay's Prolific Currants, 
O. R. Robbins, Currants, . . . . 
William C. Strong, Gooseberries, 
Edwin A. Hall, " . 

Benjamin G. Smith, June Berries, . 



$2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



4: 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 


00 


2 00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



July 24. 

Raspberries. — Two quarts of any variety, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Frarconia, 

Second, A. S. Mcintosh, Franconia, . 

Currants. — Twenty-four bunches of any Red variety, Benjamin G. 

Smith, Versaillaise, 

Second, William H. Spooner, Versaillaise, .... 

Third, Warren Fenno, Versaillaise, ...... 

Any White variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Dana's Transparent, 
Second, Benjamin G. Smith, French Transparent, . 
Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety, A. S. Mcintosh, Dor- 
chester, 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne, Dorchester, 

Third, Samuel Mcintosh, Dorchester, 

Gooseberries. — Two quarts of any Native variety, Benjamin G. 
Smith, Smith's Improved, ....... 

Second, Warren Fenno, Downing, . . 



3 00 
2 00 



3 00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



307 



Gratuities: — 

"Warren Fenno, Gooseberries, . 
William Richardson, Currants, 
J. H. Woodford, 
M. W. Chadbourne, Collection, 



$2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



G. Smith 



July 31. 

Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety, L. W. Weston, Dor 
Chester, ....... 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne, Dorchester, . 
Third, A. S. Mcintosh, Dorchester, . 
Gooseberries. — Two quarts of Foreign, Benjamin 

Whitesmith, 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Bang-Up, 
Pears. — Summer Doyenne, Warren Fenno, 
Second, Benjamin G. Smith, 
Any other variety, A. S. Mcintosh, Madeleine, 
Second, Warren Fenno, " 

Third, C. Terry, " 

Gratuities: — 



Sarah M. Vose, Blackberries, . 
Mrs. E. M. Gill, Gooseberries, . 
Hittinger Brothers, Apples, 
Samuel Hartwell, " 

Joseph W. Page, Seedling Peaches, 
Francis Smith, Alexander Peaches, 
J. C. Coolidge, Peaches, . 
George W. Wilkinson, Peaches, 



3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 



August 7. 

Apples. — Early Harvest, Benjamin G. Smith, . 

Second, Warren Fenno, ...... 

Sweet Bough, Joseph G. Coolidge, .... 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, .... 

Third, Hittinger Brothers, 

Any other variety, Charles N. Brackett, Early Margaret, 

Second, Charles F. Curtis, Williams, 

Third, M. W. Chadbourne, Red Astrachan, 
Pears. — Giffard, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, .... 

Second, Warren Fenno, ...... 

Third, Charles N. Brackett, 

Any other variety, Marshall P. Wilder, Quimper, 

Second, A. S. Mcintosh, Clapp's Favorite, 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, " " . 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



308 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Blackberries. — Two quarts of any variety, M. W. Chadbourne, 

Dorchester, $3 00 

Second, A. S. Mcintosh, 2 00 

Third, B. C. Vose, . . . . . . . . . 100 

Gratuities: — 

Horace Eaton, Blackberries, . . . . . . . . 1 00 

B. W. Priest, Seedling Blackberries, 1 00 

Benjamin G. Smith, Gooseberries, ....... 1 00 

Horace Eaton, Early Eivers Peaches, . . . . . . 1 00 

Marshall P. Wilder, Early Louise Peaches, . . . . . 1 00 

S. H. Record, Foreign Grapes, 2 00 



August 14. 

Apples. — Oldenburg, Samuel Hartwell, 
Second, Warren Fenno, 
Red Astrachan, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Second, Charles E. Curtis, 
Third, Samuel Hartwell, 
Williams's Eavorite, Samuel Hartwell, 
Second, Charles E. Curtis, 
Third, Hittinger Brothers, 
Pears. — Clapp's Favorite, Samuel Hartwell, 
Second, Warren Fenno, 
Third, Warren Heustis & Son, . 
Manning's Elizabeth, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 
Second, Warren Fenno, 
Any other variety, George Frost, Quimper, 
Second, Charles N. Brackett, Brandywine, 
Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety. 
Black Hamburg, 



David Allan, 



Gratuities : — 

C. E. Grant, Apples and Pears, 
Horace Eaton, Apples and Plums, 
M. W. Chadbourne, Pears, 
Benjamin G. Smith, Plums, 
C. B. Lancaster, Peaches, 
Samuel Hartwell, Peaches and Plums, 
Warren Fenno, " " " 

Robert Manning, Briton Blackberries, 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



5 00 



1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 00 
1 00 



August 21. 

Pears. — Bartlett, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 
Second, Warren Fenno, 
Third, Samuel Hartwell, 



3 00 
2 00 
1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



309 



Rostiezer, M. W. Chadbourne, 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, 

Third, John McClure, 
Tyson, A. S. Mcintosh, 

Second, Samuel Mcintosh, 

Third, J. A. C. Norton, 
Any other variety, A. S. Mcintosh, Clapp's Favorite, . 

Second, William H. Hunt, " " 

Third, C. S. Hosmer, " " 

Peaches. — Any variety, C. B. Lancaster, Coolidge's Favorite, 

Second, N. D. Harrington, Seedling, 

Third, Warren Fenno, Hale's Early, 

Gratuities : — 

Samuel Hartwell, Apples and Plums, 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Apples and Pears 
M. W. Chadbourne, " " " 

Warren Fenno, " " " 

Charles N. Brackett, Apples, 
C. E. Grant, " 

Robert Manning, Pears, . 
S. Lockwood, Jr., Plums, 
Horace Eaton, " 

Martin Pfaffman, " 

August 28. 

Apples. — Any variety, Samuel Hartwell, Gravenstein. 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Oldenburg, 

Third, L. W. Weston, Foundling, . 
Pears. — Bartlett, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 

Third, Varnum Frost, . - . 

Any other variety, George L. Lovett, Clapp's Favorite, 

Second, C. Terry, " " 

Third, A. S. Mcintosh, Tyson, .... 

Peaches. — Any variety, C. B. Lancaster, Coolidge's Favorite, 

Second, N. D. Harrington, Seedling, 

Third, Warren Fenno, Hale's Early, 
Plums. — Any variety, Mrs. H. V. Draper, Washington,. 

Second, George S. Curtis, Bradshaw, '. 

Third, Horace Eaton, Washington , . ... 

Native Grapes. — Any variety, Samuel Hartwell, Moore's Early, 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Champion, .... 

Gratuities : — 

Samuel Hartwell, Apples, 

Charles N. Brackett, Apples and Pears, . . 
6 



•8 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


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3 


00 


2 00 


1 


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3 


00 


2 


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1 


00 


3 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


3 


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2 00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 00 


1 


00 


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00 


2 


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1 


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3 


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2 


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2 


00 


1 


00 



310 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



M. W. Chadbourne, Apples and Pears, 
C. E. Grant, " " " 

Warren Fenno, Apples, Peaches, and Pears, 
A. S. Mcintosh, Pears, .... 
Mrs. F. B. Hayes, Grapes, 



$1 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 CO 
1 00 



September 4. 

Apples. — Foundling, L. W. Weston, 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Third, Francis Smith, 1 00 

Gravenstein, Samuel Hartwell, 3 00 

Second, George L. Lovett, . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Varnum Frost 1 00 

Porter, Benjamin G. Smith, 3 00 

Second, Francis Smith, . 2 00 

Third, Mrs. F. B. Hayes, 1 00 

Any other variety, Samuel Hartwell, Summer Pippin, . . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Chenango, . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno, Alexander, 1 00 

Pears. — Andrews, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, . .... 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, 2 00 

Third, C. A. Dickinson, . . 1 00 

Boussock, George S. Harwood, 3 00 

Second, Horace Eaton, 2 00 

Third, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 1 00 

Any other variety, C. A. Dickinson, Seedling, . . . . 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 2 00 

Third, Varnum Frost, . . 1 00 

Peaches. — Collection, N. D. Harrington, 4 00 

Plums. — Collection of not less than four varieties,13amuel Hartwell, 3 00 

Second, Horace Eaton, • . 2 00 

Third, William H. Hunt, 1 00 

Any other variety, Horace Eaton, Washington, . . . . 2 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, " .... 1 00 

Native Grapes. — Hartford, T. M. Davis, ..... 2 00 

Moore's Early, J. B. Moore & Son, 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Champion, . . . . 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, Cottage, 2 00 

Gratuities: — 

Samuel Hartwell, Apples, *....•.. 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Apples and Pears, 1 00 

Charles N. Brackett, » «« « 1 00 

A. S. Mcintosh, " 1 00 

T. M. Davis, Pears and Peaches, 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 311 

Warren Fenno, Nectarines, $1 00 

William Richardson, Assorted Fruits, 1 00 

Isaac Ellis, Strawberries in Pots, 1 00 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

Septembek 14, 15, 16, and 17. 
French Premiums for Apples. 



15 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 00 



Twelve Baldwin, Samuel Hartwell, .... 

Twelve Gravenstein, Samuel Hartwell, .... 
Twelve Hubbardston, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Twelve Rhode Island Greening, C. E. Grant, . 

Special Prizes offered by the Society. 

Peaks. — Twelve Anjou, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 
Twelve Bartlett, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 
Twelve Bosc, George S. Harwood, 
Twelve Seckel, George S. Harwood, 
Twelve Sheldon, George S. Harwood, . 
Twelve Peaches of any variety, N. D. Harrington, Seedling, 
Twelve Bunches of Native Grapes of any variety, J. B. Moore & 

Son, Moore's Early, 5 00 

For the heaviest and best ripened bunch of any Foreign Black 
Grape, not less than five pounds, David Allan, Victoria Ham- 
burg, seven pounds, 8 00 

For the heaviest and best ripened bunch of any Foreign White 
Grape, not less than five pounds, David Allan, Syrian, eight 
pounds and four ounces, 8 00 

Regular Prizes. 

Apples. — Baldwin, C. C. Shaw, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, .... 

Third, Warren Fenno, .... 
Danvers Sweet,* Charles N. Brackett, . 

Second, Warren Fenno, .... 

Third, C. C. Shaw, 

Dutch Codlin, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Second, L. W. Weston, .... 
Holden, O. B. Hadwen, .... 

Second, H. B. Watts, .... 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, . . . . 
Fameuse, George V. Fletcher, 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Third, Horace Eaton, . . . . 



4 


00 


3 


00 


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00 



312 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Foundling, L. W. Weston, 

Second, Francis Smith, 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 
Garden Royal, the second prize to C. E. Grant, 
Golden Russet, L. W. Weston, 

Second, Horace Eaton, 
Gravenstein, George S. Curtis, 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son 

Third, George L. Lovett, . 
Hubbardston, William H. Hunt, 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, 

Third, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Hunt Russet, Mrs. F. B. Hayes, 

Second, William H. Hunt, 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, . 
Lady's Sweet, Horace Eaton, 
Leicester, O. B. Hadwen, 
Lyscom, Samuel Hartwell, . 
Maiden's Blush, L. R. Eames, 

Second, George L. Lovett, 
Mother, George C. Rice, 

Second, E. W. Wood, 

Third, Warren Fenno, 
Northern Spy, C. C. Shaw, 

Second, Warren Fenno, 

Third, W. A. Morse, Jr., 
Porter, S. H. Coombs, . 

Second, Francis Smith, 

Third, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Pumpkin Sweet, George Seaverns 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 
Rhode Island Greening, C. E. Grant 

Second, E. W. Wood, 

Third, Charles N. Brackett, 
Roxbury Russet, Warren Heustis & Son 

Second, W. C. Eustis, 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith, 
•Tolman's Sweet, Josiah Crosby, 

Second, J. T. Foster, 

Third, C. F. Curtis, . 
Tompkins King, George C. Rice, 

Second, W. C. Eustis, 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, . 
Washington Royal or Palmer, 0. B. Hadwen 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 
Washington Strawberry, George C. Rice 

Second, Miss Sarah W. Story, 



$4 00 



3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 



PKIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 313 

Any other variety, L. R. Eames, Alexander, . . . $ 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, Alexander, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, Chenango, 1 00 

Crab Apples. — Hyslop, twenty-four specimens, George C. Rice, . 2 00 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne, 1 00 

Transcendent, George W. Stevens, 2 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, 1 00 

Pears. — Angouleme, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 4 00 

Second, John McClure, 3 00 

Third, Warren Fenno, 2 00 

Anjou, Hittinger Brothers, . . . . ' . . . . 4 00 

Second, W. S. Janvrin, 3 00 

Third, John McClure, 2 00 

Fourth, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 1 00 

Bartlett, Varnum Frost, 4 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, 3 00 

Third, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 2 00 

Fourth, N. D. Harrington, 1 00 

Belle Lucrative, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, . • 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, 2 00 

Third, David Allan, 1 00 

Bosc, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 4 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, 3 00 

Third, W. P. Walker, 2 00 

Fourth, C. N. Brackett, 1 00 

Boussock, George S. Harwood, ....... 3 00 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 2 00 

Third, Horace Eaton, 1 00 

Clairgeau, W. P. Plimpton, 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid , . . . ■ . . . 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, . 1 00 

Cornice, Warren Fenno, 3 00 

Second, George S. Harwood, 2 00 

Third, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, . . . . . . . 1 00 

Dana's Hovey, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 4 00 

Second, Theodore Lyman, . 3 00 

Third, C. M. Hovey, ......... 2 00 

Diel, Edwin A. Hall, . 3 00 

Second, Jacob Eaton , . 2 00 

Third, A. S. Mcintosh, 1 00 

Goodale, O. B. Hadwen, 3 00 

Second, Marshall P. Wilder, 2 00 

Hardy, Charles F. Curtis, 3 00 

Second, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, . 2 00 

Third, David Allan, . . . 1 00 

Howell, E. W. Wood, 3 00 

Second, W. S. Janvrin, ........ 2 00 



314 



MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



Third, C. A. Dickinson, 
Lawrence, John McClure, 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, . 
Louise Bonne of Jersey, T. M. Davis, 

Second, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick 

Third, Joseph Brierly, 
Marie Louise, C. M. Hovey, . 

Second, Warren Fenno, 

Third, A. S. Mcintosh, 
Merriam, A. S. Mcintosh, 

Second, Charles F. Curtis, 

Third, Samuel Mcintosh, . 
Onondaga, W. C. Eustis, 

Second, C. M. Hovey, 

Third, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Paradise of Autumn, George L. Lovett 

Second, William H. Hunt, 

Third, Marshall P. Wilder, 
Seckel, N. D. Harrington, 

Second, Hittinger Brothers, 

Third, George S. Harwood, 
Sheldon, George S. Harwood, 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son 
Souvenir du Congres, Marshall P. Wilder, 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, 

Third, J. T. Poster, . 
St. Michael Archangel, T. M. Davis, 

Second, Charles M. Hovey 

Third, Warren Heustis, 
Superfin, Warren Penno, 

Second, W. P. Walker, 

Third, E. W. Wood, . 
Urbaniste, M. W. Chadbourne 

Second, John L. Bird, 

Third, C. M. Hovey, . 
Winter Nelis, Edwin A. Hall 

Second, Jacob Eaton, 

Third, Warren Penno, 
Any other variety, Marshall P. Wilder, Lemuel Clapp 

Second, S. P. Sharpless, Pratt, . 

Third, John L. Bird, Kingsessing, 
Peaches. — Crawford's Early, N. D. Harrington 

Second, W. S. Janvrin, 
Oldmixon, S. Eodden, . 
Any other variety, N. D. Harrington, Crawford's Late, 



f 1 00 



3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


3 00 


3 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 



315 



Second, S. Rodden, Red Cheek Melocoton, . . . $2 00 

Third, Andrew Burnham, Florence, 1 00 

Peaches. — Orchard House Culture, S. Rodden, Crawford's Late, . 4 00 

Nectarines. — Warren Fenno, Seedling, 2 00 

Plums. — Not less than four varieties, Horace Eaton, . . . 5 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 4 00 

Third, Hittinger Brothers, 3 00 

Any other variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Coe's Golden Drop, . . 3 00 

Second, Horace Eaton, Yellow Egg, 2 00 

Third, J. B. Moore & Son, Pond's Seedling, . . . . 1 00 

Native Grapes. — Brighton, Marshall P. Wilder, . . . . 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Chase, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, . . . . . . . 1 00 

Concord, William Doran & Son, . . , . . . . 3 00 

Cottage, William H. Hunt, 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Delaware, Marshall P. Wilder, 3 00 

Second, J. P. Hayward, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Massasoit, Marshall P. Wilder, 3 00 

Second, Cephas H. Brackett, 2 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Son, 1 00 

Moore's Early, John B. Moore & Son, 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Wilder, Marshall P. Wilder, 3 00 

Worden, Oliver R. Robbins, 3 00 

Second, John B. Moore & Son, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Any other variety, Benjamin G. Smith, Lindley, . . . . 3 00 

Second, J. P. Hayward, Niagara, 2 00 

Third, J. P. Hayward, Rochester, 1 00 

Foreign Grapes. — Four varieties, two bunches each, David Allan, 10 00 

Second, E. W. Wood, . 8 00 

Wilmot's Hamburg, Two bunches, David Allan, . . . . 5 00 

Second, E. W. Wood 4 00 

Muscat of Alexandria, S. R. Payson, 5 00 

Second, David Allan, 4 00 

Black Hamburg, David Allan, 5 00 

Second, E. W. Wood, . 4 00 

Any other variety, N. S. Simpkins, Syrian, 5 00 

Second, David Allan, Alicante, 4 00 

Cranberries. — Half-peck, Dwight C. Robbins, . . . . 3 00 

Gratuities: — 

Charles M. Hovey, Apples and Pears, 5 00 

Warren Fenno, " « " 3 00 



316 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mrs. M. T. Goddard, Apples and Pears, $2 00 

C. N. Brackett, " " " 3 00 

Samuel Hartwell, » « « 2 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, " " " . . . . . . 2 00 

William A. Morse, " " " . . . . . . 2 00 

A. S. Mcintosh, »""...... 2 00 

Albert Bresee, « « «< 1 00 

G.W.Hall, " " " 1 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, " ~ " " 1 00 

Marshall P. Wilder, Pears, 2 00 

Charles F. Curtis, " 2 00 

W. A. Morse, Jr., " 100 

Alexander Beal, " ; . . 1 00 

George Seaverns, Quinces, 1 00 

W. C. Eustis, " ........ 1 00 

Marshall P. Wilder, Collection of Grapes, 3 00 

J. B. Moore & Son, Eaton Grape, . 1 00 

C. H. Johnson, Seedling Peaches, 2 00 

Eobert Manning, Cornelian Cherries, 1 00 

H. L. Barnes, Osage Oranges, . . 1 00 



EXHIBITION OF AUTUMN FRUITS. 

October 2. 

Apples. — Gravenstein, Samuel Hartwell, 3 00 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, 1 00 

Holden, Francis Smith, 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Mother, George C. Rice, 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, 2 00 

Porter, Charles N. Brackett, 3 00 

Second, Francis Smith, 2 00 

Any other variety, M. W. Chadbourne, Hubbardston, . . . 3 00 

Second, George Hill, Hubbardston, 2 00 

Peaks. — Angouleme, John McClure, 3 00 

Second, W. S. Janvrin, . . . . ' . . . . 2 00 

Third, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 1 00 

Bosc, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, . . 2 00 

Third, Hittinger Brothers . . . 1 00 

Clairgeau, W. P. Plimpton, . . . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, 1 00 

Cornice, Warren Fenno, 3 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 317 

Second, W. P. Plimpton, $2 00 

Third, George S. Harwood, 1 00 

Frederick Clapp, 0. B. Hadwen, 3 00 

Second, Horace Eaton, 2 00 

Louise Bonne of Jersey, T. M. Davis, 3 00 

Second, W. P. Walker, 2 00 

Third, George Hill, 1 00 

Seckel, George S. Harwood, 3 00 

Second, N. D. Harrington, 2 00 

Third, Hittinger Brothers, 1 00 

Sheldon, George S. Harwood, 3 00 

Second, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 2 00 

Third, Cephas H. Brackett, 1 00 

Superfin, L. M. Chase, 3 00 

Second, Michael Finnegan, 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno, 1 00 

Urbaniste, M. W. Chadbourne, 3 00 

Second, T. M. Davis, 2 00 

Third, John L. Bird, 1 00 

Any other variety, Warren Fenno, Hardy, . . . . . 3 00 

Second, A. S. Mcintosh, Merriam, 2 00 

Third, George Hill, Howell, 1 00 

Quinces.— C. D. Fiske, 2 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, 1 00 

Peaches. — Any variety, N. D. Harrington, Seedling, . . . 3 00 

Second, C. H. Johnson, 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno, 1 00 

Native Grapes. — Brighton, Benjamin G. Smith, . . . . 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Chase, 2 00 

Third, A. M. Davenport, 1 00 

Concord, A. J. Bigelow, . . 3 00 

Second, G. B. Andrews, 2 00 

Third, J. P. Hay ward, 1 00 

Delaware, J. P. Hay ward, ....*... 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Joseph S. Chase, 1 00 

Iona, Horace Eaton, 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, J. W. Page, 1 CO 

Isabella, Samuel G. Stone, . 3 00 

Second, C. Terry, . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, T. M. Davis, . . . 1 00 

Lindley, J. P. Hayward, 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, A. M. Davenport, 1 00 

Massasoit, A. M. Davenport, . . . . .' . 3 00 

Second, J. B. Moore & Son, 2 00 



318 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Third, J. P. Hayward, . . ... . . . $1 00 

Moore's Early, J. B. Moore & Son, . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Prentiss, Benjamin G. Smith, . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Joseph S. Chase, 2 00 

Wilder, J. P. Hay ward, .... . . . . 3 00 

Second, E. A. Adams, 2 00 

Any other variety, Horace Eaton, Eaton, 3 00 

Second, J. P. Hay ward, Niagara, 2 00 

Third, J. B. Moore & Son, Hayes, 1 00 

Foreign Grapes. — Two bunches of any variety, David Allan, 

Golden Queen, 4 00 

Second, David Allan, Muscat of Alexandria, . , . . 3 00 

Gratuities: — 

C. D. Tuttle, Apples, 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Apples and Pears, 1 00 

A. S. Mcintosh, Pears, 1 00 

T. M. Davis, Pears and Peaches, 1 00 

Benjamin G. Smith, Plums, 1 00 

Samuel Hartwell, " 1 00 

A. M. Davenport, Grapes, 1 00 

Joseph S. Chase, " 1 00 

J. B. Moore & Son, Eaton Grapes, First Class Certificate of Merit. 

October 16. 
Gratuities: — 

W. C. Eustis, Apples, 1 00 

N. D. Harrington, Seckel Pears, 1 00 

October 23. 
Gratuities: — 

H. N. Grover, Lawrence Pears, 1 00 

Robert Manning, Frederick Clapp Pears, 1 00 

William Busbey, Pears, 1 00 



CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 

November 10, 11, and 12. 
French Premiums. 

Apples. — Baldwin, T. B. Cowan, 5 00 

Hubbardston, M. W. Chadbourne, 5 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR FRUITS. 319 

Society's Prises. 

Apples. — Baldwin, C. E. Grant, 3 00 

Second, O. B. Hadwen, 2 00 

Third, Warren Fenno, 1 00 

Danvers Sweet, Charles N. Brackett, 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, 2 00 

Hubbardston, M. W. Chadbourne, 3 00 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, 2 00 

Third, C. E. Grant, 1 00 

Hunt Russet, J. B. Moore & Son, . . - . . . . 3 00 

Second, William H. Hunt, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Lady's Sweet, William H. Hills, 3 00 

The third prize to W. H. Teel, 1 00 

Northern Spy, L. R. Eames, 3 00 

Second, Warren Fenno, 2 00 

Third, J. B. Moore & Son, 1 00 

Rhode Island Greening, W. P. Plimpton, 3 00 

Second, C. E. Grant, . . 2 00 

Third, D. H. Brown, 1 00 

Roxbury Russet, Cephas H. Brackett, 3 00 

Second, T. B. Cowan, 2 00 

Third, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 1 00 

Tolman's Sweet, A. J. Bigelow, 3 00 

Second, J. T. Foster, 2 00 

Third, W. P. Plimpton, 1 00 

Tompkins King, George C. Rice, 3 00 

Second, John Parker, 2 00 

Third, W. C. Eustis, 1 00 

Pears. — Angouleme, Varnum Frost, 4 00 

Second, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 3 00 

Third, S. G. Damon, 2 00 

Fourth, W. S. Janvrin, 1 00 

Anjou, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 4 00 

Second, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 3 00 

Third, W. S. Janvrin, 2 00 

Fourth, J. F. Newton, 1 00 

Clairgeau, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 3 00 

Second, W. P. Plimpton, 2 00 

Third, O. B. Hadwen, 1 00 

Cornice, Warren Fenno, 4 00 

Second, W. P. Plimpton, 3 00 

Third, S. G. Damon, 2 00 

Fourth, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 1 00 

Dana's Hovey, Mrs. Mary Langmaid, 4 00 

Second, H. S. Goodwin, 3 00 



320 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTIOULTUEAL SOCIETY. 



Third, W. P. Plimpton, 

Fourth, Edwin A. Hall, 
Diel, A. S. Mcintosh, . 

Second, T. M. Davis, 

Third, W. H. Mcintosh, . 
Glout Morceau, Edwin A. Hall, 

Second, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 

Third, Mrs. Mary Gardner, 
Josephine of Malines, John L. Bird, 

Second Warren Fenno, 

Third, Benjamin G. Smith, 
Langelier, Edwin A. Hall, 

Second, Jacob Eaton, 1 . 

Third, T. M. Davis, . 
Lawrence, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 

Second, A. McDermott, 

Third, C. D. Eiske, . 
Vicar, Mrs. C. E. Wiggin, 

Second, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 

Third, William T. Hall, . 
Winter Nelis, S. Saunders, . 

Second, Edwin A. Hall, 

Third, Mrs. H. P. Kendrick, 
Any other variety, S. G. Damon, Marie Louise, 

Second, Warren Fenno, Duchess of Bordeaux, 

Third, Miss Mary Gardner, Columbia, 

Gratuities : — 



Samuel Hartwell, Apples, 

L. R. Eames, " . 

J. B. White, Fameuse Apples, . 

Charles N. Brackett, Apples and Pears, . 

A. S. Mcintosh, " « « 

M. W. Chadbourne, " " " 

Warren Fenno, " " " 

William T. Hall, " " " 

George W. Hall, " " " 

S. Saunders, Winter Nelis Pears, 

L. M. Chase, Pears, .... 

C. M. Hovey, " .... 

J. B. Moore & Son, Grapes, 

S. G. Damon, " ... 

S. G. Stone, " ... 

F. Burr & Co., Foreign Grapes, 

Robert Manning, Shell-bark Hickory Nuts, 



$2 00 



1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


2 00 


1 00 



REPORT 



OP THE 



COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



By CHARLES N, BRACKETT, Chairman. 



As another of those distinctly marked periods by which we meas- 
ure our existence and chronicle events will soon be numbered with 
those that have preceded it, it may be well to take a brief retrospec- 
tive glance over the road we have travelled, and enquire what have 
been the most prominent features, and what the results of the 
various exhibitions which this department has made during the 
3 7 ear. Such a review is often both instructive and encouraging, as we 
may not only learn from it what we have really accomplished, but, 
by reviewing the difficulties already overcome, we shall be better 
able to meet the obstacles that lie in our onward path. The period 
now just closing upon us has been one of progress in nearly all 
the departments of the farm and vegetable garden. The crops 
have generally been abundant, and the season has favored the 
harvest. 

Nearly all of our most intelligent cultivators are now sensible 
that their profession is one which should be studied ; that it is a 
profession in which the specially educated man occupies the same 
position of advantage that he does in every other pursuit of life. 
There is a better appreciation of the advantages to be derived 
from the application of scientific principles to our labor, and 
more disposition on the part of the cultivator of the soil to avail 
himself of such helps. The walls of prejudice have been modified 
or broken down by the introduction of labor-saving machines, or 
new methods of culture, once considered as useless innovations, 



322 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY/. 

but found upon trial to be important and profitable changes. He 
has learned to think for himself — to see that a practice is not neces- 
sarily right because it is old ; and he is more favorably disposed 
to the adoption of every useful improvement, and to at least a 
partial belief in the benefits to be derived from science. The im- 
portance of thorough cultivation and a liberal application of the 
proper fertilizers, the value of pure and reliable seeds, and the 
veiy great importance of the most approved system of forcing 
houses for the forwarding of vegetables out of season, are matters 
which have come to be pretty generally acknowledged ; so that our 
horticultural exhibitions especially, and the larger markets to a 
certain extent, already show decided evidences of progress in the 
art of growing good vegetables, both in and out of season. 

The prediction, made by your Committee in a former report, in 
regard to offering prizes for forced vegetables instead of depending 
on gratuities only (as was the custom previous to last year) , has 
already been fulfilled. Never since the existence of the Societj' 
have there been so large and fine displays of these objects, as were 
to be seen on our tables the first Saturdays of Januarj' and Feb- 
ruary, the past season. The exhibits consisted of Cucumbers, 
Radishes, Lettuce, Mushrooms, Parsley, Tomatoes, Asparagus, 
Rhubarb, Dandelions, Chives, Water-cress, Mint, and several 
choice specimens of Celery — from thirteen different contributors. 
The result of these exhibitions has far exceeded the expectations 
of your Committee, and is without precedent. The first of these 
exhibitions occurred before the regular Schedule of Prizes for the 
year was published ; and notwithstanding advance slips of the 
prize lists were printed and sent out by the Secretary to all who 
were thought likely to contribute, there were doubtless many who 
would otherwise have contributed, but were not reached by these 
notices. 

At the weekly shows there has been a constantly increasing in- 
terest manifested ; the exhib its have generally been of superior 
character, and in great variet}'. Competition, in most instances 
has been remarkably close, and quite a large number of new and 
constant contributors have been gained. 

Asparagus. — The standard set by John B. Moore at our exhibi- 
tions, as a grower of this vegetable, has alwaj's been high. In- 
deed, as far back as we can remember, he has always made it a 
point that all the first prizes for this favorite vegetable should go to 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 323 

Concord ; and to his credit be it said that for more than twenty 
years he has succeeded in maintaining that point against all com- 
petitors. Apparently not satisfied with this — believing that the 
world moves, and desiring to move with it, he has the past sea- 
son raised his standard a little higher still. His record now 
stands 4 lbs. 6J ozs. for one bunch of twelve stalks, that being 
the exact weight of one of the four bunches of Asparagus which 
he brought into our exhibition of May 22. We should most cer- 
tainly dislike to say anything that might tend in any way to dis- 
courage other contributors from competing, but from present ap- 
pearances it does really look to us as though that first prize would 
still travel over the same road for some time to come. Mr. Moore 
was awarded by your Committee a First Class Certificate of Merit 
for superior cultivation of Asparagus. 

Peas. — Among the earliest specimens was a new variety shown 
by W. W. Rawson, June 12, under the name of Rawson's Clip- 
per. It is a first early variety, with large well-filled pods, of a 
beautiful bright green color, the peas slightly wrinkled, and it 
certainly possessed many remarkabty excellent properties which 
would seem to recommend it to the particular attention of the mar- 
ket gardener. This new pea was also exhibited on the same day by 
Samuel Hartwell. Maud S. was also shown at the same time by 
Warren Heustis & Son, and Samuel Hartwell. The Stratagem and 
American Wonder have again taken precedence, and must be set 
down as decidedly best in their respective classes. 

Sweet Corn. — Cory's Early received the first prize July 17, and 
has taken precedence through the season whenever it has come 
into competition with the Marblehead, heretofore considered the 
earliest variety and largely grown for market purposes. The Cory 
is a decided improvement on that variety, being not only earlier, 
but also larger and of much better quality. 

Tomatoes. — There has seldom, if ever, been as fine a display of 
this fruit, as on the occasion of our Annual Exhibition. There 
were fifty-five dishes in all, and competition was unusually brisk 
and close. The Committee, in making the awards, have rarely 
had their powers of discrimination so thoroughly tested. Those 
who recollect the character of the specimens which used to be seen 
on exhibition here only a few years ago, must have looked with 
unfeigned satisfaction upon the many fine specimens which have 
this year decked the tables at our exhibitions all through their sea- 



324 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

son. The time was, and is not yet so far left behind as to be out 
of the remembrance of many of us, when it would have been dif- 
ficult to find the tomato on sale in half a dozen markets in the 
whole country. At the present day, however, it is grown almost 
everywhere, and there are hundreds of acres devoted to its culture 
for the supply of Boston market alone. 

In other useful branches of gardening, the last few years 
have also been years of progress. The cultivation of all the fine 
culinary vegetables has largely increased, and our markets are 
now almost everywhere abundantly supplied with them. The Egg 
Plant, Salsify, Okra, Mushroom, and Tomato, from being rarities, 
have now become almost universally cultivated. 

Potatoes. — At the Annual Exhibition there were quite a large 
number of new varieties offered in competition for the Society's 
prizes, some of which as far as their outward appearance was con- 
cerned were certainly all that could be desired ; but in regard to 
their quality, and the rank in which they should stand in this re- 
port, when compared with well known and standard sorts, your 
Committee were, on a first inspection, entirely in the dark. 
Under the usual system of judging on what one sees, the most 
important characteristic of a potato, quality, is wholly ignored. 
By this method, a committee can only certify by their awards 
as to what to them looks good, while it should be and is the aim 
of the Society to encourage the cultivation and growth of that 
only which actually is good. Your Committee were convinced 
that if they were able to report on the real quality of the 
different varieties placed before them for examination, the value 
of their report would be greatly enhanced, and therefore, at the 
Annual Exhibition this year, in order to make their awards fairly 
and understandingly, they adopted the quality test. Specimens of 
all varieties competing for premiums were cooked for trial, and 
the awards were made on this basis. 

The new seedling potato from Albert Bresee which was favor- 
ably noticed in our last report (and which he has since named 
Leader) was again shown by him at the Annual Exhibition ; and 
it fully sustained the favorable opinion formed of it by the Com- 
mittee last year. It was exhibited for the first time at the 
Annual Exhibition in 1885 ; and was then entered by the orig- 
inator for the Prospective Prize. Mr. Bresee presented speci- 
mens for trial, which were carefully tested by the Committee in 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON VEGETABLES. 325 

comparison with well known standard sorts, and were pronounced 
in quality superior to all. The Society's Silver Medal was 
awarded Mr. Bresee, for his new seedling potato. Leader. 

The Committee would again call the attention of exhibitors to 
Rules 3 and 20 of the General Rules and Regulations, as under these 
rules they have, in several instances, been obliged to disqualify 
contributions, otherwise worthy, for having had more than the re- 
quired number of specimens, or more than one variety on the 
same dish. They would also caution contributors against running 
to the extreme in size, in selecting specimen potatoes, as seems to 
have been done in several instances at the Annual Exhibition. 
Medium, even-sized, smooth, and clean specimens are preferable 
for the table or for exhibition ; and in making their awards the 
Committee will regard the above requisites as of more importance 
than overgrowth. We noticed, in one collection, several potatoes 
which had actually been pruned of prongs and excrescences, to 
bring them into proper shape, in order that they might be retained 
simply on account of their size. As the Committee is at present 
constituted, a resort to any such method of improving specimens, 
with the expectation of gaining a prize, is simply labor in vain. 

Cauliflowers. — The principal exhibitors at the Annual Exhi- 
bition were W. W. Rawson, Samuel Hartwell, and W. H. Teel. 
The large and well grown specimens shown by these gentlemen 
fully sustained their well earned reputations as successful growers 
of the cauliflower. The First Special Prize was awarded to W. W. 
Rawson ; who also received the Special Prize for the best collection 
of Seedling Potatoes — the Society's Silver Medal. 

Celery. — The Special Prizes for Celery called out a larger num- 
ber of competitors than usual. The specimens shown have never 
been excelled ; and they formed a very interesting and attractive 
feature of the exhibition. The first prize was won by George 
Hill, and the second by W. W. Rawson. 

Squashes, at the Annual Exhibition, were shown in less num- 
bers than usual, although some of the specimens were of superior 
quality. The Hubbards and Turbans from W. W. Rawson, and 
Marrows from George Hill, were worthy of especial mention. 

The various Root Crops have been exhibited in about the usual 

quantity and variety ; and there has been nothing worthy of special 

mention for its novelty. As to quality, to particularize seems 

needless, for nearly every specimen on the tables at the Annual 

7 



326 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Show was of superior merit, and exemplified to the practised eye, 
in a striking manner, the advantages which after a time result 
from these exhibitions, when they are conducted upon the right 
basis. In other words, the consequence of a continued series of 
exhibitions by a Society that awards its prizes with impartiality, 
and upon competent judgment, is almost certainly to develop 
in a community a high standard of excellence. When people 
are in the habit, week after week, of seeing fine vegetables or 
fruits upon the exhibition tables, they very soon come to require 
from the dealers that commodities of the same kind offered in the 
markets should bear an appearance similar to that of the superior 
specimens which they have so often seen on exhibition. Thus, 
through habitual exercise, the taste of all is improved and refined, 
and the public reap the benefit which naturally flows from this state 
of things. 

The annexed list shows the amount awarded in premiums and 
gratuities to be $952, out of an appropriation of $1,030, leaving 
an unexpended balance of $78. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

For the Committee, 

C. N. BRACKETT, Chairman. 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES AWARDED FOR 
VEGETABLES. 



January 2. 

Radishes. — Four bunches of any variety, the second prize to 

George F. Stone, 

Cucumbers. — Pair of any variety, M. B. Hussey, . 
Lettuce. — Four heads of Tennisball, George F. Stone, 
Parsley. — Two quarts, Warren Heustis & Son, 

Second, George F. Stone, 

Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, Cephas H. Brackett, 



Gratuities: — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Celery, 
Winter Brothers, Tomatoes, 
Charles Winter, " 



$2 00 
3 00 
3 00 
3 00 

2 00 

3 00 



2 00 
1 00 
1 00 



January 16. 

Gratuities: — 

George F. Stone, Lettuce and Parsley, 
C. M. Hovey, Mushrooms, . 



1 00 
1 00 



January 23. 

Gratuities: — 

Cephas H. Brackett, Mushrooms and Cucumbers, 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Collection, . 



2 00 

3 00 



January 30. 
Gratuities: — 

Cephas H. Brackett, Cucumbers and Mushrooms, 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Asparagus, . 
Hittinger Brothers, Lettuce, .... 



2 00 
1 00 
1 00 



February 6. 
Gratuities: — 

Radishes. — Four bunches of any variety, O. F. Newhall, Long 

Scarlet, 

Second, O. F. Newhall, Turnip Rooted, ..... 



3 00 
2 00 



328 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Cucumbers. — Pair of any variety, Cephas H. Brackett, Brighton, 

Second, George H. Scott, 

Third, F. C. Fisher, White Spine, . 
Dandelions. — Peck, Warren Heustis & Son, . 

Second, George F. Stone, 

Lettuce. — Four heads of Tennisball, George F. Stone, 

Second, Hittinger Brothers, .... 
Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, Cephas H. Brackett, 

Second, C. M. Hovey, 

Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Seedling, 

Second, " " " " Victoria, 

Third, O. F. Newhall, ■ . 



$3 00 
2 00 



Gratuities: — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Collection, . 
Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, " 

Cephas H. Brackett, Cress and Chives, 
S. Teel & Son, Celery, 
O. F. Newhall, Asparagus, 
Charles Winter, Tomatoes, 
Winter Brothers, " . 

C. M. Hovey, " . 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



February 13. 
Gratuities: — 

C. M. Hovey, Mushrooms and Tomatoes, 

George F. Stone, Lettuce, 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Rhubarb, 

W. W. Rawson, Radishes, 



2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



February 20. 
Gratuities: — 

Cephas H. Brackett, Cucumbers and Mushrooms, . 
Warren Heustis & Son, Radishes, . . . . 
W. W. Rawson, " . 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes ; Asparagus, . 



February 27. 
Gratuities: — 

W. W. Rawson, Lettuce and Radishes, 
George F. Stone, " 



2 00 
1 00 
1 00 
1 00 



1 00 
1 00 



March 6. 

Gratuities: — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Celery and two varieties of Radishes, 
Cephas H. Brackett, Collection, 



2 00 
2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



329 



Gratuity: — 
W. W. Rawson, Lettuce, 



March 13. 



March 20. 
Gratuity: — 

W. W. Rawson, Lettuce and Radishes, 



$1 00 



2 00 



SPRING EXHIBITION. 

March 24, 25, and 26. 

Radishes. — Four bunches of Turnip Rooted, W. W. Rawson, 

Second, Josiah Crosby, 

Third, George F. Stone, 

Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, Cephas H. Brackett, 

Second, George H. Scott, ...... 

Third, F. C. Fisher, 

Celery. — Four roots, Warren Heustis & Son, Henderson's Dwarf, 

Second, " " " Boston Market, 

Dandelions. — Peck, Josiah Crosby, 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, 

Third, George F. Stone, 
Lettuce. — Four heads, Josiah Crosby, . 

Second, George F. Stone, . 

Third, C. A. Learned, 
Parsley. — Two quarts, George E. Sanderson, 

Second, George F. Stone, . 
Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, C. W. Winn, . 

Second, Cephas H. Brackett, 

Third, E. L. Saunders, 
Tomatoes. — Twelve, A. R. Howe, . 

Second, Charles Winter, . . 

Third, W. C. Winter, . 



Gratuities: — 

Winn, Ricker, & Co., Onions, . 
C. W. Winn, Mint, . 
Cephas H. Brackett, Mushrooms, 
Warren Heustis & Son, " 



$3 00 



2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


3 


00 


2 00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


2 00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


3 


00 


2 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


00 



April 3. 
Gratuities: — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Potatoes (forced), 
Josiah Crosby, Lettuce, .... 



2 00 
1 00 



330 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

April 10. 

Asparagus. — Two bunches, twelve stalks each, Cephas H. Bracket! 

Second, O. F. Newhall, 

Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, Cephas H. Brackett, 

Second, James Heslan, ...... 

Third, George H. Scott, 

Any other variety, C. H. Brackett, Brighton, 
Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, Cephas H. Brackett, 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, . . 

Gratuities: — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Collection, 

Cephas H. Brackett, Tomatoes, . . . . 

C. W. Winn, Rhubarb, 



>3 


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April 17. 
Gratuities: — 

Josiah Crosby, Collection, . . 2 00 

Edwin Sheppard, Cucumbers, 1 00 

April 24. 
Gratuities: — 

W. W. Rawson, Collection . 2 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Potatoes, 1 00 

Mat 1. 

Gratuities : — 

John B. Moore & Son, Asparagus, . . . , : . . 1 00 

Cephas H. Brackett, Tomatoes, 1 00 

Josiah Crosby, Egyptian Beets, 1 00 

Warren Heustis & Son, Collection, 2 00 



MAY EXHIBITION. 

Mat 8. 

Asparagus. — Four bunches, twelve stalks each, J. B. Moore & Son, $3 00 

Second, L. G. Weston, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Cucumbers. — Pair, grown under glass, Cephas H. Brackett, Brigh- 
ton, 3 00 

Second, Varnum Frost, White Spine, 2 00 

Third, Cephas H. Brackett, " " 1 00 

Spinach. — Peck, Warren Heustis & Son, Thick Leaved, . . 3 00 

Second, " " " " Arlington, . . . 2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



331 



Dandelions. — Peck, Warren Heustis & Son, . 

Second, George F. Stone, 

Lettuce. — Four heads, George F. Stone, 

Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks. Cephas H. Brackett, Victoria, 
Second, Samuel Hartwell, " 

Third, M. W. Chadbourne, " 

Gratuities: — 

Cephas H. Brackett, Tomatoes and Mushrooms , 

Josiah Crosby, Beets and Radishes, 

Warren Heustis & Son, Radishes, 



. $2 00 


1 00 


3 00 


3 00 


2 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


1 00 



May 15. 

Gratuities: — 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Lettuce and Rhubarb, 2 00 

Edwin Sheppard, Cucumbers, 2 00 

Samuel Hartwell, Rhubarb and Asparagus, . . . . . 2 00 

Warren W. Rawson, Cucumbers, 1 00 

John B. Moore & Son, Asparagus (weight of 12 stalks, 3 lbs. 4£ 

ozs.), 1 00 

May 22. 

Gratuities: — 

Cephas H. Brackett, Collection, 2 00 

John B. Moore & Son, Asparagus (weight of 12 stalks, 4 lbs. 6^ ozs.,) 

First Class Certificate of Merit, for superior cultivation. 
C. D. Tuttle, Asparagus, 1 00 

May 29. 
Gratuities: — 

W. W. Rawson, Cauliflowers, . . ... . . . 2 00 

Samuel Hartwell, Asparagus, 1 00 



RHODODENDRON SHOW. 



June 5. 

Beets. — Twelve specimens, Josiah Crosby, Egyptian, 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, Egyptian, 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, Bastian, . ... 
Radishes. — Four bunches, Josiah Crosby, 

Second, C. A. Learned, 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, 

Asparagus. — Four bunches, twelve stalks each, J. B. Moore & 

Second, L. W. Weston, 

Third, C. D. Tuttle, 



Son 



$3 00 
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332 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Cucumbers. — Pair, W. W. Rawson, $3 00 

Second, Cephas H. Brackett, White Spine, . . . . 2 00 

Third, " " " Brighton, 1 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads, C. A. Learned, . ..... 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, George F. Stone, ........ 1 00 

Rhubarb. — Twelve stalks, J. B. Moore & Son, . . . . 3 00 

Second, Benjamin G. Smith, . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Mushrooms. — Twenty-four specimens, Cephas H. Brackett, . . 3 00 

Gratuities : — 

Edwin Sheppard, Cucumbers, . . . . . . 1 00 

Cephas H. Brackett, Tomatoes, 1 00 

W. W. Rawson, Cauliflowers, ........ 1 00 

June 12. 

Gratuities: — 

W. W. Rawson, Rawson's Clipper Peas, 2 00 

Samuel Hartwell, " " and Maud S. Peas, . " . . 1C0 

Warren Heustis & Son, Maud S. Peas, 1 00 



ROSE AND STRAWBERRY EXHIBITION. 



June 22. 

Beets. — Twelve Summer Turnip Rooted, C. A. Learned, . $ 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, . . . .' . . 2 00 

Egyptian, C. A. Learned, 2 00 

Second, Josiah Crosby, . . . . . . . 1 00 

Onions. — Twelve, Josiah Crosby, 2 00 

Second, C. A. Learned, 1 00 

Cucumbers. — Pair of White Spine, Hittinger Brothers, . . . 2 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, 1 00 

Cabbages. — Three, C. A. Learned, 3 00 

Second, W. W. Rawson, . 2 00 

Third, W. Heustis & Son, . 1 00 

Lettuce. — Four heads of any variety, C. A. Learned, . , . 2 00 

Second, E. Moore, . 1 00 

Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, W. W. Rawson, . . . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Third, Charles N. Brackett, . . . . . . . 1 00 

Gratuities : — - 

Hittinger Brothers, Tomatoes, . 1 00 

W. Nicholson, " 1 00 

W. C. Winter, " 1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 333 

J. B. Moore & Son, Rhubarb, $1 00 

W. W. Rawson, Radishes, 1 00 

C. A. Learned, Wakefield Cabbages, 1 00 

M. W. Chaclbourne, Peas, 1 00 

Samuel Hartwell, " . 1 00 

July 3. 

Onions. — Twelve, Josiah Crosby, 2 00 

Second, C. A. Learned, ........ 1 00 

Squashes. — Four Long Warted, George Hill, 2 00 

Second, Josiah Crosby, ........ 1 00 

Four Scalloped, George Hill, 2 00 

Cabbages.— Three, W. W. Rawson, 3 00 

Second, C. A. Learned, Henderson's, 2 00 

Third, "- " " Fottler's, 1 00 

Peas. — Half-peck of American Wonder, Samuel Hartwell, . . 3 00 

Second, W. W. Rawson, 2 00 

Any other variety, Charles N. Brackett, Telephone, . . . 3 00 

Second, W. W. Rawson, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, Advancer, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

Hittinger Brothers, Collection, 2 00 

George Hill, Wax Beans, ......... 1 00 

W. Heustis & Son, Cabbages, 1 00 

Cephas H. Brackett, Potatoes and Tomatoes, 2 00 

W. W. Rawson, Lettuce, 1 00 

July 10. 

Potatoes. — Twelve specimens, Cephas H. Brackett, Hebron, 

Second, C D. Kingman, Chicago Market, 

Third, C. B. Lancaster, Clark, ...... 

Beans. — Half-peck of String, Charles N. Brackett, Cranberry, 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, Wax, .... 

Third, " " " " Mohawk, 

Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, William Patterson, Stratagem, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, " 

Third, Charles N. Brackett, American Wonder, 

July 17. 

Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, Warren Heustis & Son, . . . 3 00 

Beans. — Half peck of Cranberry, Charles N. Brackett, . . . 2 00 

Peas — Half peck of any variety, Charles N. Brackett, Stratagem, 3 00 

Second, W. W. Rawson, Advancer, 2 00 

Third, " " " Stratagem, 1 00 



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334 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Charles N. Brackett, Cory, . $ 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, George Hill, 3 00 

Second, Hittinger Brothers, 2 00 

Third, W. W. Rawson, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

W. W- Rawson, Wax Beans and Squashes, . . . . . 2 00 

Hittinger Brothers, Wax Beans, . 1 00 

S. Lawrence, Stratagem Peas, 1 00 



July 24. 

Potatoes. — Twelve specimens, Samuel Hartwell, Sunrise, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Hebron, . . . . 

Third, C. B. Lancaster, Clark, ..... 
Squashes. — Three Marrow, Josiah Crosby, 
Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Charles N. Brackett, Cory, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Cory, .... 

Third, " " Marblehead, . 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, George Hill, . 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Gen. Grant, 

Gratuities : — 

Hittinger Brothers, Tomatoes, 

L. W. Weston, Potatoes and Corn, 

M. W. Chadbourne, """.•••'• 
Charles N. Brackett, Peas, . . . 



July 31. 

Potatoes. — Twelve of any variety, Samuel Hartwell, Sunrise, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Hebron, .... 

Third, C. B. Lancaster, Clark, 

Squashes. — Three Marrow, Josiah Crosby, 

Peas. — Half-peck of any variety, Warren Heustis & Son, 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, 

Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Samuel Hartwell, Parker House 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, Cory, .... 

Third, L. W. Weston, . . . . 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens, Charles N. Brackett, Acme, 

Second, Hittinger Brothers, Perfection, 

Third, George F. Stone, Acme, .... 

Gratuities: — 

Samuel Hartwell, Collection, 

Charles N. Brackett, " 

L. W. Weston, Bliss's Triumph Potatoes, 



3 


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PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 335 

August 7. 

Greenelesh Melons. — Four specimens, George Hill, . . $3 00 

Second, C. A. Learned, 2 00 

Third, George Hill, 1 00 

Beans. — Half-peck of Horticultural, Samuel Hartwell, . . . 3 00 

Tomatoes. — Twelve specimens of Acme, Charles N. Brackett, . 3 00 

Second, George F. Stone, 2 00 

Emery, Charles N. Brackett, 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Any other variety, Hittinger Brothers, Perfection, . . . 3 00 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, Cardinal, .' . . . 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, Perfection, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

Samuel Hartwell, Collection, . . 2 00 

J. G. Coolidge, Goddard Beans, 1 00 

Isaac E. Coburn, Beans, . . . 1 00 

August 14. 

Sweet Corn. — Twelve ears, Samuel Hartwell, . . . . 3 00 

Second, J. G. Coolidge, 2 00 

Third, C. E. Grant, 1 00 

Egg Plant. — Four specimens of Round Purple, the second prize to 

J. G. Coolidge, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

Samuel Hartwell, Collection, 3 00 

Charles N. Brackett, " 2 00 

C. E. Grant, " 1 00 

Cephas H. Brackett, Cucumbers and Mushrooms, . • . . 1 00 



August 21. 

Potatoes. — Twelve specimens of any variety, C. B. Lancaster, . 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, 2 00 

Third, L. W. Weston, 1 00 

Melons. — Sweet, any variety, four specimens, Warren Heustis & 

Son, 3 00 

Second, George Hill, . 2 00 

Third, W. W. Rawson . . . 1 00 

Beans. — Two quarts of Large Lima, Benjamin G. Smith, . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Horticultural, Warren Heustis & Son, 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Peppers. — Twelve specimens, Charles N. Brackett, . . . 3 00 



336 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Gratuities: — 

Samuel Hartwell, Collection, $3 00 

C. A. Learned, " 2 00 

Charles N. Brackett, " 2 00 

C. E. Grant, " 2 00 

W. W. Kawson, Lettuce, " . . . . 1 00 



August 28. 

Watermelons. — Pair, C. E. Grant, . . . . . . 3 00 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four specimens, Warren Heustis & Son, . 3 00 

Second, George Hill, . , 2 00 

Beans. — Two quarts of Goddard, shelled, Charles N. Brackett, . 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Peppers. — Twelve specimens, Charles N. Brackett, . . . 3 00 

Second, C. A. Learned, . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Third, C. Terry, 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

Samuel Hartwell, Collection, 3 00 

C. A. Learned, " 2 00 

Charles N. Brackett, Corn and Tomatoes, 2 00 

C. E. Grant, "_ " " ..... 1 00 



September 4. 

Cabbages. — Three specimens of any variety, C. B. Lancaster, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, ...... 

Cauliflowers. — Pour specimens, Samuel Hartwell, Erfurt, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Snowball, 

Third, " " Sea Foam, 

Celery. — Four roots, H. F. Reynolds, Golden Yellow, . 

Second, " " " Crawford, 

Third, " " " White Plume, 

Beans. — Two quarts of Large Lima, Benjamin G. Smith, 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, . 

Third, Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



3 00 



00 
00 
00 
00 

00 



Gratuities : — 

Charles N. Brackett, Collection, 
C. E. Grant, " 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, " 
Samuel Hartwell, " 



3 00 
2 00 
1 00 

1 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 



337 



ANNUAL EXHIBITION. 

September 14, 15, 16, and 17. 

Special Prizes. 

Potatoes. — Collection of new seedling varieties, W. W. Rawson, 

the Society's Silver Medal. 
Cauliflowers. — Best four specimens, W. W. Rawson, . 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, . . . ... 

Celery. — Best four roots, George Hill, 

Second, W. W. Rawson, 



* Begular Prizes. 

Beets. — Twelve Turnip Rooted, George F. Stone, 
Second, W. W. Rawson, • 
Third, C. A. Learned, .... 

Carrots. — Twelve Long Orange, W. W. Rawson, 
Twelve Intermediate, W.W. Rawson, . 
Second, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, . 
Third, Warren Heustis & Son, . 
Parsnips. — Twelve Long, C. A. Learned, 

Second, W. W. Rawson, .... 
Third, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 
Potatoes. — Four varieties, twelve specimens each, 
Second, Charles N. Brackett, 
Third, L. W. Weston, 
Clark, Samuel Hartwell, 
Mrs. M. T. Goddard, . 
Hebron, H. B. Watts, . 
Second, L. W. Weston, 
Third, Samuel Hartwell, 
Rose, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 

Second, Mrs. F. B. Hayes, 
Savoy, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 
Second, C. D. Tuttle, . 
Third, Samuel Hartwell, 
Any other variety, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, King, 
Second, Francis Smith, Winslow's Seedling, 
Third, Samuel Hartwell, Charter Oak, 
Salsify. — Twelve roots, Charles F. Curtis, 
Second, M. W. Chadbourne, 
Third, Warren Heustis & Son, . 
Turnips. — Twelve Flat, Charles N. Brackett, 
Second, George F. Stone, . 
Third, C. B. Lancaster, 
Swedish, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 



H. B 



Watts, 



$6 


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338 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Onions. — Twelve Danvers, 0. A. Learned, $3 00 

Second, George Hill, 2 00 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, 1 00 

r Portugal, George Hill, 3 00 

Second, Josiah Crosby, . . . . . . . . 2 00 

Red, George Hill, 3 00 

Greenflesh Melons. — Four, Warren Heustis & Son, . . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Third, John B. Moore & Son, 1 00 

Watermelons. — Pair, Charles N. Brackett, 3 00 

Second, C. E. Grant, . 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, . . 1 00 

Squashes. — Four Canada, Warren Fenno, 3 00 

Second, Josiah Pratt, * 2 00 

Third, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 1 00 

Hubbard, W. W. Rawson, 3 00 

Second, George Hill, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Marrow, George Hill, 3 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, 2 00 

Third, W. W. Rawson, 1 00 

Turban, W. W. Rawson, 3 00 

Second, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, . 2 00 

Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, C. B. Lancaster, . . . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Third, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 1 00 

Red, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, . . 3 00 

Second, C. B. Lancaster, . . 2 00 

Third, Charles N. Brackett, 1 00 

Savoy, Samuel Hartwell, 3 00 

Second, C. B. Lancaster, . . 2 00 

Third, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 1 00 

Cauliflowers.— Four, W. H. Teel, . . . . . . 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Third, W. W. Rawson, . . 100 

Celery. — Four roots of Boston Market, Josiah Crosby, . . . 4 00 

Second, Warren Heustis & Son, . . . . . . 3 00 

Any other variety, George Hill, Arlington, . . . . 4 00 

Second, W. W. Rawson, Arlington, . . . . . . 3 00 

Third, H. F. Reynolds, White Plume, 2 00 

Horseradish. — Six roots, W. W. Rawson, 3 00 

Second, C. A. Learned, . . 2 00 

Beans. — Two quarts of Lima, Benjamin G. Smith, ...",. . . 3 00 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, ....... 2 00 

Third, C. E. Grant, . . 1 00 

Corn. — Twelve ears of Sweet, Charles N. Brackett, . . . 3 00 

Second, W. Heustis & Son, 2 00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 339 

Third, Miss A. Tornberg, $1 00 

Yellow or Field, twenty-five ears, traced, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, . 3 00 

Second, Horace Eaton, 2 00 

Egg Plants. — Four Round Purple, J. G. Coolidge, . . . - . 3 00 

Second, C. A. Learned, 2 00 

Third, W. W. Rawson, 1 00 

Tomatoes. — Three varieties, twelve specimens each, I. E. Coburn, 5 00 

Second, George Hill, 4 00 

Third, Charles N. Brackett, 3 00 

Acme, J. Brierly, . . . . 3 00 

Second, C. E. Grant, 2 00 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, 1 00 

Emery, George Hill, 3 00 

Second, M. B. Faxon, 2 00 

Third, I. E. Coburn, 1 00 

Paragon, Charles N. Brackett, 3 00 

Second, C. E. Grant, 2 00 

Third, George Hill, 1 00 

Perfection, George Hill, 3 00 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 2 00 

Third, C. E. Grant, 1 00 

Any other variety, I. E. Coburn, Favorite, 3 00 

Second, Charles N. Brackett, Cardinal, . . . . . 2 00 

Third, William H. Spooner, Cardinal, 1 CO 

Martynias. — Twenty-four, Starkes Whiton, 3 00 

Second, M. W. Chadbourne, 2 00 

Peppers. — Twenty-four, Charles N. Brackett, . . . . 3 00 

Second, C. A. Learned, 2 00 

Third, Sidney Lawrence, V 1 00 

Gratuities: — 

Warren Heustis & Son, Melons, 1 00 

L. W. Weston, Melons, . 1 00 

George W. Jameson, Watermelons, 1 00 

Samuel Hartwell, " 1 00 

Cephas H. Brackett, Muskmelons, 1 00 

Horace Eaton, Squashes, 1 00 

A. H. Dunlap, " 1 00 

Patten & Co., Cucumbers, . . . . . . . 1 00 

Miss A. Tornberg, Kohl Rabi, . 1 00 

E. J. Bliss, Brussels Sprouts, 1 00 

Charles N. Brackett, Red Sweet Corn, 1 00 

C. A. Learned, Lettuce, . 1 00 

W. W. Rawson, " . 1 00 

C. E. Grant, Collection, 3 00 

Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, Collection, 2 00 

Albert Bresee, for new seedling potato Leader, the Society's Silver Medal. 



340 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



October 2. 



Salstfy. — Twelve specimens, Charles F. Curtis, 
Squashes. — Three Hubbard, J. G. Coolidge, . 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, 
Cabbages. — Three Drumhead, Samuel Hartwell, 

Second, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 

Third, Charles N. Brackett, 
Red, Charles N. Brackett, 

Second, Mrs. M. T. Goddard, 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, . 
Savoy, Samuel Hartwell^ 
Cauliflowers. — Eour, W. H. Teel, 

Second, Samuel Hartwell, Erfurt, 

Third, Samuel Hartwell, Snowball, 
Celery. — Eour roots of Boston Market, Warren Heustis 

The third prize to Mrs. C. M. Hammond, 
Any other variety, George Hill, Arlington, 



& Son, 



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Gratuities: — 

Charles N. Brackett, Collection. 4 00 

C. E. Grant, Collection, I 3 00 

Samuel Hartwell, Melons, 2 00 

I. E. Coburn, Tomatoes, 1 00 

M. W. Chadbourne, Salsify, -. 1 00 



CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOW. 



November 10, 11, and 12. 

Onions. — Twelve, C. A. Learned, 

Second, W. S. Janvrin, .... 

Third, Warren Heustis & Son, . 
Cucumbers. — Pair, Cephas H. Brackett, Brighton, 

Second, F. C. Fisher, .... 

Third, Cephas H. Brackett, 
Cabbages. — Three Red, Charles N. Brackett, 

Savoy, Samuel Hartwell, .... 
Cauliflowers. — Four specimens, W. H. Teel, 
Celery. —Four roots, W. W. Rawson, 

Second, Varnum Frost, . . . . 

Third, Josiah Crosby, 
Endive. — Four specimens, W. A. Manda, Broad Leaved, 

Second, W. A. Manda, French Curled, 



$3 00 
2 00 



00 
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00 
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00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



PRIZES AND GRATUITIES FOR VEGETABLES. 341 

Gratuities: — 

Samuel Hartwell, Collection, $1 00 

W. A. Manda, Leeks, 1 00 

C. E. Grant, Melons, 1 00 

George Sanderson, Parsley, 1 00 

Cephas H. Brackett, Tomatoes, 1 00 

A. S. Mcintosh, Artichokes, 1 00 

8 



REPORT 



OP THE 



COMMITTEE ON GARDENS, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



By JOHN G. BARKER, Chairman. 



In submitting our report for the past season, we trust it will not 
be devoid of interest to the Society, although we have to report 
no competition for any of the various premiums offered, except 
those for vineyards. We have tried to offer such prizes as would 
be sure to bring forward competitors, but regret to say that in this 
particular we have been disappointed. We still cherish the hope 
that those who are fortunate enough to possess places or objects 
worthy of notice will not fail to call the attention of the Com- 
mittee to them. It is true the prizes offered always relate to some 
especial object ; still it is not intended to debar from the Commit- 
tee's inspection everything except matters especially named. On 
the contrary we shall always be glad to embrace in our report 
anything that is of interest to the Society and will advance the 
interests of horticulture ; and we sincerely hope for a more hearty 
co-operation on the part of the members than it has been our lot 
to enjoy in the past. We also invite your attention to some slight 
changes in the Schedule of Prizes. 

Oakmount, the Residence of Mrs. Francis B. Hayes. 

Our first visit of the year was made at the grounds of our late 
President, the Hon. Francis B. Hayes, the especial object being to 
see the very fine displa}' of Rhododendrons. We have made 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 343 

so frequent mention of visits to this place that little can here be 
said by way of addition to our former reports. The Rhododen- 
dron tent has been largely increased in size, and many fine varie- 
ties have been added to the already extensive collection. It is 
gratifying to remark, in this community, a more general desire to 
cultivate these valuable decorative plants ; which are certainly 
among the most beautiful means of adorning grounds. Many a 
northern exposure, now barren and wild, could be beautified by 
the use of the rhododendron. There are no ornamental plants 
that will pay for the care and attention given them better than 
rhododendrons ; let the work be done well at first, and the attention 
they require afterward is but little. 

The spacious dwelling in process of erection at our last visit 
is now completed and has the appearance of an English mansion 
house, being built of natural stone collected on the place ; 
while its location, well back from the entrance and surrounded by 
the native forest, gives it a very picturesque and attractive setting. 

Grounds of Charles S. Sargent. 

Our second visit was at Mr. C. S. Sargent's ; his beautiful estate, 
situated in the charming town of Brookline, is well known to 
nearly all the members of the Society, very many having enjoyed 
frequent visits there. We were received most heartily at the resi- 
dence of Mr. Sargent, and enjoyed very much the cordial recep- 
tion given us there, as well as the opportunity for a reunion and 
further acquaintance with other guests of the occasion. 

In a niche at the rear of the house on a broad piazza, and 
facing the lawn, a tent was erected, which was well filled with an ex- 
cellent collection of Indian Azaleas, of the finest varieties and all in 
flower. The multitude of fine specimens, comprising almost every 
shade of color, formed a beautiful exhibition in itself. We regret 
to record the death of the splendid specimen of Decora, which has 
been frequently shown at the exhibitions of the Society, and was 
one of the finest plants ever known. 

While admiring this beautiful collection of plants we wondered 
why more of them are not cultivated ; especially considering 
with what ease they can be grown, and how conveniently they can 
be controlled as regards their time of flowering, by keeping them 
back, when desired, in a temperature of 40° to 45° — the same as 



344 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is required for the Sikkim varieties of the Rhododendron. In such 
places many of the best collections of rhododendrons and 
azaleas in this vicinity are kept. A good clean cellar does well ; 
or if this be not at hand a pit or a cool greenhouse will answer 
every purpose. 

There were also fine specimens of rhododendrons in pots and 
tubs, which were very beautiful, both in foliage and flower. Other 
specimen plants were placed in intermediate positions on the bal- 
ustrade and around the piazza, the Agaves and Beaucarnea recur- 
vata being particularly noticeable. In a quiet nook between the 
piazza and a wing of the house was planted a bed of pansies with 
a broad band of daisies, which gave us a pleasant surprise at a 
moment when we were not looking for or expecting anything. 
How many such little nooks, now neglected, could be made at- 
tractive with trifling expense ! 

While we were on the piazza we enjoyed a delightful view of the 
lawn with its beautiful undulating surface. It has often been said 
that the charm of a place is a well kept lawn ; on this view of 
things Mr. Sargent's most certainly possesses the charm. It is 
pleasing to notice that the natural contours have been maintained, 
and that the foolish rage for levelling every spot has not prevailed. 
We also gladly call attention to the beautiful views in all directions, 
the frequency of which is rather remarkable ; look which way you will, 
at every glance some fine view in the distance will greet you, the 
effect of which is charming. The openings giving these views 
afford also the breadth of light and shade so desirable in a well 
arranged place, and still so seldom attained. We are led to make 
especial mention of the foregoing points, as all our party were 
very much interested in these delightful views. 

It is needless to dilate upon the beauty of the trees and 
shrubs on these grounds ; good results only are to be expected 
where such skill has been given to the selection and care of fine 
specimens of the rarest and choicest kinds. Amongst those 
which adorn the estate are many fine specimens of single trees, 
especially of evergreens. By being placed at a distance from the 
groups of deciduous trees and shrubs, they are made to afford a 
very pleasing contrast as regards form and color. 

A very beautiful feature in these grounds is the flowering shrubs ; 
of which some writer has said that they are the choicest gifts of 
Nature to the landscape gardener, and on this point I am sure 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 345 

we shall not differ from him. We found them here displayed to 
good advantage — not planted so thickly as they are often seen, 
so as to become entangled with each other, and make the position 
of each single plant difficult to be found ; but each plant and 
shrub, whether singly or in a group, formed a specimen by itself. 
Each had been so planted that the grouping has not been lost ; and 
yet they are not so close to each other that the idea of specimens 
is not maintained. Indeed, all are so well arranged that they give 
a finished appearance to the whole scene. 

Among the trees and shrubs we noticed fine specimens of Abies 
alba, A. excelsa, Picea pungens, and many other fine evergreens ; 
also Syringa Japonica, Viburnum opulus, Deutzia parviflora, 
Viburnum plicatum, Acer polymorphum atropurpureum dissectum, 
Japan Weeping Cherry, Paul's Thorns, and unusually good 
specimens of Aquilegia coerulea. 

In garden scenery, water, in whatever shape, has an enlivening 
effect ; here is found a large pond of sufficient dimensions to add 
greatly to the delightfulness of the place ; a part of the margin of 
which is left in a natural state, while another part displays a wide 
border of rhododendrons containing many hundred plants — all in 
the healthiest condition and blooming finely. The importance of 
giving these valuable plants a conspicuous place is fully recog- 
nized in the arrangement here referred to ; and their great value 
as decorative plants can hardly be overestimated, as the fine array 
of distinct varieties gave ample proof. Perhaps the reflection of this 
delightful bed of rhododendrons in the water — a picture more 
easily enjoyed than described — was quite as pleasing to many of the 
visitors as the direct view. We also noticed very many varieties 
of Lilies planted in the rhododendron bed, many of them throwing 
up enormous spikes of flowers. A fine collection of named 
herbaceous plants added to the interest of the place. 

The greenhouses contained many specimens of plants both rare 
and well known, all in the best possible condition — indeed, the 
whole place was in excellent order. To qualify one to give, in 
detail, an idea of the many choice trees, shrubs, and plants which 
we witnessed on every hand, would take more time than our brief 
visit allowed for the purpose. Much has doubtless gone unmen- 
tioned which we should desire to take note of in order to afford 
that more adequate description of Mr. Sargent's place which we 
feel is due to him. We may here record, however, the great satis- 



346 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

faction afforded us by this visit to his very interesting place, not 
alone on account of the pleasure it gave the Committee, but for 
the profit and instruction gained thereby. 

Grounds of Warren Heustis & Son, Belmont. 

Our next visit was upon the invitation of Messrs. Warren 
Heustis & Son ; the especial object being to see the new Belmont 
Strawberry raised by these gentlemen. The production of a 
strawberry better than heretofore grown, or even as good as many 
that can be found in the market, is an object worthy of our best 
attention. The Belmont is not new to many of us ; but has been 
on our exhibition tables several years, and has very deservedly 
attracted our attention and interest. 

The area of the beds on which were growing the plants that we 
were invited to examine was a little more than 25,000 square feet ; 
and from these beds there has been sold in plants and fruit about 
, $4,000 worth ; or, separating the items, about $3,000 has been 
received for plants sold, and for berries from $900 to $1,000 ; not 
including a large quantity used for home purposes. 

Messrs. Heustis & Son have received very large orders for plants 
from parties who have only seen the berries in the market and re- 
quired no further evidence of their excellence. One of the dealers 
who has disposed of their crop, in a conversation with the 
Chairman of the Committee, gave assurance of the great value 
of this variety ; and spoke especially of its keeping qualities, 
saying that it remained in good condition much longer than any 
other that he knew of. It is seldom that one sees a strawberry 
producing ripe and small green fruit at the same time, as does the 
Belmont — thus giving evidence of being a remarkably productive 
variety. Few strawberries possess a combination of so many 
good qualities as are found in the Belmont ; and, whether for the 
amateur or the marketman, it is certainly a very desirable variety. 
The flavor is good and the substance rich and melting, whether 
picked and eaten from the vine or used at the tables. 

A good strawberry will always be held in high esteem, for 
it is a wholesome, health-giving fruit, as well as the earliest in 
season. The fact that new varieties are constantly coming out is 
an indication of the rapid progress now making in this important 
branch of horticulture ; but there will be no mistake in placing the 
Belmont high on the list of new varieties, as one of the very best. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 347 



Vineyards. 

No premiums ever offered by the Society in the Garden Com- 
mittee's department have been so well competed for as those for 
the culture of Grapes. 

We received invitations to visit the vineyards of A. J. Bigelow 
of Marlboro ; G. B. Andrews, Pearl Hill Farm, Fitchburg ; E. C. 
Rice, Sunderland ; and Henr} T Derby, Concord. The applications 
of the two gentlemen last named came too late for competi- 
tion, according to the rules. 

While on our way to Mr. Andrews's we took a hurried glance 
at the vineyard of Dr. Jabez Fisher ; who gave us a very cordial 
reception. To say that his vineyard is a model of neatness and 
successful cultivation is only repeating what we all have often 
heard. The fine condition of his vines and the veiy even and ex- 
cellent crop of fruit gave abundant evidence that a master work- 
man had bestowed upon them his best efforts. We hope at some 
future time to be able to lay before the Society a more extended 
account of this fine vineyard. 

The statements of Mr. Andrews and Mr. Bigelow, here included, 
will be quite sufficient to bring out their ideas of vine culture 
without any introductory remarks. 

Statement of George B. Andrews. 

Fitchburg, September 16, 1886. 

John G. Barker, Chairman of the Committee on Gardens, Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society : — 

Dear Sir : 

At your request I submit to your Committee the following 
statement concerning my vineyard. The vineyard that I enter for 
your premium contains 3800 vines of from one to fifteen j^ears' 
planting ; 2500 of them are Concords, 2000 of which are in bear- 
ing and have been giving me fine crops for a number of years. 
Last year I harvested ten and a half tons of fine grapes from the 
2000 vines. 

My vineyard is situated on the south-east side of what is called 
" Pearl Hill," and is several hundred feet above any standing 
water, which I consider one of the most important points for a 
good vineyard. The soil is a good loam with what we call a hard 



348 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

pan bottom. I have vines set at different distances apart and have 
trimmed in different ways and do not think that success in grape 
growing depends on any one way of trimming, but rather on the 
'location and the soil ; but a man had best take one of the dif- 
ferent wa}-s and follow it. 

Then, to produce the finest fruit, the vine-dresser must be in 
love with his vines, and watch them as a mother watches the growth 
of her child, looking after each one, and knowing the fruiting 
capacity of each vine. A mother might as well ask a sick child 
to get a hard lesson as a vine-dresser expect a feeble vine 
to bring fine table fruit; And yet it is being done every year ; and 
the cry goes out : " Why don't my vines do better?" 

The question is often asked me, "How do you manure your 
vines ? " and I have always tried to answer it, but should this 
question be asked me today I should say, " Study your vines and 
try the effect of different manures ; for this is one of the corner- 
stones of success." Another is the maintenance of equal propor- 
tion between the top and the root, and he who is fortunate enough 
to maintain it, other things being favorable, will be rewarded with 
good grapes. 

My experience for the past year has convinced me that I can 
grow the largest bunches on cow manure ; but that muriate of pot- 
ash and ground bone will produce the most sugar of anything I 
have ever used, and hasten the ripening from three to five days. 
I commenced by using four parts of bone to one of muriate of 
potash ; but I have gradually worked in more potash, and for my 
land I think that is the main thing needed for the vine,. but just 
how often and what quantity to apply is the study. 

Most of my vines are set eight by six feet ; and they run on a 
trellis made by placing chestnut posts once in twelve feet and 
stretching four lengths of No. 15 galvanized wire. The first wire 
is twenty inches from the ground ; then there is a distance of 
fourteen inches, then thirteen inches, then fourteen inches. The 
wire can be fastened to the posts by staples, or by an eight-penny 
wrought iron nail, or two six-penny nails driven into the posts so 
as to cross each other near their heads. Braces can be put in to 
support the end posts. The vines alternate, running first on the 
lower and then on the third wire — the young shoots of each 
alternate vine to be tied up to the second and fourth wires respec- 
tively ; and the first two strong shoots at the base of the vine to 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 349 

be grown six feet in length and then ripened for wood to fruit the 
next year. By this method I have from ten to twelve feet of old 
wood and I intend to cany one pound of fruit for every foot of 
old wood. 

The young shoots must be pinched when they attain the length 
wanted ; with me it is from seven to eight leaves, and when the 
shoot strengthens enough it is tied as already said to the wire 
above. Then as the laterals start they are kept pinched in to one 
leaf ; this sends the sap into the first leaves that started and 
increases their size ; and this is what is wanted, as it is the first 
large leaves that I mainly rely on to ripen my crop. 

I use the Acme harrow and hand-hoe enough to keep the weeds 
down ; requiring more time some years than others. The exact 
cost per acre I cannot give, as it is carried on in connection with 
my other work; but as nearly as I can estimate the cost of 
growing an acre of grapes with me is not far from $190. Then 
there is quite an expense for repairs of posts, wires, baskets, 
etc., etc., which cannot be less than $50 a year. 

Last year fertilizers were applied to part of the vineyard. 
This year there has been nothing of any kind applied. 

Respectfully submitted by 

G. B. ANDREWS. 

Pearl Hill Farm. 

Statement of Arthur J. Bigelow. 

Marlboro', August 9, 1886. 
John G. Barker, Chairman of the Committee on Gardens, Massa- 
chusetts Horticultural Society : — 
Dear Sir : 

In compliance with your request for the manner of cultivating 
my vineyard, I offer the following : 

The vineyard occupies about an acre and a half of land having 
a southerly exposure, with an inclination of about fifteen degrees. 
The soil is loam with a great number of cobble stones, and a hard, 
gravelly subsoil. It stands drought remarkably well. The ground 
slopes so much that in some .places planks set on edge and sup- 
ported by stakes are used to prevent too much washing of the soil. 



350 MASSACHUSETTS HOKTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

I have 700 Concord grape vines, planted in 1869, the vines being 
then two years old. I gathered the first crop of fruit three years 
after planting, and have harvested about three tons annually since. 
r Every vine has a separate trellis of its own. They are planted 
at intervals of eight by ten feet apart. The vineyard for the 
last six years has been manured with half a ton of Bay State 
Superphosphate annually. 

The labor of hoeing and summer pruning requires about twenty 
days' work. The annual fall pruning is done in November, about 
a week being required for the job. 

I have fifty Moore's Early vines, set seven years ago, and have 
harvested a crop for the last four years. The fruit, taking one 
year with another, is ripe for market the 10th of September. 
The present season I marketed 250 pounds of clusters which on 
an average weighed ten ounces each, but there were some that 
weighed a pound and upwards. My opinion of the Moore's Early is 
very favorable, and 1 intend to plant more of it as soon as I can, 
although the vines seem not so prolific as the Concord ; for, con- 
sidering the earliness of the fruit, with its fine carrying qualities, 
and the vigor and hardiness of the vine, I think it a very valu- 
able variety. 

I also have a few vines of the Delaware, Brighton, Clinton, 
Isabella, and Worden. I do not think them profitable market vari- 
eties, although excellent for family use. I have also a few vines 
of the Hartford and Niagara ; those of the latter sort have not 
come into bearing yet, and consequently I do not know what they 
will prove. The Hartfords, from their extreme earliness, always 
sell well, but should be picked as soon as ripe, for their staying 
quality is very poor. 

The peaches of which you speak were grown on trees set nine 
years ago. The fourth year after planting, from an orchard of 
350 trees I marketed 125 bushels ; the sixth year after planting, 
300 bushels ; but, with the exception of this season when we had 
20 bushels, I have had no peaches since. With the cold winters 
to which we are liable I consider the peach crop very uncertain in 
this part of the country. I think the chances of success are better 
where the trees are well headed in, removing one-half the new 
growth of wood in October. No other crop should be allowed to 
grow in the orchard. I think peaches are less liable to the yellows 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 351 

on good strong land, but I notice some cases of it there. It is a 
waste of time and money to try to grow peaches in a frosty loca- 
tion. 

I should be pleased to answer any other questions. 

Yours, 

ARTHUR J. BIGELOW. 

In regard to certain points on which more particular information 
was desired, Mr. Bigelow wrote as follows : 

Dear Sir : 

Your favor containing inquiries concerning trellises and training 
of vines is received, and in reply I would make the following 
statements : 

First, the trellises are formed of two chestnut posts, set two 
feet in the ground and five and a half feet above ; the distance 
between the posts at the ground is four and a half feet. The tops 
are joined by a chestnut strip four feet long, two inches wide, and 
one inch thick. Beneath this there are four lengths of No. 16 wire, 
the lowest twenty-six inches from the ground, and those above this 
a foot apart ; the vines being set eight feet apart in rows, giving 
three feet between each trellis and the next one. The posts for 
the trellises are about four inches in diameter ; the wires are 
fastened to them by staples. 

Trellises made in this way with well seasoned posts will last 
on my soil from eight to ten years, before the posts rot in the 
ground. If the ends were charred, or any other preventive of 
decay was used, I do not doubt that they would last much longer. 
I prefer the above described trellises on account of the facility with 
which the general cultivation, the pruning, and the harvesting can 
be conducted. Although the cost of these trellises may be a trifle 
more than those commonly in use, I think the greater ease with 
which the vines can be managed will fully compensate for the extra 
cost, and feel assured that one who has once used this method will 
prefer it to any other. 

Second, training and pruning is managed as follows : 

During the spring and summer, each cane reserved for fruiting is 
allowed to grow until it reaches its ninth bud — then its end is 
pinched off ; which causes the extra growth to go to laterals, and 
these are allowed to reach three buds in length. The cane is 



352 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

trained to the wires and tied with tarred rope into nearly the form 
it will occupy the succeeding year. 

At each fall pruning all that year's growth, with the exception of 
the next year's fruiting cane and two buds left for the following 
year's fruiting canes, is removed, two buds being left in case an ac- 
cident should befall one of them. The cane is now trained to the 
wires in the form it will have while bearing fruit, the end being 
made fast to the third or fourth wire, according to shape of the 
vine, by a piece of No. 16 annealed wire four inches in length. 
This piece of wire will perform the same office for several years. 
We prefer to have the cane go over the fourth wire ; then to be 
turned downward, and fastened to the third. 

We have noticed when the cane has been left straight or nearly 
so that the sap rushes to the end, causing the buds there to break 
first, the intermediate ones breaking later and producing weaker 
shoots. 

If our observations are correct, the more the cane is bent the more 
uniformly the buds break ; that has been our experience at least ; 
consequently we train our fruiting canes into the form of a hoop, 
and are satisfied that our fruit ripens earlier and more evenly by 
this method. 

We leave two joints on the laterals and notice that the fruit is 
as good from the second as the first, but can give no reason why 
it should be so. This method of pruning works well with the Con- 
cords and Moore's Early ; but we can not say how it would be with 
other varieties, as we make specialties of no others. 

Both these gentlemen received your Committee in the most hos- 
pitable manner. Mr. Andrews has a delightful location for his 
vineyard ; and is doing all he can to make the culture of the grape 
a success, and he had promise of a fine crop of fruit. 

The excellent success attained by Mr. Bigelow is only addi- 
tional evidence of what perseverance can do in utilizing what was 
once an unprofitable piece of ground. His principal crop, the 
Concord, was to be ranked among the best we ever saw ; the 
foliage was very large, clean, and handsome, and the bunches of 
fruit were superb. We think that the vines being placed singly 
(each one having a separate trellis to itself), and also not being 
planted as close as usual, and the excellent care bestowed upon 
them, keeping the foliage in the healthiest possible condition, all 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GARDENS. 353 

contributed largely to produce so fine a crop of fruit. The indi- 
vidual bunches, taken all through the vineyard, were the best we 
have seen. It is not often that John B. Moore is beaten, but here we 
found the Moore's Early in the best state of cultivation that we have 
thus far had the pleasure to witness, and bearing the largest bunches 
and the best ripened fruit that we have ever seen and tasted ; 
at this date (September 9) it was fully ripe. Your Committee, 
with other invited guests fully competent to judge of the merits 
of any fruit, will bear cheerful witness to the great value of this 
grape as an early fruit, and that it continues to merit all that has 
been said in praise of it. 

The value of the Grape for general culture is acknowledged by 
all cultivators. So improved by hybridization have been the best 
varieties of this useful fruit that the interest in grape culture has 
never been so great as at the present time. What fruit is so 
universally enjoyed by everybody as the grape ? And now that it 
is so largely grown, and sold at such moderate prices — when three 
pounds can be purchased for twenty-five cents — who is there even 
among the poorest that cannot get a taste of them. And whether 
borne on the single vine grown over the trellis in your back yard, 
on the few vines against the board fence, or on stakes, or in larger 
quantities by the marketman for commercial purposes — no fruit 
is more welcome than the grape ; and who of us is not glad that 
we can buy so cheap that the grape can always accompany the 
pear in our dessert ? 

In an article in the " North American Review" of April, 1865, on 
grape culture, we read that "no branch of horticulture has at- 
tracted greater attention among us of late years than vine grow- 
ing ; and the culture of grapes, both for wine making and for sale in 
the market, is becoming, even in New England, an important branch 
of popular labor." These remarks are followed by a very elaborate 
discussion of the vine and its culture, varieties, and hybridization, 
and the profits of the business ; in which it is claimed that the 
cultivation of the vine yields larger and more certain returns than 
that of anj^thing else that can be grown in New England, tobacco 
alone excepted. It is further claimed that " eight tons of Concord 
grapes have been raised on an acre in Massachusetts, and that six 
tons is an average crop from vines five or six years old ; and Mr. 
Bull says that an acre of vines four years old will give the cultivator 



354 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fourteen thousand pounds." "Wine making is then discussed, and 
the writer says " we hardly dare to look forward to the time when 
the vine shall cover the bleak and barren hills of New England — 
but we do see close at hand the day when broad vineyards will be 
planted to supply with their luscious fruit the markets of our cities 
and great towns, and when rows of well chosen and well trained 
vines will be as common an appendage to every decent garden 
as a line of currant bushes is now." 

The barren hills are not all covered, but a good many are, and 
we think that the writer of the article from which we have quoted 
(the late lamented John M.Merrick, Jr.) would have been surprised 
if he could have been spared to witness what your Committee 
have seen in the past few years. We think he would be convinced 
that, in view of the remarkable progress already made, we are 
surely in a fair way to cover them. Many an unproductive hill, 
if not made to blossom as the rose, has been made to yield lus- 
cious fruit ; and where no return ever came, now a handsome 
profit is the yearly result. 

We believe that the culture of the grape is yet in its infancy, 
and — to use the words of the writer already referred to- — we wish 
we could say, in persuasive accents, to every one who owns a rod 
of land, " Plant a good vine, tend it and care for it, and you will 
have 3 r our reward." 

The Committee have awarded the following prizes : 

To Arthur J. Bigelow, Marlboro, the first prize for the best 
vineyard, $30.00. 

To George B. Andrews, Fitchburg, the prize for the second 
best vineyard, $20.00. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

John G. Barker, 

E. W. Wood, 

Jos. H. Woodford, 

C. N. Brackett, ) Committee. 

Benj. G. Smith, 

Henry W. Wilson, 

Charles W. Ross. 



REPORT 



OP THE 



COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION AND DISCUSSION, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



In submitting this report to the Society, we are gratified to note 
that the publications of the year are of increased size and inter- 
est, and well calculated to promote the diffusion of horticultural 
knowledge ; and we concur with entire unanimity in the con- 
clusion that this year has been one of relative superiority and 
increased success in this department of work. Through the un- 
tiring labors of the Secretary and his assistant, the Transactions 
for the year have appeared in print and been placed in the hands 
of members and also forwarded to other societies of kindred in- 
terests, with commendable promptness. 

During the winter months the meetings for discussion have been 
well attended, and the weekly bulletins of the Society, containing 
abstracts of the essays and discussions, have been extensively cir- 
culated and read. 

The series of essays has embraced a wide range of subjects, not 
only adapted to interest and instruct the members of the Society, 
but tending to build up and elevate the happiness of domestic and 
rural life. 

The discussions following the essays, perhaps, have not fully met 
the expectations of your Committee, but this may possibly be 
attributed to the fact that the essays were elaborate papers, treat- 
ing of large subjects, and requiring more thought and considera- 
tion than the limited time would permit. But it may be fairly 
stated that the meetings constituted a series of well defined steps 
in progress, and when considered as a whole we may feel well en- 
couraged with the manifest result. 



356 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The Committee desire to express their most cordial thanks and 
esteem to the lady and the gentlemen who have so kindly and gener- 
ously contributed, by their essays and discussions, to the success 
and progress of the Society during the year now closing. 

The Committee having been again charged with the duty of 
awarding the prizes offered for the best reports of the committees 
to award prizes for horticultural products, recommend the follow- 
ing awards : 

The First Prize of $10 to E. W. Wood, for the Report of the 
Committee on Fruits. 

The Second Prize of- $8, to Charles N. Brackett, for the Report 
of the Committee on Vegetables. 

The Third Prize of $6, to Joseph H. Woodford, for the Report 
of the Committee on Plants and Flowers. 

O. B. Had wen, 

Francis H. Appleton, )■ Committee. 

William H. Hunt, 



REPORT 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON THE LIBRARY, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886, 



The affairs of our Library run so much in the same channels 
from year to year that the Report of this Committee can have 
little of novelty. We report this year, as usual, that the income 
of the Stickney Fund has been expended in accordance with the 
conditions imposed by the giver and that the Society's appropria- 
tion has gone for periodicals and binding. The amount granted 
for continuing the Catalogue of Plates will have been expended by 
the end of the present month ; the progress of the work has been 
as great as could be expected for the sum allowed. 

In accordance with the practice which has prevailed for several 
years, our first care has been to procure as many works upon prac- 
tical details of culture as possible, and, next, to buy the best 
illustrated works to be had, preferring always colored plates when 
such could be had, for a glance at a good figure is of more value 
to one who wishes to know the appearance of a plant, than the 
most careful description, which, to be of value, must be in tech- 
nical language. Among the most noteworthy of this class of 
books, not onlj- for the excellence of the plates but for the great 
interest of the subject, are the two serials devoted to orchids, the 
Orchid Album and Linden ia ; which have been regularly received 
throughout the year. 

Mr. Maw's monograph of the genus Crocus, and Antoine's 
serial work on the Bromeliaceae, though dealing with subjects of 
no commercial importance, will be welcomed by many ; as will also 
be the many smaller manuals upon special subjects, such as those 
upon cacti, primroses, clematis, carnations and fuschias. 
9 



358 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The number of pamphlets received this year by purchase and 
otherwise has been verj* large, and includes many of great interest 
and value ; those on forestry have been surprisingly numerous. 

The Committee would particularly mention, among other dona- 
tions to the Library, the bequest of Mrs. Ellen A. Cooke (widow of 
Henry C. Cooke, who was a member of the Society) of her library 
of horticultural works. Besides those mentioned in the list of 
library accessions, the bequest comprised a large number of dupli- 
cates of books already in the library, which it is not necessary to 
enumerate. 

In the first part of the year the condition of the collection of 
ferns presented by Mr. Davenport was discussed and a report has 
been drawn up in reference to it by Mr. Humphrey, which, having 
been adopted b}' this Committee, is here given : — 

To the President and Members of the Massachusetts Horticid- 
tural Society. 

Gentlemen : 

The Library Committee desires to call your attention to the val- 
uable herbarium of North American Ferns, the gift of Mr. George 
E. Davenport to the Society. 

When presented in 1875 it contained one hundred and sixteen 
species and many varieties, there being credited as growing north 
of Mexico at that time one hundred and thirty-one species and 
twenty-five varieties. 

At the present time there are known in those limits thirty-two 
genera comprising one hundred and sixty-five species and twent}'- 
four varieties, recognizing as varieties onh T such forms as appear 
to be permanent. The herbarium is now complete, as it contains 
specimens of all the ferns included in the above-mentioned genera, 
species, and varieties ; embracing seven hundred sheets and about 
twenty-five hundred specimens, each species and varietj T being 
represented by numerous fronds, showing its various stages of 
growth as well as its range of distribution. 

The herbarium is especially rich in Botrychia, that genus being 
represented by nearly four hundred specimens in an innumerable 
variety of forms. 

The Asplenia, Aspidia, and Cheilanthes are also extensively 
represented ; the last, especially, showing probably the largest 
collection of some species to be found in any herbarium, including 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 359 

Cheilanthes Parislui, a fern which has never been collected but 
once and of which only three or four specimens are known to 
exist. 

The market value of this collection may be safely estimated 
at three hundred and fifty dollars, while the value of the donor's 
time, expended in arranging and adding to it during the last ten 
years, is inestimable. His work has been entirely a labor of love, 
without thought of compensation, and has produced an herbarium 
superior in its specialty to any other in this country, as many 
noted botanists who have examined it have testified. 

The collection also includes numerous and valuable autograph 
letters from the prominent botanists of the country, including Pro- 
fessor Asa Gray, Professor Daniel C. Eaton, Dr. A. W. Chapman 
and others, upon matters of especial importance to botanists. 
Mr. Davenport has printed, at his own expense, a catalogue of the 
herbarium, which is of great assistance in the examination of 
specimens. 

The Committee, therefore, in view of the foregoing facts, and 
believing the herbarium to be of great value to botanists, students, 
and the public, and to reflect much credit upon the Society which 
possesses it, respectfully and earnestly requests that the Silver 
Medal of the Society be conferred upon Mr. George E. Davenport 
in recognition of the service he has thus rendered. 

For the Committee, 

W. E. ENDICOTT, Chairman. 



LIBRARY ACCESSIONS. 
Books Purchased. 



Millspaugh, Charles F., M. D. American Medicinal Plants; an illustrated 

and descriptive guide to the American Plants used as Homoeopathic 

Remedies. Fascicles 1-5. 4to. 150 colored plates. New York and 

Philadelphia : 1884-1886. 
Lloyd, J. W. and G. C. Drugs and Medicines of North America. Vol. 1 

and Parts 1 and 2 of Vol. 2. Royal 8vo. 34 plates and 129 wood-cuts. 

Cincinnati : 1884. 
Oyster, Dr. J. H. Catalogue of Phaenogamous and Vascular Cryptogamous 

Plants of North America (exclusive of Mexico). 8vo. pamphlet. 

Paola, Kansas : 1885. 



360 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Arthur, J. C. Contributions to the Flora of Iowa. A Catalogue of the 

Phsenogamous Plants. Nos. 1-6. 6 pamphlets, 8vo. Various 

dates and imprints. [From the Proceedings of the Davenport 

Academy of Natural Sciences.] 
Coulter, John M., Ph. D., etc. Manual of the Botany (Phaenogamia and 

Pteridophyta) of the Rocky Mountain Region, from New Mexico to 

the British Boundary. 8vo. New York and Chicago : 1885. 
Hemsley, W. B. Biologia Centrali-Americana. Parts 20 and 21. Decern 

ber 1885, and February 1886, in continuation. 4to. Plates 101-109. 
Miquel, F. A. Guil. Stirpes Surinamenses Selectae. 4to. 65 plates. Leyden : 

1850. 
Martius, C. F. P. de. Flora Brasiliensis. Fasciculi 94, 95, and 96, in con- 
tinuation. Folio. Plates. 
Vos, Andre de. Flore Complete de la Belgique. 12mo. Mons : 1885. 
Reichenbach, H. et H. G. (fils). Icones Florae Germanicae et Helveticae. 

Tom. 22, Decas 17-22, in continuation. 4to. 60 colored plates. 

Leipsic. 
Schlechtendahl, Dr. D. F. L. von, Dr. L. E. Langethal, und Dr. Ernst Schenk. 

Flora von Deutschland. Lieferungen 128-191, in continuation. 

Small 8vo. Many colored plates. Gera Untermhaus : 1886. 
Willkomm , Maurice. Illustrationes Florae Hispaniae insularumque Balearium. 

Livraison 11, in continuation. 4to. 9 colored plates. Stuttgart 

1886. 
Allione, Carlo. Flora Pedemontana, sive enumeratio methodica stirpium 

indigenarum Pedemontii. 3 vols. Folio. 92 plates. Turin : 1785. 
Cesati, Passerini, e Gibelli. Compendio della Flora Italiana. Fascicoli.33 e 

34 ; tavole 93-100, completing the work. Large 8vo. Milan, etc. : 

1886. 
Barbey, William. Florae Sardoae Compendium : Catalogue raisonn6 des 

vegetaux observes dans l'ile de Sardoigne. Avec supplement par 

MM. P. Ascherson et E. Levier. ^to. 7 plates and a photograph 

of Prof. Giuseppe Giacinto Moris. Lausanne : 1884. 
Desfontaines, Renato. Flora Atlantica, sive historia plantarum quae in 

Atlante, agro Tunetano et Algeriensi crescunt. Text, 2 vols, in 1. 

261 plates, 2 vols, in 1. 4to. Paris : anno VIII [1794], 
Regel, E. Descriptiones Plantarum Novarum Rariorumque a CI. Olga 

Fedstchenko in Turkestania nee non in Kokania lectarum. Tom. 3. 

Fasc. 18. 4to. Moscow and Berlin : 1882. 
Oliver, Daniel, F. R. S., F. L. S., etc. First book of Indian Botany. New 

Edition. 16mo. 242 wood-cuts. London : 1881. 
Hooker, Sir J. D., C. B., K. C. S. L, etc. The Flora of British India. 

Vol. 4, in continuation. Asclepiadeae to Amarantaceae. 8vo. 

London: 1885. 
Piddington, H. An English Index to the Plants of India. 8vo. Calcutta : 

1832. 
Dalzell, Nicholas A., and Alexander Gibson, F. L. S. The Bombay Flora; 

indigenous, or introduced and naturalized. 8vo. Bombay : 1861. 



KEPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 361 

Miquel, F. A. W. Flora Indiae Batavae. 3 vols, in 4. 8vo. 41 plates. 
Amsterdam, Utrecht, and Leipsic : 1855-1859. 

Burman, Johannes, Professor, etc. Thesaurus Zeylanicus, exhibens plantas 
in insula Zeylana nascentes ; inter quas plurimae novas species et 
genera inveniuntur. 2 vols. 4to. Vol. 1, text. Vol. 2, 110 plates. 
Amsterdam : 1737. 

Brown, Robert. Prodromus Florae Novas Hollandiae et Insulae Van-Diemen, 
etc. Vol. 1. 8vo. London: 1810. Folio atlas, 15 plates, by 
Ferdinand Bauer. London : 1813. 

Sinclair, Mrs. Francis, Jr. Indigenous Flowers of the Hawaiian Islands. 
Folio. 44 plates. London: 1885. 

Gaudichaud-Beaupre, M. Charles. Botanique du Voyage autour du Monde, 
fait par ordre du Roi, sur les corvettes de S. M. l'Uranie etlaPhysi- 
cienne, pendant les annees 1817, 1818, 1819, et 1820; par M. Louis 
de Freycinet. 4to., with folio atlas of 120 plates. Paris? 1826. 

Klotzsch, Dr. Fr., und Dr. Aug. Garcke. Die Botanischen Ergebnisse der 
Reise seiner Konigl. Hoheit des Prinzen Waldemar von Preussen, 
in den Jahren 1845 und 184G. Folio. 100 plates. Berlin: 1862. 

Thompson, Sir C. Wyville, Knt., F. R. S., etc. Report on the Scientific 
Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger, during the years 
1873-76. Botany. Vol. 1. Large 4to. 65 plates. London, Edin- 
burgh, and Dublin : 1885. 

Johnston, H. W., F. Z. S., F. R. G. S. The Kilima-njaro Expedition. 8vo. 
6 maps and over 80 illustrations by the Author. London : 1886. 

Lavallee, Alphonse. Les Clematites a grandes fleurs. Description et icono- 
graphie des especes cultivees dans l'arboretum de Segrez. Folio. 
24 plates. Paris : 1883. 

Kuntz, Dr. Otto. Monographie der Gattung Clematis. [Separatabzug aus 
den Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins der Provinz Branden- 
burg. XXVI.] 8vo. pamphlet. Berlin : 1885. 

Weddell, M. H-A., M. D. Histoire Naturelle des Quinquinas. Large folio. 
34 plates. Paris: 1849. 

Howard, John Eliot, F. R. S., etc. Illustrations of the Nueva Quinologia of 
Pavon. Large folio. 27 colored plates. London : 1862. 

Howard, John Elliot, F. R. S., etc. The Quinology of the East Indian 
Plantations. Folio. 18 plates, mostly colored, and two photographs. 
London: 1869-1876. 

Triana, J., Botaniste de la Commission Chorographique des Etats-Unis de 
la Colombie (Nouvelle Grenade), etc. Nouvelles Etudes sur les 
Quinquinas, accompagnees de fac-simile des dessins de la Quinologie 
de Mutis. Folio. 33 plates. Paris : 1870. 

Warner, Williams, and Moore's Orchid Album, Vol. 5, Parts 53-60; Vol. 
6, Parts 61-65, in continuation. 4to. Colored plates. London: 
1885, 1886. 

Williams, Benjamin Samuel, F. L. S., etc. The Orchid Grower's Manual : 
containing descriptions of the best species and varieties of Orchida- 
ceous Plants. 6th edition, enlarged and revised. Many wood-cuts. 
12mo. London: 1885. 



362 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Linden, J., Directeur; Redacteurs-en-chef, Lucien Linden et Emile Rodigas. 

Lindenia: Iconographie des Orchidees. Vol. 1, Livraisons 2-12. 

Vol. 2, Livraisons 1-4. Folio. Colored plates. Ghent, 1885, 

1886. 
Lindley, John. Folia Orchidacea, Part 9 ; completing all published of the 

work. 8vo. pamphlet. "London : 1859. 
Antoine, Franz K. K. Hofgarten-Director. Phyto-Iconographia der Brom- 

eliaceen des Kaiserlichen Koniglichen Hof-burg-Gartens in Wien. 

Heften 1-7, 4to, with large folio atlas of 35 plates. Vienna : 1884. 
Forster, Carl Friedrich, und Theodor Riimpler. Handbuch der Cacteen- 

kunde. Erster Band (16 Lieferungen). Durch die Seit 1846 

begrundeten Gattungen und neu eingefuhrten Arten vermehrt. 

8vo. 140 wood-cuts. Leipzig: 1886. 
Naudin, Carolus. Melastomacearum, quae in Musseo Parisiensi continentur, 

monographicse descriptionis tentamen. 8vo. 27 plates. Paris • 

1849-1853. [Extracted from Annales des Sciences Naturelles, vols. 

XII-XVIII]. 
Willdenow, Carolus Ludovicus. Historia Amaranthorum. Folio. 12 colored 

plates. Zurich: 1790. 
Gray, Asa, M.D. Note on the Genus Graphephorum. 4to. pamphlet, pp. 55-57. 

[Annals of the Botanical Society of Canada, June 30, 1861.] 
. Characters of some new genera of plants, mostly from 

Polynesia, in the collection of the U. S. Exploring Expedition under 

Captain Wilkes. 8vo. pamphlet. [Proceedings of the American 

Academy of Arts and Sciences. Vol. 3, Cambridge, 1853.] 
. Botanical Contributions, extracted from the Proceedings 



of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 5, and bearing 
date Jan. 1, 1861. 1. — Characters of some Composite in the Collec- 
tion of the United States South Pacific Exploring Expedition under 
Captain Wilkes, with Observations, etc. pp. 115-146. 2. — Notes 
on Lobeliacese, Goodeniacese, etc. of the Collection of the U.S. South 
Pacific Exploring Exhibition, pp. 146-152. 3 — Enumeration of 
a collection of Dried Plants made by L. J. Xantus, at Cape San 
Lucas, etc., in Lower California, between August 1859 and Feb- 
ruary 1860, and communicated to the Smithsonian institution, pp. 
153-173. 4. — A Cursory Examination of a Collection of Dried 
Plants, made by L. C. Ervendberg, around Wartenberg, near 
Tantoyuca, in the ancient Province Huasteca, Mexico, in 1858 and 
1859. pp. 174-190. 5. — Note on the Genus Graphephorum, Desv., 
and its Synonymy, pp. 190-191. 8vo. pamphlet. January, 1861. 
. Botanical Contributions, extracted from the Proceedings of 



the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 5, Nov. 13, 1861. 
1. — Notes upon a Portion of Dr. Seemann's recent Collection of 
Dried Plants gathered in the Feejee Islands. pp. 314-321. 
2. — Characters of New or Obscure Species of Monopetalous 
Orders in the Collection of the United States South Pacific Explor- 
ing Expedition under Captain Charles Wilkes, U. S. N., with occas- 
ional Remarks, etc. pp. 321-352. 8vo. pamphlet. January, 1862. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 363 

Gray, Asa, M. D. 1. — Characters of some New or Obscure Species of 
Plants, of Monopetalous Orders, in the Collection of the U.S. South 
Pacific Exploring Expedition under Captain Charles Wilkes, U.S.N., 
with various Notes and Remarks. (Continued from Vol. 5, p. 352, 
November, 1861). pp. 37-55. 2. — Additional Note on the Genus 
Rhytidandra. pp. 55-56. 3. — Synopsis of the Genus Pentstemon. 
pp. 56-76. 4. — Revision of the North American Species of the 
Genus Calamagrostis, Sect. Deyeuxia. pp. 77-80. 8vo. pamphlet. 
[Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
October 14, 1862.] 

. Botanical Contributions, extracted from the Proceedings 

of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 6. On Strep- 
tanthus, and the Plants which have been referred to that Genus, 
pp. 182-188. Revision of the North American Species of Astragalus 
and Oxytropis. pp. 188-236. Read November 11, 1863. 8vo. 
pamphlet. Issued January, 1864. 

. Botanical Contributions, extracted from the Proceed- 



ings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Vol. 11. 
V. Miscellaneous Botanical Contributions [relating mainly to 
California botany] . Presented October 12, 1875. 8vo. pamphlet, 
pp. 71-104. Issued January 5, 1876. 
. Characters of some New Genera and Species of Nyctagin- 



acese, principally collected in Texas and New Mexico ; and on the 
discovery of two species of Trichomanes in the State of Alabama. 
[Extracted from the American Journal of Science and Arts, 
Vol. 15, 2d Series, 1853.] 8vo. pamphlet. New Haven, 1853. 
. Note on the Genus Buckleya. 8vo. pamphlet, 3 pp. 



[American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol. 18, July, 1854.] 
. Notes upon some Rubiacese collected in the U. S. South 



Sea Exploring Expedition under Captain Wilkes, with Characters 
of New Species, etc. 8vo. pamphlet, pp. 1-16, only. 

Nees von Esenbeck, Th. Fr. L., Professor, etc. Plantse officinales oder 
Sammlung offizineller Pflanzen. Mit lithographirten Abbildungen 
von A. Henry, und Beschreibungen von M. F^. Weihe, J. W. Wolte, 
und P. W. Funke. 5 vols, folio. 552 colored plates. Dussel- 
dorf: 1821-1833. 

Goodale, George Lincoln, A. M. , M. D. Physiological Botany. I. Outlines 
of the Histology of Phsenogamous Plants ; II. Vegetable Phys- 
iology. Forming Vol. 2 of Gray's Botanical Text Book, 6th edition. 
8vo. 214 wood-cuts. New York and Chicago, 1885. 

Dodelport, Dr. Arnold, and Carolina. Anatomical and Physiological Atlas 
of Botany. Part 7, with six colored plates, 26 by 36 inches, and 
16mo. English Translation of Handbook. Edinburgh: 1883. 

Botanical and Physiological Memoirs. I. The Phenomena of Rejuve- 
nescence in Nature, by Dr. A. Braun. II. On the Animal Nature of 
the Diatomese, by Professor G. Meneghini. III. An Abstract of 
the Natural History of Protococcus Pluvialis, by Dr. Ferdinand 



364 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Cohn. Edited by Arthur Henfrey, F. R. S., etc. 8vo. London: 

1853. Printed for the Ray Society. 
Hales, Stephen, D. D., F. R. S. Statical Essays; or an account of some 

statical experiments on the Sap in Vegetables. 2 vols. 8vo. Plates. 

London : 1738, 1740. 
Mirbel, C. F. (surnomm6 Brisseau). ElSmens de Physiologie VSgetale 

et de Botanique. 2 vols, text and one vol. of 72 plates. 8vo. 

Paris: 1815. 
. Trait6 d' Anatomie et de Physiologie Veg6tale. 2 

vols. 8vo. 16 plates. Paris : an X [1796]. 
Vines, Sidney Howard, F. R. S., etc., etc. Lectures on the Physiology of 

Plants. 8vo. 76 wood cuts. London, Cambridge, and Leipsic : 

1886. 
Edgeworth, M. Pakenham, F. L. S., F. A. S. Pollen. 2d edition, 8vo. ; 

revised and corrected. 24 plates containing 438 figures. London : 

1879. 
Allen, Grant. Flowers and their Pedigrees. 2d edition. Small 8vo. 54 

wood-cuts. London : 1886. 
Lubbock, Sir John, F. R. S., etc. Flowers, Fruits, and Leaves. 8vo. 

95 wood-cuts. London : 1886. 
Macaire, Professor (of Geneva). On the Direction assumed by Plants. 

[Read before the Royal Society June 17, 1847.] 4to. pamphlet. 

London: 1848. 
Hehn, Victor. The Wanderings of Plants and Animals from their First 

Home. Edited by James Steven Stallybrass. 8vo. London: 1885. 
Hooker, Joseph Dalton. Icones Plantarum. Third Series. Vols. 4 and 

5. 8vo. Plates 1301-1600. London : 1880-1885. 
Twining, Elizabeth. Illustrations of the Natural Orders of Plants. 2 vols. 

Large 8vo. 160 colored plates. [Reduced from the original folio 

edition.] London: 1868. 
Hulme, F. Edward, F. L. S., F. S. A. Familiar Wild Flowers. Third 

series. Small 8vo. 40 colored plates. London, Paris, and New 

York. n. d. 
Baillon, H. The Natural History of Plants. Translated from the French. 

Vols. 3-7, in continuation. Royal 8vo. Many wood-cuts. London : 

1874-1881. 
— . Histoire des Plants. Monographic des Campanulacees, etc., 

completing vol. 8. Monographic des Aristolochiacees, etc., com- 
mencing vol. 9. Royal 8vo. Many wood cuts. Paris : 1886. 
Henfrey, Arthur, F. L. S., etc. The Botanical Gazette: a Journal of the 

Progress of British Botany and the Contemporary Literature of the 

Science. 3 vols, in one. 8yo. Plate. London : 1849-51. 
Bower, F. O., M. A., F. L. S., etc., and Sydney H. Vines, F. L. S., etc. 

A Course of Practical Instruction in Botany, with a preface by W. 

T. Thiselton Dyer. Part I. Phanerogamse-Pteridophyta. Small 

8vo. London : 1885. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 365 

Poiret, J. L. M. Lecons de Flore. Cours complet de Botanique, suive 
d'une iconographie vegetale en 51 planches, coloriees, par P. J. 
F. Turpin. 4 vols. 8vo. Paris : 1819-1820. 

Linnean Society of London. Transactions. 2d series. Botany. Vol. 2. 
Parts 2-8. Plates 7-26. 4to. London: 1882-1884. 

, Journal. No. 140, completing Vol. 21 ; Nos. 141- 

147, parts of Vol. 22. Nos. 150 and 151, parts of Vol. 23. 8vo. 
London : 1885, 1886. 

Flore des Jardins du Royaume des Pays-Bas ; et histoire des plantes cultivees 
et ornamentales les plus int6ressantes des possessions Neerlandaises 
aux Indes Orientales, en Amerique, et du Japan. Publi6e par la 
Societe Royale d' Horticulture des Pays-Bas. Redigee par MM. Fr. 
de Siebold et W. H. de Vriese. 5 vols. Royal 8vo. 69 plates. 
Leyden : 1858-1862. 

Harrison, Joseph. The Gardener's and Forester's Record. June, 1833- 
May, 1836. 3 vols. 8vo. Many colored plates. London. 

Rennie, James, M. A., Editor. The Magazine of Botany and Gardening, 
British and Foreign, etc. 2 vols, in 1, 4to. 64 colored plates. 
London : 1833, 1834. Also second series, edited by James Burnett, 
M. A. 2 vols, in 1, 4to. 64 colored plates. London, 1835, 1836. 

Nicholson, George. The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening; a practical 
and scientific encyclopaedia of Horticulture, for gardeners and bot- 
anists. Vol. 1 (A to E). 4to. Many wood-cuts. New York: 
1885. 

Fish, D. T., Editor. Cassell's Popular Gardening. 4 vols. Square 8vo. 
Many wood-cuts. London, Paris, and New York : n. d. 

McDonald, Alexander. Complete Dictionary of Practical Gardening. 2 
vols. 4to. 73 plates. London: 1807. 

Targioni-Tozzetti, Dott. Antonio. Raccolta di Fiori, Frutti, ed Agrumi, per 
1' adornamento dei giardini : disegnati al naturale da vari artisti. 
Folio. 42 colored plates. Florence : 1825. 

Bridgman, Thomas. The Young Gardener's Assistant. 8vo. Portrait. 
New York: 1857. 

Dunster, Henry P., M. A. How to Make the Land Pay; or Profitable 
Industries connected with the land and suited to all occupations, 
large and small. Small 8vo. London : 1885. 

Harris, Joseph, M. S. Gardening for Young and Old. 12mo. 46 wood- 
cuts. New York : 1883. 

Hibbard, Shirley. The Garden Oracle Annual. For the years 1882-1886. 
5 vols. Small 8vo. London. 

Long, Elias A. Ornamental Gardening for Americans. 12mo. 138 wood- 
cuts. New York : 1885. 

Mollison, John R. The New Practical Window Gardener. Colored plates 
and wood-cuts. Small 8vo, London : 1877. 

Hibberd, Shirley. Familiar Garden Flowers. Figured by F. Edward 
Hulme, F. L. S., F. S. A. Second series. Small 8vo. 40 colored 
plates. London, Paris, and New York. n. d. 



366 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Oosten, Henry Van. The Dutch Gardener, or the Complete Florist. Con- 
taining the most successful method of cultivating Flowers, Trees, 
etc. Small 8vo. London : 1703. 

Cushing, J. The Exotic Gardener. Third edition. 8vo. London : 1822. 

Sheehan, James. Your Plants. Plain and practical directions for the treat- 
ment of tender and hardy plants in the house and in the garden. 
12mo. New York : 1885. 

D'Ombrain, H. Honywood, editor. The Rosarian's Year-Book, for 1886. 
Square 12mo. Photograph and wood-cuts. London : 1886. 

Dodwell, E. S. The Carnation and Picotee; its History, Properties, and 
Management ; with a descriptive list of the best varieties. Essays and 
papers, collected and revised. Small 8vo. Wood-cuts. London 
and Derby: 1886. , 

Des Jacintes, de leur anatomic, reproduction, et culture. Catalogue des 
Jacintes connues en 1767, etc. 4to. 10 plates. Amsterdam : 1768. 

Castle, Lewis. Cactaceous Plants, their History and Culture. Small 8vo. 
15 wood-cuts. London : 1884. 

• . Orchids ; a review of their Structure and History. Small 

8vo. pamphlet. 13 wood-cuts. London : 1886. 

Payne, C. Harmon. A short history of the Chrysanthemum. [Reprinted from 
the "Journal of Horticulture."] 8vo. pamphlet. London : 1885. 

" Philanthos." Primroses, Cowslips, Polyanthuses, and Oxlips. Small 8vo. 
pamphlet. 6 wood-cuts. London : 1874. 

Knight, Joseph, F. H. S. On the Cultivation of Proteese. 4to. Colored 
plate. London : 1809. 

Fruit Recorder and Cottage Gardener. 4to. monthly. For the years 1871— 
73, 1875-77, 1879-83. [Towards completing the set.] Eleven vol- 
umes. Palmyra : 1871-1873, and Rochester : 1875-1883. 

Gregg, Thomas. A Handbook of Fruit Culture. Many wood-cuts. 12mo. 
New York: 1880. 

Mas, A. Pomologie Generale. 12 vols. "Large 8vo. Many outlines of 
Fruits. Bourg and Paris : 1873-1884. 

Pearson, G. R. Vine Culture under Glass. Revised and edited by C. E. 
Pearson. 5th edition. 6 wood-cuts. 16mo. Nottingham, England : 
1885. 

Stoltz, M. J. L. Ampelographie Rhenane ; description des cepages le plus 
estimes dans la vallee du Rhin, etc. 32 colored plates. 4to. Paris 
and Mulhouse : 1852. 

Thurber, Francis B. Coffee, from Plantation to Cup. 8vo. Wood-cuts. 
New York: 1881. 

MM. Vilmorin-Andrieux. The Vegetable Garden; Illustrations, Descrip- 
tions, and Culture of the Garden Vegetables of cold and temperate 
climates. English edition. 8vo. London : 1885. 

Bridgeman, Thomas. The Kitchen Gardener's Instructor. New edition. 
Small 8vo. New York : 1858. 

Barnes, James, and William Robinson, F. L. S. Asparagus Culture. With 
translation of Mr. Le Boeuf s Essay on Asparagus, etc. Small 8vo. 
Woodcuts. London and New York : n. d. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 367 

Hibberd, Shirley. Home Culture of the Water-Cress. Square 8vo. Lon- 
don : 1878. 

Kellogg, Dr. A. Forest Trees of California [appended to the State Mineral- 
ogist's Report, Author's edition]. 8vo. pamphlet, n. d. 

Brown, J. E., F. L. S., etc. Forest Flora of South Australia. Parts 1-5. 
Large folio. 20 colored plates. Adelaide, South Australia : 1882. 
[Still publishing.] 

Guimpel — Willdenow — Hayne. Abbildung der deutschen Holzarten fur 
Forstmanner und Liebhabe der Botanik; herausgegeben von Fried- 
rich Guimpel, academischen Kunstler ; entworf en und beschreiben 
von Carl Ludwig Willdenow ; in letztrer Rucksicht fortgesetzt von 
Friedrich Gottlob Hayne. 2 vols. 4to. 216 colored plates. Ber- 
lin : 1815 and 1820. 

Brandis, Dietrich, Ph. D. Illustrations of the Forest Flora of Northwest 
and Central India. Commenced by the late J. Lindsay Stewart, 
M. D. ; continued and completed by Dr. Brandis. 4to. atlas. 70 
plates, drawn by Walter Fitch, F. L. S. London : 1874. 

Book of Trees, The. Descriptive of the Principal Timber Trees, and the 
larger species of Palms. 16mo. Many wood-cuts. London : 1837. 

Hcefer, F. Le Monde du Bois. Plantes et Animaux. Large 8vo. Many 
plates and wood-cuts. Paris : 1868. 

Moody, S. The Palm Tree. Small 8vo. Colored plates. London : 1864. 

Anderson, N. J. Monographia Salicum [Bandet 6, No. 1, Kongl. Svenska 
Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handligar] Reg. Acad. Scientiarum pro- 
posita die 14 Octob. 1863. 4to. 9 plates. 

Duhamel du Monceau. De L' Exploitation des Bois, etc. 4to. 36 plates. 
Paris: 1764. 

Billington, William. Facts, Hints, Observations, and Experiments on Rais- 
ing Young Plantations of Oaks ; also remarks on Fruit Trees. 8vo. 
Wood-cuts. London : 1825. 

Monteath, Robert. Miscellaneous Papers on Woods and Plantations, etc. 
8vo. Frontispiece and 1 plate. Dundee, Scotland : 1827. 

Brown, J. Croumbie, LL. D., etc. French Forest Ordinance of 1669, with 
historical sketch of previous treatment of Forests in France. Small 
8vo. Edinburgh: 1883. 

Royal Agricultural Society of England. Journal. 2d series. Vol. 22, Part 
1, No. XLIII, April, 1886. 8vo. London. 

Timehri, being the Journal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial 
Society of British Guiana. Vol. 1, Part 1, June, 1882. 8vo. 
Demarara. Edited by E. F. im Thurm, M. A. 

Weston, R. Tracts on practical agriculture and gardening; to which is 
added a Chronological Catalogue of English authors on Agriculture, 
Botany, Gardening, etc. 2d edition. 8vo. London: 1773. 

Crozier, William, and Peter Henderson. How the Farm Pays, etc. 8vo. 
Many wood-cuts. New York : 1884. 

Harlan, C, M. D. Farming with Greeri Manures on Plumgrove Farm. 
2d edition, revised and enlarged. 12mo. Portrait. Philadelphia : 
1883. 



368 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Sutton, Martin J. Permanent and Temporary Pastures. With descriptions 
of leading Natural Grasses and Clovers. Koyal 8vo. 23 colored 
plates. London: 1886. 

Fernald, C. H., A. M. The Grasses of Maine. 8vo. pamphlet,' 42 plates. 
Augusta: 1885. 

Hartley, W. Sorgho, or Sugar Grass ; its introduction and cultivation in 
England recommended. 8vo. pamphlet. Autographically printed. 
Lisle: 1858. 

Grant, E. B. Beet-root Sugar and Cultivation of the Beet. 12mo. Bos- 
ton : 1867. 

Leland, E. H. Farm Homes, In-doors and Out-doors. 12mo. 11 wood-cuts. 
New York: 1882. 

Donaldson, Professor. Designs of Improved Farm Buildings, adapted to 
various sized farms. 4to. 70 plates. London : 1851. 

Farm Conveniences; a practical handbook for the Farm. 12mo. 212 
wood-cuts. New York : 1884. 

Scott, John. Barn Implements and Machines. 12mo. 122 wood-cuts. 
London: 1884. 

. Agricultural Surveying. 12mo. 62 wood- cuts. London: 1884. 

. Field Implements and Machines. 12mo. 138 wood-cuts. Lon- 
don : 1884. 

Bicknell, A. J. Village Builder and Supplement. Revised edition. Large 
4to. 58 plates. New York : 1874. 

Reed, S. B., architect. House-Plans for Everybody, etc. 5th edition. 12mo. 
175 wood-cuts. New York : 1884. 

. Cottage Houses ; with complete plans and specifica- 
tions. 12mo. 107 wood-cuts. New York : 1884. 

" E. V. B." Days and Hours in a Garden. Small 8vo. Boston ; 1884. 

Wilson, Miss Henrietta. The Chronicles of a Garden, etc. With memoir 
by James Hamilton, D. D. 16mo. Wood-cuts. New York : 1864. 

Morren, Charles. Fuchsia, ou Recueil d'observations de Botanique, d'Agri- 
culture, d'Horticulture, et de Zoologie. 8vo. 12 plates. Brussels : 
1849. 

Maynard, C. J. The Butterflies of New England ; with original descriptions 
of 106 species. 4to. 8 colored plates. Boston : 1886. 

French, G. H., A. M., etc. The Butterflies of the Eastern United States. 
12mo. 93 wood-cuts. Philadelphia : 1886. 

Fernald, Professor C. H. The Butterflies of Maine. 8vo. pamphlet; 35 
wood-cuts. Augusta : 1884. 

Buckler, William. Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. Edited by 
H. T. Stainton, F. R. S. Vol. 1. The Butterflies. Printed for the 
Ray Society. 8vo. 17 colored plates. London : 1886. 

Sorauer, Dr. Paul. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten. Fur Landwirthe, 
Gartner, Forstleute, und Botaniker. Zweite neubearbeitete auf- 
lage. 2 vols. 8vo. 37 plates and 82 wood-cuts. Berlin : 1886. 

Smith, Worthington G., F. L. S., etc. Diseases of Field and Garden Crops, 
chiefly such as are caused by Fungi. 16mo. 143 wood-cuts, drawn 
and engraved by the Author. London : 1884. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 369 

Grevillea. A monthly record [later quarterly] of Cryptogamic Botany and 

its Literature. By M. C. Cooke, M. A., A. L. S., etc. 10 vols, in 

5. 8vo. Many plates. London: 1872-1881. Also Nos. 57-73 in 

continuation. 1882-1886. 
Dozy, F., et als. Bryologica Javanica; seu descriptio Muscorum Frondo- 

sorum Archipelagi Indici. 2 vols. 4to. 320 plates. Leyden : 

1855-1870. 
Bagnall, J. E., A. L. S., etc. Handbook of Mosses; with an account of 

their structure, classification, geographical distribution, and habits. 

Small 8vo. 39 wood-cuts. London : 1886. 
Suringar, W. F. R. Algae Japonica?, Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi. 4to. 

25 colored plates. Haarlem : 1870. 
Lucand (Capitaine). Figures peintes de Champignons de la France (suites 

a l'lconographie de Bulliard). Fasciculi 6 and 7, in continuation. 

4to. 50 colored drawings. Autun : 1886. 
Cooke, M. C. Illustrations of British Fungi. Nos. 37-42 in continuation. 

8vo. Colored plates, 581-670. London : 1885, 1886. 



Books etc. Received by Donation and Exchange. 

Doyle, Martin. Field and Garden Plants. 16mo. Frontispiece. London : 
n. d. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Bailey, Professor L. H., Jr. The Garden Fence ; a Lecture at the meeting of 
the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture at Framingham, 
December, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Boston: 1886. The Author. 

Garfield, Charles W. State and Provincial Legislation in the interests of 
Horticulture and Forestry. 8vo. pamphlet. 1886. The Author. 

Fowler, A. B. Hints on the Heating of Greenhouses. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Exeter, N. H. n. d. [1886?] William Burlingame. 

Henderson, Peter. Practical Floriculture : for the amateur and professional 
florist. New and enlarged edition. 12mo. 69 wood-cuts. New 
York. n. d. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Vick, James. Portfolio of Rare and Beautiful Flowers ; from original 
water-color sketches painted from nature. Folio. Six plates with 
descriptive text. Rochester, N. Y. : 1886. The Publisher. 

Hole, S. Reynolds. Book about Roses. Small square 8vo. Fifth edition, 
revised and enlarged. Edinburgh and London : 1874. Bequest of 
Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Beard, Edward L. The Progress of Orchid Culture in America. 8vo. 
pamphlet. [Essay read before the Massachusetts Horticultural Soci- 
ety, March 6, 1886.] The Author. 

Purdy's Small Fruit Instructor. 8vo. pamphlet. Many wood-cuts. Pal- 
myra, N. Y. n. d. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Thompson, William. A Practical Treatise on the Cultivation of the Grape 
Vine. 7th edition, enlarged. 8vo. 8 wood-cuts. Edinburgh and 
London : 1871. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 



370 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Needham, G. F. Fig Culture at the North a success. Second Paper. 8vo. 
pamphlet. Washington, D. C. n. d. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. 
Cooke. 

Roe, E. P. Manual on the Culture of Small Fruits. 8vo. pamphlet. New- 
burgh, N. Y. : 1877. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Hills, William H. Small Fruits ; their propagation and cultivation, includ- 
ing the Grape. Containing various practical directions. 8vo. 56 
wood-cuts. Boston : 1886. The Author. 

Purdy's Fruit Recorder. 65 numbers, 4to. Palmyra, N. Y. Various dates, 
1874-1884. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Massachusetts Fruit Preserving Company. 8 vo. pamphlet. Boston: 1866. 
Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Sturtevant, E. Lewis, M.D. Horticultural Botany. [Extract from the Pro- 
ceedings of the Western New York Horticultural Society.] 8vo. 
pp. 25-32. The Author. 

■ . History of Celery. [Extract from the American 

Naturalist, July, 1886, pp. 599-606.] 8vo. pamphlet. The Author. 

Gray, Asa, M. D. Pertinacity and Predominance of Weeds. 8vo. pam- 
phlet. [From the American Journal of Science, September, 1879.] 
Charles S. Sargent. 

Simonds, Arthur B., and others. Catalogue of the Phaenogamous and Vas- 
cular Cryptogamous Plants of Fitchburg and vicinity. Published 
by the Fitchburg Agassiz Association. 8vo. pamphlet. Fitchburg, 
Mass. : 1885. The Authors. 

Herbarium of Howard Shriver, at Wytheville, Wythe County, Virginia, 
Catalogue of Plants in the. 8 vo. pamphlet. Philadelphia: 1884. 
Charles S. Sargent. 

Tracy, S. M. Flora of Missouri. [Appendix to the Report of the Missouri 
State Horticultural Society for 1885.] 8vo. pamphlet. The Society. 

Trautvetter, E. R. a. Incrementa Florae Phamogameae Rossicaa. Fascicle 
2, being pages 297-576 of Vol. 8, ActaHorti Petropolitani. Large 
8vo. pamphlet. St. Petersburg: 1883. Charles S. Sargent. 

Regel, E. Descriptiones plantarum novarum et minus cognitarum. Fasci- 
culi VL and VII. 2 pamphlets. Large 8vo. St. Petersburg : 1878. 
Charles S. Sargent. 

Maximowicz, C. Die ersten Botanischen Nachrichten uber das Amurland. 
Erste abtheilung, redigirt von akademiker Ruprecht. Large 8vo. 
pamphlet, pp. 407-442, 472-474. 1 plate. 1856. [Melanges 
Biologiques, t. 2.] Charles S. Sargent. 

Zuccarini, Dr. Jos. Gerh. Cacteae. [Plantarum novarum vel minus cogni- 
tarum, quae in Horto Botanico Herbarioque Regio Monacensi ser- 
vantur, fasc. 3.] 4to. Four plates, n. d. Waldo O. Ross. 

Ravenel, H. W., and Asa Gray. On the seemingly one-ranked leaves of 
Baptisia Perfoliata. 8vo. pamphlet, pp. 391-394. [Proceedings of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 20.] Charles S. 
Sargent. 

Trumbull, J. Hammond, and Asa Gray. Notes on the history of Helianthus 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 371 

Tuberosus (Jerusalem Artichoke). 8vo. pamphlet, pp. 347-352. 
[American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol. 23, May, 1877.] 
Charles S. Sargent. 

Brongniart, Adolphe. Memoire sur un famille des Rhamnees. 4to. 6 plates. 
Paris : 1826. Charles S. Sargent. 

Davenport, George E. Fern Notes, IX. List of Ferns collected near Chi- 
huahua, Mexico, by C. G. Pringle. 8vo. pamphlet, pp. 129-135, 
plate 58. [From the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, August, 
1866.] The Author. 

Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History ; Bulletin. Vol. 2. Article 1 : 
Descriptive Catalogue of the North American Hepaticas, north of 
Mexico. By Lucien M. Underwood, Ph. D. Article 2 : Descriptive 
of New Illinois Fishes. By S. A. Forbes. Article 4 : On Insect 
Diseases, by the same. 3 pamphlets, 8vo. Peoria: 1884-1886. 
Professor Forbes. 

Allen, Charles L. The Sexual Relations of Plants. 8vo. pamphlet. 8 wood- 
cuts. [An Essay, read before the American Seed Trade Associa- 
tion, June 9, 1885.] 

Asa Gray. An account of his botanical services, by " C. S. S." [From 
the "Sun" newspaper, of January 3, 1886.] 8vo. pamphlet. 
Boston : 1886. Charles S. Sargent. 

Gray, Asa. Memorials of George Engelmann and Oswald Heer. 8vo. 
pamphlet, pp. 61-69. [From the American Journal of Science, 
July, 1884.] Charles S. Sargent. 

Montreal Botanic Garden. First Annual Report. Large 8vo. pamphlet. 
Montreal : 1886. D. P. Penhallow, Director. 

Penhallow, Professor D. P. Botanic Gardens. Large 8vo. pamphlet, 
pp. 21-32. Montreal : 1885. Charles S. Sargent. 

Torrey Botanical Club, Bulletin of the. Edited by Elizabeth G. Britton and 
F. J. H. Merrill. Volume for 1886. 12 numbers, 8vo. 9 plates. 
New York. The Club. 

Edinburgh Botanical Society. Transactions and Proceedings. Vol. 15, Part 
2. 16 plates. Vol. 16, Part 2. 2 pamphlets. 8vo. Edinburgh : 
1885, 1886. The Society. 

Montreal Horticultural Society. Eleventh Annual Report ; for the year 1885. 
8vo. pamphlet. Montreal : 1886. Professor D. P. Penhallow. 

American Horticultural Society. Address at the Seventh Session, by Parker 
Earle, President. 8vo. pamphlet. Detroit: 1886. W. H. Ragan, 
Secretary. 

Newton Horticultural Society. Varieties of Pears recommended for cultiva- 
tion in Newton, Mass. 8vo. pamphlet. n. d. Bequest of Mrs. 
Henry C. Cooke. 

Worcester County Horticultural Society. Transactions for the year 1885. 
Also Schedule of Prizes for the years 1886 and 1887, with roll of the 
members. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. Worcester: 1886. Edward W. Lincoln, 
Secretary. 

Rhode Island Horticultural Society. Prize Schedule for their Annual Ex- 



372 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

hibition of September 16 and 17, 1886. 8vo. pamphlet 4 pp. 
Providence: 1886. 

Amesbury and Salisbury Agricultural and Horticultural Society. Transac- 
tions. Eighteenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth, Twenty-first, and 
Twenty-second Annual Fairs, 1881-1885; 5 pamphlets. 8vo. 
J. Henry Hill. 

New York Horticultural Society. Essay upon Tea Culture as a probable 
American Industry, by William Saunders. 8vo. pamphlet. Wash- 
ington : 1879. Essay on Horticultural Societies, by William Bennett. 
16mo. pamphlet. New York : 1880. Monthly Eeport for May, 1881. 
8vo. pamphlet; and Premium Lists of Autumn Exhibition, 1880, 
(16mo. pamphlet,) and of the Chrysanthemum Show of November, 
1883. 8vo. pamphlet. [Towards completing the set.] Also Re- 
ports for February, March, April, and July, 1886 ; with Schedules 
of Prizes for the March, April, and Chrysanthemum Exhibitions. 
4 pamphlets, 8vo. 1879-1886. The Society. 

Western New York Horticultural Society. Proceedings at the Thirty-first 
Annual Meeting, January 27 and 28, 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Roch- 
ester, N. Y., 1886. P. C. Reynolds, Secretary. Also a second copy 
from Ellwanger and Barry. 

New Jersey State Horticultural Society. Proceedings at its Eleventh Annual 
Meeting, held at Trenton, N. J., December 29 and 30, 1885. 8vo. 
pamphlet. Newark, N. J., 1886. E. Williams, Recording Secre- 
tary. 

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. Programme for the year 1886. List of 
Members of the Society. 2 pamphlets, 12mo. The Society. 

Pennsylvania State Horticultural Association. Report for the year 1885. 
8vo. pamphlet. 3 plates. Harrisburg: 1886. E. B. Engle, Recording 
Secretary. 

North Carolina State Horticultural Society. [First] Report, for the year 1885. 
8vo. pamphlet. Raleigh, N. C., 1886. S. Otho Wilson, Secretary. 

Kentucky Horticultural Society. Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual 
Meeting, December 1-3, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Glasgow, Ky. 
James T. Barbee, Secretary. 

Ohio State Horticultural Society. Nineteenth Annual Report, for the year 
1885-1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Columbus, 1886. George W. Camp- 
bell, Secretary. 

Indiana Horticultural Society. Transactions for the year 1885. 8vo. In- 
dianapolis : 1886. C. M. Hobbs, Secretary. 

Illinois State Horticultural Society. Transactions, for the year 1885; being 
the Proceedings of their Thirtieth Annual Meeting; with the Pro- 
ceedings of District Societies for the Year. 8vo. Peoria : 1886. 
A. C. Hammond, Secretary. 

Michigan State Horticultural Society. Fifteenth Annual Report of the Sec- 
retary, for the year 1885. 8vo. Lansing: 1886. [10 copies.] 
Thomas H. Forster, Librarian. 

Garfield, Charles W. A Glimpse at Michigan Horticulture. 8vo. pam- 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 373 

phlet. [From the Eleventh Report of the Michigan State Horticul- 
tural Society, 1885.] Bequest o/ Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Minnesota State Horticultural Society. Annual Report for the year 1886. 
Vol. 14. 8vo. St. Paul: 1886. [10 copies.] S. D. Hillman, 
Secretary, Minneapolis. 

Iowa State Horticultural Society. Transactions for 1885, with the Proceed- 
ings of Local Societies. 8vo. Des Moines, Iowa: 1886. The 
Society. 

Missouri State Horticultural Society. Report for the year 1885. With an 
appendix on the Flora of Missouri, by S. M. Tracy, of the State 
University. 8vo. Jefferson City : 1886. L. A. Goodman, Secre- 
tary, Westport. 

Kansas State Horticultural Society. Report, for the year 1885. Vol. 15. 
Sixth Annual Report on Forestry, for the year 1885. 2 vols. 8vo. 
Topeka : 1886. G. C. Brackett, Secretary, Lawrence. 

Nova Scotia Fruit Growers' Association and National Show Society. Trans- 
actions and Reports, 1885-1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Halifax, N. S. : 
1886. The Society. 

Ontario Fruit Growers' Association. Reports for the years 1883 and 1885. 
2 pamphlets. Large 8vo. Toronto : 1884, 1886. D. A. Beadle, 
Secretary. 

American Pomological Society. Proceedings of the Twentieth Session, held 
at Grand Rapids, Michigan, September 9, 10, and 11, 1885. 4to. 
pamphlet. Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, President. 

Joly, M. Charles. Note sur le 20 e session de la Societe Pomologique Ameri- 
caine. [Extrait du Journal de la Societe Nationale d'Horticulture de 
France: 1886.] 8vo. pamphlet. 11 wood-cuts. The Author. 

Maine State Pomological Society. Transactions for the year 1885, including 
the Proceedings of the Winter Meeting, February 17 and 18, 1886. 
8vo. pamphlet. Augusta : 1886. The Society. 

California Fruit Culture. Essays, Discussions, Reports, etc., at the Fifth 
Annual Convention of California Fruit Growers, held in Los An- 
geles, November, 1885. Official Report, by authority of the State 
Board of Horticulture. Large 8vo. pamphlet. San Francisco. 
Also, Report of the Sixth Annual Convention of California Fruit 
Growers, held at Sacramento, November 15-19, 1886; contained in 
two numbers of the Sacramento Union. A. H. Webb, Secretary. 

American Florists. Proceedings of the Second Convention, held at Phila- 
delphia, August 18-21, 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Photograph. Har- 
risburg : 1886. William J. Stewart. 

Royal Horticultural Society. Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, being the Report on 
the Orchid Conference held at South Kensington, May 12 and 13, 

1885. 8 vo. pamphlet. London: 1886. The Society. 
. List of Council, Officers, and Committees, for the year 

1886. 8vo. pamphlet. London. The Society. 
. Schedule, for 1886, of Prizes and Arrangements for the 



Flower, Fruit, and Vegetable Shows, the National Auricula Society's 
10 



374 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Show, the National Rose Society's Show, the National Carnation 
and Picotee Society's Show, and the Fruit and Floral Meeting. Also 
Schedule of Prizes for the Great Provincial Show at Liverpool from 
June 29 to July 5, inclusive. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. 1886. The Soci- 
ety. 

Joly, M. Charles. Une visite aux Expositions de Londres et de Liverpool. 
8vo. pamphlet. 5 wood-cuts. Paris : 1886. The Author. 

Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society. Prize List of the Flower Shows for 
the year 1886. With an abstract of the accounts and a list of the 
members. 8vo. pamphlet. The Society. 

Societe Nationale d' Horticulture de France. Journal, 1886. 12 numbers, 
8vo. Paris. Also, Congres d' Horticulture a Paris en mai, 1886 ; 
Reglement et Questions proposees. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. The Society. 

Bosschere, Charles de. L'Exposition d' Horticulture de Paris, le 11-16 mai, 
1886. [Extrait de la Revue de 1' Horticulture Beige et Etrangere, 
livraison du 1 juillet, 1886.] 8vo. pamphlet. M. Charles Joly. 

Societe Centrale d' Horticulture du Departement de la Seine-Inferieure. 
Bulletins : 4th Cahier of 1883, completing Vol. 25 ; 3d and 4th of 
1885 and 1st and 2d of 1886. 5 pamphlets, 8vo. Rouen. The 
Society. 

Societe d' Horticulture de la Sarthe. Bulletins : 3d and 4th trimestres, 1885 ; 
1st, 2d, and 3d trimestres, 1886. 5 pamphlets, 8vo. Le Mans. The 
Society. 

Societe d' Horticulture de la Gironde, Nouvelles Annales de la: oetobre, 
novembre, decembre, 1885. No. 32. Tome 8. Bordeaux: 1885. 
Also, Reglement de 1' Exposition Horticole, a Bordeaux, du 29 mai 
au 15 juin. The Society. 

L' Exposition de 1889, Le Moniteur de. Deuxieme annee, numero 102, and 
supplement. Folio. Paris : December 12, 1886. 

Societe d' Horticulture de Geneve, Bulletin de la. 32 me annee, 5 me livraison, 
septembre, 1886. The Society. 

R. Societa Toscana di Orticultura. Bulletino, 1886. 12 numbers,' large 8vo. 
Florence. The Society. 

Hansen, Carl. L'Exposition Geographico - Botanique de Copenhagen, 
arrangee au mois d' avril, 1885, dans les locaux de la Societe Royale 
danoise de Geographie. 8vo. pamphlet, electrotyped from manu- 
script. The Author. 

Acta Horti Petropolitani. Vols. 1-8, each in 2 parts; and Parti, Vol. 9. 
Also, the supplement to Vol. 3. Eighteen pamphlets, 8vo. St. 
Petersburg : 1871-1884. Charles S. Sargent. 

Congres Internationale de Botanique et d' Horticulture de St. Petersbourg. 
Bulletin. 8vo. pamphlet. St. Petersburg : 1870. The Imperial 
Russian Horticultural Society. 

Congres Internationale de Botanique et d' Horticulture reuni a St. Peters- 
bourg le 5-15 mai, 1884. Royal 8vo. 1 chart and 8 plates. St. Peters- 
burg : 1885. The Imperial Russian Horticultural Society. 

Russischen Gartenbauvereins zu St. Petersburg, Mittheilungen aus. Heften 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 375 

1 and 2. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. 2 colored plates. St. Petersburg : 1859, 
1860. The Imperial Russian Horticultural Society. 

The New England Farmer. Eight numbers, January- August 1864, 8vo. 
Boston. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Doyle, Martin. Small Farms and how they ought to be managed. 16mo. 
3 wood-cuts. London : n. d. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Watts, Miss S. E. The Poultry Yard; comprising the management of 
Fowls, for Use and Exhibition. New edition, with illustrations by 
Harrison Weir. Small 8vo. London: n. d. Bequest of Mrs. Henry 
C. Cooke. 

Wood, Rev. J. G. Bees, their habits, management, and treatment. New 
edition. 16mo. Frontispiece and 13 wood-cuts. London : n. d. 
Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Division of Entomology. Bul- 
letin No. 9 : The Mulberry Silkworm ; being a Manual of Instruc- 
tion in Silk Culture. By C. V. Riley, M.A., Ph. D. Sixth (re- 
vised) edition. 8vo. pamphlet. 2 plates and 29 wood-cuts. Wash- 
ington : 1886. The Author. 

Reall, Joseph H. Address delivered before the Committee on Agriculture of 
the House of Representatives, Washington, D. C, April 3, 1886, 
on Fraudulent Butter, and its ruinous effects on American Dairying. 
8vo. pamphlet. The Author. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Report of the Commissioner for 
the year 1885. 8vo. Colored and plain plates, maps, and wood- 
cuts. Washington: 1885. Hon. Norman J. Colman, Commis- 
sioner. 

. (Second Annual Preliminary) Report of 

the Commissioner. November 15, 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. The 
Commissioner. 

. Division of Chemistry. Bulletin No. 6 : Ex- 
periments with Diffusion and Carbonatation, at Ottawa, Kansas, 
1885, by Harvey W. Wiley. Nos. 7 and 12 : Methods of Anal- 
ysis of Commercial Fertilizers ; Proceedings of the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists, September 1 and 2, 1885, and Third 
Annual Convention, August 26 and 27, 1886. No. 8 : Application 
of Diffusion to the Extraction of Sugar from Sugar Cane and Sor- 
ghum, by Harvey W. Wiley, Chemist (24 plates). No. 9 : Chem- 
ical Composition of American Cereals, by Clifford Richardson. 
No. 10: Principles and Methods of Soil Analysis, by Edgar 
Richards, Assistant Chemist. 6 pamphlets, 8vo. Washington : 1885 
and 1886. The Commissioner. 

. Co-operative Experimenting as a means 

of studying the Effects of Fertilizers and the Feeding Capaci- 
ties of Plants; by Professor W. O. Atwater. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Washington : 1882. The Commissioner. 

Results of Field Experiments with Various 



Fertilizers ; by Professor W. O. Atwater, Ph. D. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Washington : 1883. The Commissioner. 



376 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

U. S. Department of Agriculture. Botanical Division, Bulletin No. 1 : Report 
of an Investigation of the Grasses of the Arid Districts of Kansas, 
Nebraska, and Colorado; by Dr. George Vasey, Botanist. Pre- 
pared under the direction of the Commissioner of Agriculture. 8vo. 
pamphlet. 13 plates. Washington : 1886. The Commissioner. 

. Reports of the Statistician ; New Series. 

Nos. 25-35 : On Acreage and Condition of Crops, especially of Corn, 
Potatoes, Tobacco, Wheat, and Cotton; Distribution and Consump- 
tion of Corn and Wheat: Production of European Wheat; The 
World's Supply of Wheat; Yield per Acre of Certain Crops; Condi- 
tion of Crops in Europe; Progress of Cotton Planting; Numbers, 
Values, and Condition of Farm Animals ; Freight Rates of Transpor- 
tation Companies. Also, duplicates of Nos. 14 and 15. 13 pam- 
phlets, 8vo. Washington : 1886 and earlier. The Commissioner. 

. Bureau of Animal Industry. Second An- 



nual Report, for the year 1885. 8vo. Washington : 1886. The 
Commissioner. 
. Report on the Condition of Dairying in the 



Principal Dairy States, for the season of 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Washington : 1886. The Commissioner. 

Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science. Proceedings of the 
Sixth Meeting, held at Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Manhattan, Kansas : 1886. The Society. 

National Grange, Patrons of Husbandry. Nineteenth Session, at Boston, 
Mass., November, 1885; Journal of Proceedings. 16mo. pamphlet. 
Elmira, New York: 1885. 

Massachusetts Board of Agriculture. Thirty-third Annual Report of the 
Secretary ; with returns of the finances of the Agricultural Socie- 
ties for the year 1885. 8vo. Boston : 1886. John E. Russell, 
Secretary. 

Essex Agricultural Society. Transactions for the year 1885, with the Sixty- 
third Annual Address, by Thomas Sanders. 8vo. pamphlet. Salem : 
1885. Arrangements, Premiums, and Committees for the Sixty- 
sixth Annual Exhibition, at Newburyport, September 28 and 29, 1886. 
12mo. pamphlet. David W. Low, Secretary. 

Middlesex Agricultural Society. Transactions for the year 1885; with list 
of Prizes and Premiums for 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Boston : 1886. 
William H. Hunt, Secretary. 

Norfolk Agricultural Society. Transactions for the years 1849-1875. 5 vols. 
8vo. Presented by Henry O. Hildreth, in remembrance of Marshall 
P. Wilder, for twenty years President of that Society. 

Worcester Agricultural Society. Transactions for 1865. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Worcester, Mass. Bequest of Mrs. Henry C. Cooke. 

Nantucket Agricultural Society. Transactions for 1885, with list of the 
Premiums for 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Nantucket: 1885. The 
Society. 

Berkshire Agricultural Society. Transactions for the year 1885, and 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 377 

Premium List for 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Pittsfield : 1886. The 
Society. 

Hoosac Valley Agricultural Society. Transactions for the year 1885, being 
the Twenty-fifth Annual Report. Programme of the Twenty- 
seventh Annual Cattle Show and Fair, to be held at North Adams, 
September 21, 22, and 23, 1886. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. North Adams : 
1886. The Society. 

Housatonic Agricultural Society. Transactions for the year 1885. Com- 
mittees, Premiums, etc., for the Forty-fifth Annual Exhibition to be 
holden at Great Barrington, September 29 and 30, and October 1, 
1886. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. The Society. 

Rhode Island State Board of Agriculture, and Rhode Island Society for the 
Encouragement of Domestic Industry. Lectures and Discussions 
on Agricultural Topics, during the Winter and Spring of 1886. 8vo. 
pamphlet. Providence : 1886. C. W. Smith, Secretary. 

Connecticut Board of Agriculture. Nineteenth Annual Report of the Secre- 
tary, for 1885, with Report of the Agricultural Experiment Station. 
8vo. Hartford : 1885. T. S. Gold, Secretary. 

Agriculture of Pennsylvania. Reports for the year 1885, of the State Board 
of Agriculture, the State Agricultural Society, the State Dairymen's 
Association, the State Horticultural Association, and the State Col- 
lege. In one vol. 8vo. Harrisburg : 1886. [6 copies.] E. B. Engle. 

Virginia Department of Agriculture. Bulletins, January, March, July, 
September, and November, 1886. Analyses and Valuations of Fer- 
tilizers ; On Condition of Crops ; Meadows and Pastures ; Grass ; 
Clover as a Money Crop, etc. Five pamphlets, 8vo. Randolph 
Harrison, Commissioner. 

Georgia State Agricultural Department. Publications for the year 1885. 
Vol. XI, Parts 1 and 2. 2 vols. 8vo. Atlanta : 1885. Also, Man- 
ual of Poultry, 8vo. pamphlet, 2d edition (revised and enlarged) ; 
and Manual of Sheep Husbandry in Georgia, 2d edition. Also, 
pamphlet circulars, New Series, Nos. 59, 64, 72, 73^-84, 86. Cir- 
culars of 1st Series, Nos. 1, 7, 9. Pamphlet Circular, 1st Series, 
No. 35. First and Third Annual Reports of the Commissioner, for 
1874, and 1876. J. T. Henderson, Commissioner. 

The Great Southern Exposition at Louisville, Ky., of Art, Industry, and Ag- 
riculture, August 28-October 23, 1886. Program and circulars. 
The Managers. 

Michigan State Board of Agriculturs. Reports : Eighteenth ; also, the 
Twentieth-Twenty-first, as a " biennial." 2 vols. 8vo. Lansing, 
1880 and 1882. Mrs. M. J. C. Merrell, Librarian. 

Nebraska State Board of Agriculture. Annual Report for the year 1885. 
8vo. pamphlet. Lincoln : 1886. R. W. Furnas, Secretary. 

Sociedad Rural Argentina. Anales, Vol. 19. 24 numbers. Large 8vo. 
Buenos Ayres, 1886. Don Jose Maria Jurado, Director. 

Asociacion Rural del Uruguay. Vol. 16, 1886. Nos. 1-10,12-17, 19-22. 
8vo. Montevideo : 1885. Don Francisco Aguilar y Leal, Secretary. 



378 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Piper, R. U., M. D. The Trees of America. 4to. 14 plates. Boston : 
1855-1858. Also Parts 2, 3, 4. Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Miscellaneous Special Report 
No. 5 : Government Timber Lands and North American Forest 
Trees. 8vo. pamphlet. Washington : 1884. Charles S. Sargent. 

. Miscellaneous Special Report, No. 10 : 

Descriptive Catalogue of Manufactures from Native Woods, as 
shown in the exhibit of the Department at the World's Industrial 
and Cotton Exposition at New Orleans, Louisiana. By Charles 
Richards Dodge. 8vo. pamphlet. Washington : 1886. 2 copies. 
The Commissioner. 

. Report on Forestry, prepared by Na- 



thaniel H. Egleston, Vol. 4, 1884. 8vo. Diagrams and map. 
Washington : 1884. The Commissioner. 

American Forestry Congress. Proceedings at its Meeting held in Boston, 
September, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Washington: 1886. The Smith- 
sonian Institution. 2 copies. 

New Hampshire Forestry Commission. Report presented to the Legislature 
at its June session, 1885. 8vo. Concord : 1885. 4 copies. Wil- 
liam H. Hills and Joseph B. Walker. 

New York Forestry Commission. Report, January 23, 1885. 8vo. pam- 
phlet, with four photographs, and colored descriptive map. Albany : 
1885. Charles S. Sargent. 

Ohio State Forestry Bureau. First Annual Report, for the year 1885. By 
Adolph Leue, Secretary. 8vo. pamphlet. Columbus : 1886. The 
Secretary. 

Joly, M. Charles. Note sur Deux Arbres Geants en Portugal. [Extrait du 
Journal de la Societe Nationale, etc.] 8vo. 2 wood-cuts. 1886. 
The Author. 

Annuaire des Eaux et For£ts, pour 1886. 16mo. Paris : 1886. The Pub- 
lishers. 

Cooper, J. G., M. D. The Forests and Trees of North America, as con- 
nected with climate and agriculture. 8vo. leaf. [United States 
Agricultural Report, Patent Office, I860.] 

Joly, H. G. Report on Forestry and Forests of Canada. 8vo. pamphlet, n. d. 

Drummond, A. T. Canadian Timber Trees : Their Destruction and Preser- 
vation. 8vo. pamphlet, pp. 14-28, with chart. [Fourth Report of 
the Montreal Horticultural Society, for 1878.] 

Vasey, George, M. D. Forest Trees of the United States, of sixteen feet 
and upwards in ordinary height, etc. 8vo. pamphlet. Washington : 
1876. 

Sargent, Professor Charles S. Trees and Tree Planting in Massachusetts. 
8vo. pamphlet. [From the annual report of the Massachusetts 
State Board of Agriculture.] Boston : 1886. 

Arnold Arboretum. Report of the Director, for the year ending August 31, 
1884. 8vo. pamphlet, 14 pp. 

Packard, Dr. A. S. Second Report on the Causes of the Destruction of 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 379 

Evergreen and Other Forest Trees of New England and New 
York. [From the Report of the Entomologist, United States 
Department of Agriculture, for the year 1884.] Author's edition; 
1885. 8vo. pamphlet. 

Sears, John H. Notes on the Forest Trees of Essex, Clinton, and Franklin 
Counties, New York. 8vo. pamphlet. [From the Bulletin of the 
Essex Institute, Vol. 13, Nos. 10, 11, 12, 1881.] 

De Friese, Lafayette H. Report on a Belt of Kentucky Timbers, from 
Columbus to Pound Gap. 4to. pamphlet. Frankfort, Kentucky : 
1879. [Forming Part 10, Vol. 5, Second Series, Geographical Sur- 
vey of Kentucky.] 

Ridgway, Robert. Notes on the Native Trees of the Lower Wabash and 
White River Valleys in Illinois and Indiana. Large 8vo. pamphlet, 
pp. 49-88. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 
June 12, 1882.] 

Edwards, Samuel. Timber on the Prairies. 8vo., pp. 495-498. [United 
States Agricultural Report, 1862.] 

Hodges, L. B., Superintendent, etc. Report on Forest Culture on the Saint 
Paul and Pembina Railroad. 8vo. pamphlet, pp. 51-59. [Trans- 
actions of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society, 1875.] 

Leue, Adolph. Forestal Experiment Stations in Germany. 8vo. pamphlet. 
[Part of a paper read before the Ohio State Forestry Association, 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, April, 1883.] 

Zabel, H-. Systematisches Verzeichniss der in den Garten der Konigl. 
Preuss-Forstakademie zu Munden Kultivirten Planten. 8vo. pam- 
phlet. Munden: 1878. 

Gamble, J. S., F. L. S., etc. A Manual of Indian Timbers; an account of 
the structure, growth, distribution, and qualities of Indian Woods. 
With map showing the zones of moisture. 8vo. Calcutta : 1881. 

Balfour, Edward, L.R.C.S.E., etc. The Timber Trees, Timber and Fancy 
Woods, as also the Forests of India and of Eastern and Southern 
Asia. Third edition, 8vo. Madras : 1870. 

Joly, M. Charles. Note sur les Eucalyptus Geants de 1' Australie. 8vo. 
pamphlet; 6 wood-cuts. Paris: 1885. 

Forest Protection, and the Tariff on Lumber. Spirit of the Press. [Ex- 
tracts from newspapers, etc.] 8 vo. pamphlet. New York : 1883. 

Warder, John A. Forestry and its Needs. An address delivered before the 
American Forestry Association in Washington, D. C, February, 
1878. 8vo. pamphlet. 

Dorrien, S. von. Protection of Forests a Necessity. 8vo. pamphlet, New 
York: 1879. 

Thomas, John J. Culture and Management of Forest Trees. 8vo. pam- 
phlet, pp. 43-53. [United States Agricultural Report. 1864.] 

Hough, Franklin B., M.D. Planting Trees in School Grounds. 8vo. 
pamphlet. Washington : 1883. 

Brewer, Professor William H. Woods and Woodlands : a lecture. 8vo. 
pamphlet. [Extract from the report of the Secretary of the Con- 
necticut Board of Agriculture, 1876.] 



380 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Sharpies, S. P. The Specific Gravity, Ash, and Appearance of the Wood of 
certain Shrubs and Exotic Trees fcund growing in the United 
States. 8vo. pamphlet, pp. 359-363. [Extract from Proceedings of 
the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. 22, May 16, 1883.] 

Brewer, Professor William H. On Rotting Wood. 8vo. pamphlet, 4 pp. 

[Read at the Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Public 

Health Association, Nashville, Tenn., November 19, 1879. Reprinted 

from Public Health, Vol. 5.] 

[The preceding twenty-five titles are a donation from Professor Charles 

S. Sargent, Director of the Arnold Arboretum.] 

Penhallow, Professor D. P. Variation of Water in Trees and Shrubs. 
[Extract from Canadian Record of Science, April, 1886.] 8vo. 
pamphlet. The Author. 

Boston Park Commissioners. Eleventh Annual Report. [City Document, 
No. 26, 1886.] Also, Notes on the plan of Franklin Park, and 
related matters. With large folded plan. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. 
Boston : 1886. The Commissioners. 

Davenport, Charles. Plan of New Boston, and Charles River Basin : with a 
perspective view; a large colored lithograph. The Author. 

Boston Common and Public Grounds, Annual Report of the Superintendent 
of, for the year 1885. [City Document No. 55, 1886.] 8vo. pamphlet. 

Mount Auburn Cemetery. Annual Report of the Trustees, together with 
the reports of the Treasurer and Superintendent, January, 1886. 
8vo. pamphlet. Boston: 1886. The Proprietors. 

Worcester Commission of Public Grounds, and Parks Commission. Reports 
for the year ending November 30, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Worces- 
ter : 1886. Also, the same for the year ending November 30, 1884. 
Edward Winslow Lincoln. 

Baltimore Park Commission. Twenty-sixth Annual Report to the Mayor 
and City Council, for 1885. 8vo. pamphlet: Baltimore : 1886. The 
Commission. 

Joly, M. Charles. Rapport sur 1'Art des Jardins, Pares, et Promenades, par 
MM. le Baron Ernouf et A. Alphand. [Extrait du Journal de la So- 
ciete Nationale d'Horticulture de France, Janvier, 1886.] With Note 
sur le Palmier de Staoueli. 8vo. pamphlet. 9 wood-cuts. Paris, n. d. 
The Author. 

Ontario Entomological Society. Sixteenth Annual Report. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Toronto: 1886. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Fourth Report of the Entomo- 
logical Division. Final Report on the Cotton-worm, with a chapter 
on the Boll-worm. By Charles V. Riley, Ph. D. 8vo. 2 maps, 64 
plates, and 45 wood-cuts. Washington : 1885. Professor Riley. 

■ . Report of Professor Charles V. Riley, En- 
tomologist, for the year 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Map and 9 plates. 
Washington, June, 1886. The Author. 

. Bureau of Entomology, Bulletin No. 11 : 



Reports of Experiments with various Insecticide substances, chiefly 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 381 

upon insects affecting garden crops. 8vo. pamphlet. Washington : 
1886. The Commissioner. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology. Insects 
affecting the Orange. By H. G. Hubbard. 8vo. pamphlet. 4 plates 
and many wood-cuts. Washington : 1885. Professor Charles V. 
Riley. 

Riley, Charles V., A. M., Ph. D. Annual Address as President of the Ento- 
mological Society of Washington for the year 1884. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Washington: 1886. Also, a broadside (reprinted from the Rural 
New Yorker) on the Mildews of the Grapevine ; or, An Effectual 
Remedy for Peronospora. Published January 30 and February 6, 
1886. The Author. 

Lintner, J. A., New York State Entomologist. Second Annual Report, is- 
sued January, 1886. 8vo. pamphlet ; 68 wood-cuts. Albany : 1885. 
The Author. 

Joly, M. Charles. Rapport sur le " Thanatophore " de M. Martre. [Extrait 
du Journal de la Societe Nationale d 'Horticulture de France, mars, 
1886.] 8vo. pamphlet. The Author. 

Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental Farm. Eleventh Annual Re- 
port, for the year ending December 31, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Toronto : 1886. James Mills, President. 

United States Department of Agriculture. Miscellaneous Special Report. 
No. 9 : Proceedings of a Convention of Delegates from Agricul- 
tural Colleges and Experiment Stations, held at the Department of 
Agriculture, July 8 and 9, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Washington : 
1885. 

Maine State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts. Annual Reports 
for 1883, 1884, and 1885, the last having an Appendix on the Sphin- 
gidae of New England, by M. C. Fernald ; with 6 plates. 3 pamphlets, 
8vo. Orono : 1883, 1884, and 1885. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College. Twenty-second and Twenty-third An- 
nual Reports and Catalogues, January, 1885, and January, 1886. 
2 pamphlets, 8vo. Boston : 1885 and 1886. 

Massachusetts State Agricultural Experiment Station. Third Annual Report 
of the Board of Control, for the year 1885, with indexes to the first 
three Reports. 8vo. pamphlet. Public Document No. 33. Boston: 
1886. Ten copies. Hon. Marshall P. Wilder. Also Bulletins Nos. 
19-22. 4 pamphlets, 8vo. April-October, 1886. Dr. C. A. Goess- 
mann, Director. 

New York Agricultural Experiment Station. Fourth Annual Report, for the 
year 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Rochester, N. Y. : 1885. Also Bul- 
letins Nos. 7 and 8. 2 pamphlets, 8vo. E. Lewis Sturtevant, M.D., 
Director. 

New Jersey State Agricultural Experiment Station. Fourth, Fifth, and 
Sixth Annual Reports, for the years 1883, 4, 5. 3 pamphlets, 8vo. 
Also Bulletins Nos. 35-40, July, 1885-October, 1886. 6 pamphlets, 
8vo. Vineland, N. J. George H. Cook, Director. 

Purdue University School of Agriculture, Lafayette, Indiana. Bulletins of 



382 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Experiments, Nos. 2-4, 7, 8, and 9. 6 pamphlets, 8vo. Prof. 
Troop. 

Michigan Agricultural College. Bulletins, Nos. 1,2, 4-20. March, 1885- 
December, 1886. 19 pamphlets, 8vo. Lansing. The College. 

Iowa Agricultural College. Bulletin of Experiments with, and Investigation 
of, North of Europe Fruits, Trees, and Shrubs. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Des Moines ; 1883. 

. Revised Names of, and Notes on, some of the 

Fruits, Trees, and Shrubs of North-East Europe, on trial or sent out 
for trial. 8vo. pamphlet. Des Moines : 1885. Professor J. L. 
Budd. 

University of Wisconsin. First, Second, and Third Annual Reports of the 
Agricultural Experiment Station, for the years 1883, '84, '85. 1vol. 
and 12 pamphlets. 8vo. Professor W. A. Henry, Director. 

Kansas State Agricultural College. Report of the Professor of Agriculture. 
Experiments, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. 3 wood-cuts. Manhattan : 
1886. Two copies. , Professor E. M. Shelton. Also Catalogue for 
the years 1885 and 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. 

Joly, M. Charles. Note sur PEnseignement Agricole en France et a l'Etran- 
ger. 8vo. pamphlet. Paris : 1886. The Author. 

Museo Agrario in Roma. Catalogo. 8vo. pamphlet. Rome : 1879. Charles 
S. Sargent. 

The Nurseryman's Directory for the United States, in 1875. 3vo. Galena, 
Illinois. Francis Parkman. 

Virginia, Handbook of. 5th edition. By the Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture. 8vo. pamphlet, with map. Richmond, 1886. Randolph Har- 
rison, Commissioner. 

Smithsonian Institution. Annual Report of the Board of Regents for the 
year 1884. Part 2, being the Report of the United States National 
Museum. 2 vols., 8vo. Washington: 1885. Also Price List of 
Publications. 8vo. pamphlet. Washington : 1885. The Smithsonian 
Institution. 

Powell, J. W., Director. • Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology 
to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1881-82. Royal 
8vo., with many colored and other plates and wood-cuts. Washing- 
ton : 1884. The Smithsonian Institution. 

Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club. Transactions. Vol. 2, No. 2. 8vo. pam- 
phlet. Plate. Ottawa : 1884. F. R. Latchford, Librarian. 

Boston Society of Natural History. Proceedings. Vol. 23, Part 2. March, 
1884-February, 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Edward Burgess, Secretary. 

New York Microscopical Society. Journal for 1886. N. L. Britton, Ph. D., 
Editor. 10 numbers, 8vo. 6 plates. New York. 

Trenton Natural History Society. Journal of January, 1886. Vol. 1, No. 6. 
8vo. pamphlet. The Smithsonian Institution. 

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton. Address delivered at the Anniversary meeting 
of the Royal Society, November 20, 1878. 8vo. pamphlet. Lon- 
don: 1878. Charles S. Sargent. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 383 

United States War Department. Annual Report of the Chief Signal Officer 
to the Secretary of War, for the year 1884. 8vo. Charts. Wash- 
ington : 1884. The Secretary of War. 

Boston Public Library. Thirty-fourth Annual Report of the Trustees, 
City Document No. 33, 1886 ; for the eight months ending December 
31, 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Hon. Mellen Chamberlain, Librarian. 

Lawrence Free Public Library. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Trustees, 
and report of the Librarian, for 1885. 8vo. pamphlet. Lawrence, 
Mass. : 1886. Frederick H. Hedge, Jr., Librarian. 

Astor Library. Thirty-seventh Annual Report of the Trustees, for the year 
1885. 8vo. pamphlet. New York : 1886. 

Library Company of Philadelphia. Bulletin for January and July, 1886. 2 
pamphlets, 8vo. 

Friedlander, R. & Sohn. Bibliotheca Historico-Naturalis et Mathematica. 
Lager- Catalog. 8vo. Portrait of Linnaeus. Berlin : 1886. The 
Publishers. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Twenty-first Annual Catalogue, 
for the year 1885-86. 8vo. pamphlet, 2 plates. Boston : 1885. 
The Institute. 

Bowdoin College. Eighty-fifth Amiual Catalogue, for the year 1886-87. 8vo. 
pamphlet. Brunswick, Me. : 1886. William DeWitt Hyde, President. 

Drury College. Thirteenth Annual Catalogue, for the year 1885-1886. 8vo. 
pamphlet. Saint Louis, Mo., 1886. Rev. N. J. Morrison, D. D., 
President. 

United States Bureau of Education. Report for 1883-84. 8vo. Wash- 
ington, 1885. Special Report on Educational Exhibits and Conven- 
tions at the New Orleans Exposition of 1884-5. In three parts. 
8vo. Washington : 1886. Circulars of Information, Nos. 3-4, 
5. 3 pamphlets, 8vo. Washington: 1885, 1886. The Com- 
missioner. 

New England Historic-Genealogical Society. Proceedings at the annual 
meeting, January 6, 1886. 8vo. pamphlet. Boston : 1886. The 
Society. 

Maine Historical and Genealogical Recorder. Vol. 3, No. 2. Square 8vo. 
Portrait and genealogical sketch of General H. A. S. Dearborn. 
Portland, Me. : 1886. S. M. Watson, Publisher. 

Gilbert, John, Biographical sketch of, [From the History of Hillsborough 
County, New Hampshire.] 4to. pamphlet. Philadelphia: 1885. 
Elizabeth G. Frost. 

Wisconsin State Historical Society. Thirty-second Annual Report. 8vo. 
pamphlet, n. d. [1886.] Daniel S. Durrie, Librarian. 

Bureau of Statistics of Labor. Proceedings of the Third Annual Convention 
of Chiefs and Commissioners, held at Boston, June and July, 
1885. With papers read before the Convention. 8vo. pamphlet. 
Boston : 1885. Edward Atkinson. 

United States Consular Reports, Nos. 58-68£. On the Commerce and 
Manufactures in the Consular Districts ; on the Leather and Shoe 
Industries, etc. 12 pamphlets, 8vo. Washington: 1885-86. 



384 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Periodicals Purchased. 

English. — Gardeners' Chronicle. 

Gardeners' Magazine. 

Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener. 

The Garden. 

Gardening Illustrated. 

Horticultural Times and Covent Garden Gazette. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 

Journal of Botany. 

Forestry. 
French. — Revue Horticole. 

Revue des Eaux et Forets. 

Journal des Roses. 
Belgian. — Illustration Horticole. 

Revue de PHorticulture, Beige et Etrangere. 
German. — Botanische Zeitung. 

Gartenflora. 
American. — Country Gentleman. 

American Naturalist. 



Periodicals Received in Exchange. 

Gardeners' Monthly. 

Canadian Horticulturist. 

Ladies' Floral Cabinet. 

American Garden. 

Popular Gardening. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine, 

Horticultural Art Journal. 

American Horticulturist. 

American Florist. 

Orchard and Garden. 

Fruit Recorder. 

Green's Fruit Grower. 

Seed Time and Harvest. 

Botanical Gazette. 

Journal of Mycology. 

West American Scientist. 

Maine Farmer. 

The Home Farm. 

Mirror and Farmer. 

New England Farmer. 

Massachusetts Ploughman. 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARY COMMITTEE. 385 

American Cultivator. 

New England Homestead. 

Our Country Home. 

American Agriculturist. 

Rural New Yorker. 

American Rural Home. 

The Farm Journal. 

Maryland Farmer. 

Florida Dispatch. 

Prairie Farmer. 

The Industrialist. 

Pacific Rural. 

Boston Daily Advertiser. 

Boston Morning Journal. 

Boston Post. 

Boston Daily Globe. 

Boston Evening Transcript. 

Boston Daily Evening Traveller. 

New York Weekly World. 

The Cottage Hearth. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



Secretary and Librarian. 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



The duties of these offices, with all their leading attendant 
circumstances, are each year so similar to those of the preceding 
that it is difficult to avoid a great degree of sameness in the an- 
nual reports. Whatever difference exists is in the details rather 
than in the prominent features ; therefore a certain degree of 
monotony in the reports is not to be escaped except by going more 
fully into details than time will allow, or than the patience of the 
Society would endure. Moreover an unusually full report was 
made last year, which to a great extent will obviate the necessity 
of elaboration at the present time. 

In the office of Secretary, the keeping of various records, mak- 
ing reports of meetings and exhibitions, preparing matter for the 
press and attending to the printing, answering inquiries person- 
ally and by mail, and a round of similar duties have fully occu- 
pied all the time that could be devoted to them. It will be noticed 
that the publications have, during the last few years, gradually 
increased in bulk : and if we may credit the favorable notices 
which have appeared in horticultural journals, both in this country 
and in Europe, a still more gratifying increase may be observed 
in the interest with which they are regarded. 

The greatly increased success of the larger exhibitions of the 
Society within the last few years has not been attained without a 
corresponding addition to the labors of the Secretary, both pre- 
liminary to, and consequent on, the exhibitions. 

In regard to the Library, I would say that whatever time can be 
gained by diligence and method elsewhere, finds full employment 
here. The work which may be done to good purpose upon a 



REFORT OF THE SECRETARY AND LIBRARIAN. 387 

library — even a small one — is limited only by the zeal and abil- 
ity of the workers. Our own library was never growing so rapidly 
as now. The amount of money expended for books, magazines, 
etc., being the same annually, no great variation can be expected 
from year to year in the number added by purchase. It is in the 
number received by donation and exchange that the greatest vari- 
ation may be looked for, and here we find a large increase. The 
year 1886 not being quite closed, the exact number received can- 
not be given, but in 1885 pamphlet publications numbering more 
than three hundred were added to the library — equalling more 
than half the aggregate acquired during the first fifty years of the 
Society's existence, and nearly equalling one-half the aggregate 
added during the six years from 1879 to 1884, inclusive. 

Funds derived from the sale of certain books not suited to the 
library have enabled us to bind a greater number of volumes than 
for some years previous. Several works of much value had been 
held for a considerable time, awaiting the day when the binders' 
art should put them in a form pleasant to the sight and convenient 
for use. Some of these publications have required an amount of 
time and care in arranging for the binder which can only be ap- 
preciated by those familiar with such work. Most of the costly 
illustrated works, which form one of the most important features 
in such a library as this, are published in parts, the publication 
often extending over several, and sometimes many, years. Jus- 
tice to such works would seem to require that when after 
completion they are taken in hand to be placed in permanent form, 
no pains should be spared to have them pass this final stage with- 
out disastrous errors of collation, and this is often a matter 
requiring considerable study. 

In conclusion I wish to express my warmest thanks to the Com- 
mittee on Publication and Discussion, and to the Committee on 
the Library, for the heartiness with which I have been supported 
and for the kind appreciation accorded to my endeavors faithfully 
to perform the duties of the two departments which, under the 
Constitution and By-Laws of the Society, are subject to the gen- 
eral direction of these Committees. 

ROBERT MANNING, 

Secretary and Librarian. 



TREASURER'S REPORT, 



FOR THE YEAR 1886. 



r 

RECEIPTS. 






Cash on hand, as per last Report, 




$4,273 91 


Rent of Halls, . . . . 




10,658 30 


Rent of Stores, .... 




12,892 02 


Admissions and Assessments, . 




1,078 00 


Sale of History, .... 




44 50 


Mount Auburn Cemetery, . 




3,462 09 


Annual Exhibitions, . 


$3,647 10 




Less Expenses, 


1,317 94 


2,329 16 


State Bounty, . . . . . 




600 00 


Sinking Fund, Sale of Bonds, . 


$23,621 04 


<* 


" " Paid for Bonds, . 


5,028 06 

i 


18,592 98 




£53,930 96 


EXPENDITURES. 






Labor, ....... 


$1,337 59 




Salaries, ....... 


2,875 00 




Incidentals, ...... 


204 83 




Interest Paid, .... $2,550 00 






" Received, . . . 871 97 


1,678 03 




Heating and Water, less paid by Tenants, 


443 76 




Taxes, ....... 


2,286 00 




Repairs on Building, 


269 48 




Lighting, 


1,199 82 




Furniture and Fixtures, .... 


163 63 




Prizes, 


4,562 28 




Committee of Arrangements, . 


300 00 




Garden Committee, ..... 


60 41 




Committee on Publication and Discussion, 


128 00 




Stationery, Postage, and Printing, 


1,272 80 




Stickney Fund, ..... 


720 03 




Carried forward, i 


£17,501 66 





treasurer's report. 389 



Brought forward, $17,501 66 



300 00 

100 00 

30,000 00 

69 78 

443 00 

5,516 52 

$53,930 96 



Librar} 7 , ..... 

Card Catalogue, 

Mortgage Debt, paid on account, 

Legal Services, 

Portraits, .... 

Cash on hand to new account for 1887, 

ASSETS. 

Real Estate, Furniture, and Exhibition Ware, . $256,585 56 
Library, last year, .... .$24,646 12 

Added this year, 1,000 00 

25,646 12 

H. H. Hunnewell Rhododendron Fund : 

2 Bonds C. B. and Q. R. R., $1,000, 

$500, 1,500 00 

Benjamin B. Davis Fund : 1 Bond Illinois 

Grand Trunk R, R., face value $500, . 583 00 

Stereotype Plates and Copies of History, 255 00 

Cash on hand December 31, 1886, . . 5,516 52 



$290,086 20 



LIABILITIES. 

Mortgage Debt, bearing interest at 4J per 

cent per annum, due October 1, 1888, $30,000 00 

Loan without interest, payable to Harvard 

College in 1899, 12,000 00 42,000 00 



$248,086 20 
MEMBERS. 



Number of Life Members per last report, . 589 
Added during the year, .... 15 
Commuted from Annual, ... 3 



607 
Deceased during the year or now first 
reported, ...... 31 

576 
11 



390 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Annual Members per last report, . 268 
Added during the year, . . 12 



280 



Deceased during the year or 

now first reported, . . 5 

Discontinued, . . \. 16 

Commuted to Life, . . 3 



— 24 



256 



Total Membership, 832 

INCOME FROM MEMBERSHIP. 

16 Life Members (including one de- 
ferred from 1885) , $480 00 
12 Annual Members, . . . 120 00 
176 Assessments, .... 418 00 
3 Commuted, . . . . 60 00 



,078 00 



The Finance Committee having audited the accounts of the 
undersigned made and have subscribed to, on a book kept for that 
purpose, the following report : * 

The Massachusetts Horticultural Society 

In account with George W. Fowle, Treasurer. 

Credit : — 

By balance in treasury, December 31, 1885, . . $4,273 91 
" total income, as per receipt book, . . . 40,657 05 



$53,930 96 



Debit :— 



To cash paid out, per cash book, .... $48,414 44 
" balance on hand to new account, .... 5,516 52 

$53,930 96 



treasurer's report. 391 

Boston, March 31, 1886. We have examined the above account 
and find it correct, and the balance of cash on hand fifty-five 
hundred and sixteen dollars and fifty-two cents. 

H. H. HUNNEWELL, ^ -^. 

F.L.Ames, I finance 

H.P.Walcott, \ Committee. 



The Mortgage Debt has been reduced from $60,000 to $30,000 
from the sale of Sinking Fund Bonds and the surplus in the 
Treasur} 7 . 

The receipts from the Halls during the past year have shown an 

increase. 

GEORGE W. FOWLE, 

Treasurer. 



392 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



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MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY. 393 



Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 

To the Proprietors op the Cemetery of Mount Auburn, Dr. 

For one-fourth part of the following expenditures for grading new lands for 
sale during the year 1886 : 



Glen Avenue. 






41854 da y s > men > ....... $941 

167% " man and horse, ..... 629 


06 
06 


$1,570 12 






Linden Path. 






132j^ days, men, $298 

44% " man and horse, ..... 167 


13 

81 


$465 94 






Birch Avenue to Eagle and Cherry Avenues. 






174>£ days, men, $392 

176J4 " man and horse, 660 


63 
94 


$1,053 57 






• 


$3,089 63 



One-fourth part of $3,089.63 is . . . . $772 41 



Mount Auburn, Dec. 31, 1886. 



J. W. LOVERING, 

Superintendent. 



I certify the foregoing to be a true copy of improvements for the year 
1886, rendered by the Superintendent. 

H. B. MACKINTOSH, 

Treasurer. 



asjatjjHsetbs Sartitnltmral Sorielj. 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES FOB, 1887, 



President. 
HENEY P. WALCOTT, of Cambridge. 

Vice-Presidents. 

CHARLES H. B. BRECK, of Brighton. FREDERICK L. AMES, of North Easton. 
BENJAMIN G. SMITH, of Cambridge. WILLIAM H. SPOONER, of Jamaica Plain. 

Treasurer and Superintendent of the Building 1 . 
GEORGE W. FOWLE, of Boston. 

Secretary and Librarian. 
ROBERT MANNING, of Salem.* 

Recording" Secretary. 
ROBERT MANNING, of Salem. 

Professor of Botany and Vegetable Physiology. 
JOHN ROBINSON, of Salem. 

Professor of Entomology. 
SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, of Cambridge. 



jStkuding Committee^. 



Executive. 

The President, HENRY P. WALCOTT, Chairman. 

The Chairman of the Finance Committee, H. II. HUNNEWELL; WILLIAM 

C. STRONG, F. L. AMES, CHARLES H. B. BRECK, HENRY WELD 

FULLER, CHARLES S. SARGENT, WILLIAM H. SPOONER, 

EDWARD L. BEARD. 



* Communications lor the Secretary, on the business of the Society, should be addressed to him at Horticul- 
tural Hall, Boston 



OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1887. 395 

Finance. 

H. HOLLIS HUNNEWELL, Chairman. 

HENRY P. WALCOTT. FREDERICK L. AMES. 

Publication and Discussion. 

O. B. HADWEN, Chairman. 
FRANCIS H. APPLETON. WILLIAM H. HUNT. 

Establishing- Prizes. 

CHAIRMAN OF COMMITTEE ON FRUITS, Chairman. 

CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON FLOWERS, VEGETABLES, AND GARDENS, 

EX OFFICII S; C.M.ATKINSON, EDWARD L. BEARD, JACKSON DAWSON. 

Library. 

WILLIAM E. ENDICOTT, Chairman. 

THE PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY 

AND THE PROFESSOR OF ENTOMOLOGY, EX OFFICIIS; 

J. D. W. FRENCH. NATHANIEL T. KIDDER. 

FRANCIS H. APPLETON. GEORGE W. HUMPHREY. 

Gardens. 
JOHN G. BARKER, Chairman. 
CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON FRUITS, FLOWERS, AND VEGETABLES, 

EX OFFICIIS; 
CHARLES W. ROSS, BENJAMIN G. SMITH, HENRY W. WILSON. 

Fruit. 
E. W. WOOD, Chairman. 
BENJAMIN G. SMITH. J. W. MANNING. WARREN FENNO. 

CHARLES F. CURTIS. O. B. HADWEN. SAMUEL HARTWELL. 

Plants and Flowers. 

JOSEPH H. WOODFORD, Chairman. 

F. L. HARRIS. WARREN H. MANNING. ARTHUR H. FEWKES. 

DAVID ALLAN. W. A. MANDA. MICHAEL H. NORTON. 

Vegetables. 
CHARLES N. BRACKETT, Chairman. 
WARREN HEUSTIS. CEPHAS H. BRACKETT. GEORGE HILL. 

P. G. HANSON. JACOB HITTINGER. VARNUM FROST. 

Committee of Arrangements. 

EDWARD L. BEARD, CHAIRMAN. 

CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES ON FRUITS, FLOWERS, VEGETABLES, AND 

GARDENS, EX OFFICIIS; 
WARREN HEUSTIS. CHARLES L. FOWLE. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



Members of the Society and all other persons who may know of deaths, 
changes in residence, or other circumstances showing that the following list is 
inaccurate in any particular will confer a favor by promptly communica- 
ting to the Secretary the needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard to members 
whose names are marked thus f. 



Adams, Luther, Brighton. 

Albro, Charles, Taunton. 

Alger, R. F., Becket. 

Allan, David, Mount Auburn. 

Ames, Frank M., Canton. 

Ames, Frederick L., North Easton. 

Ames, George, Boston, 

Ames, Preston Adams, South Hing- 

ham. 
Amory, Charles, Boston. 
Amory, Frederick, Boston. 
Anderson, Alexander, West Hingham. 
Andrews, Charles L., Milton. 
Andrews, Frank W., Boston. 
fAndros, Milton, Brookline. 
Appleton, Edward, Reading. 
Appleton, Francis H., Peabody. 
Appleton, William S., Boston. 
Atkins, Elisha, Boston. 
Augur, P. M., Middlefield, Ct. 
Avery, Edward, Boston. 
Ayling, Isaac, M. D., Waltham. 

fBacon, George, M. D., Brookline. 
Bailey, Edwin C, West Stowe, Vt. 
Baker, William E., Boston. 
Bancroft, John C, Boston. 
Banfield, Francis L., Boston. 
Barnard, James M., Maiden. 
Barnard, Robert M., Everett. 
Barnes, Walter S., Somerville. 
Barnes, William H., Boston. 
fBarney, Levi C, Boston. 



Barratt, James, Cambridgeport. 
Barrett, Edwin S., Concord. 
Bartlett, Edmund, Newburyport. 
Bates, Amos, Hingham. 
Bates, Caleb, Kingston. 
fBayley, John P., Boston. 
Beal, Alexander, Dorchester. 
Beckford, Daniel R., Jr., Dedham. 
Bell, Joseph H. , Quincy. 
Bemis, Emery, Cambridge. 
Berry, James, Brookline. 
Bickford, Weare D., Newtonville. 
Birchard, Charles, Framingham. 
Black, James W., Cambridge. 
Blagg, Samuel, Jamaica Plain. 
Blake, Arthur W., Brookline. 
Blakemore, John E., Roslindale. 
Blanchard, John W., Dorchester. 
Blaney, Henry, Boston. 
Blinn, Richard D., Chicago, 111. 
Bliss, William, Springfield. 
Bocher, Ferdinand, Cambridge. 
Bockus, Charles E., Dorchester. 
Bond, George W., West Roxbury, 
Borland, John N., M. D. New Lon- 
don, Ct. 
Botume, John, Wyoming. 
Bouve, Thomas T., Boston. 
Bowditch, Azell C, Somerville. 
Bowditch, J.Ingersoll, Jamaica Plain. 
Bowditch, William E., Roxbury. 
Bowker, William H. , West Newton. 
Brackett, Cephas H., Brighton. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



397 



Brackett, Charles N., Newton. 
Bradish, Levi J., Boston. 
Bragg, Samuel A. B., Dorchester. 
Breed, Henry A., Lynn. 
Bresee, Albert, Hubbardton, Vt. 
Brewer, Francis W., Hingham. 
Brewer, John Reed, Boston. 
Brewer, Otis, West Roxbury. 
Brigham, William T., Boston. 
Brimmer, Martin, Boston. 
Brintnall, Benjamin, Charlestown. 
Brooks, Francis, West Medford. 
Brown, Alfred S., Jamaica Plain. 
Brown, Charles E., Yarmouth, N. S. 
Brown, Edward J., Weston. 
fBrown, G. Barnard, Boston. 
Brown, George Bruce, Framingham. 
Brown, Jacob, Woburn. 
Brownell, E. S., Essex Junction, Vt. 
fBruce, Nathaniel F., Stoneham. 
Bullard, John R., Dedham. 
Bullard, William S., Boston. 
Burnett, Joseph, Southborough. 
Burnham, Thomas 0. H. P., Boston. 
Burr, Fearing, Hingham. 
Burr, Matthew H., Hingham. 
Buswell, Edwin W., New York, N.Y. 
Buswell, Frank E., New York, N. Y. 
fButler, Aaron, Wakefield. 
Butler, Edward K. , Jamaica Plain. 
Butterfield, William P., East Lex- 
ington. 

Cabot, Edward C. , Brookline. 

Cadness, John, Flushing, N. Y. 

Cains, William, South Boston. 

Calder, Augustus P., Boston. 

Capen, John, Boston. 

Carlton, Samuel A., Boston. 

Carruth, Charles, Boston. 

Carter, Miss Sabra, Wilmington. 

Cartwright, George, Dedham. 

Chadbourne, Marshall W., Water, 
town. 

Chamberlain, Chauncey W., Boston. 

Chapin, Nathaniel G., Brookline. 

Chapman, Edward, South Framing- 
ham. 



Chase, Andrew J., Lynn. 
Chase, Daniel E., Somerville. 
Chase, George B., Boston. 
Chase, Hezekiah S., Boston. 
Chase, William M., Baltimore, Md. 
Cheney, Benjamin P., Boston. 
Child, Francis J., Cambridge. 
Child, William C, Medford. 
Childs, Francis, Charlestown. 
Childs, Nathaniel R., Boston. 
Choate, Charles F., Cambridge. 
Claflin, Henry, Newton. 
Claflin, William, Newton. 
Clapp, Edward B., Dorchester. 
Clapp, James H., Dorchester. 
Clapp, William C., Dorchester. 
Clark, Benjamin C, Boston. 
Clark, Orus, Boston. 
Clark, W. L., Neponset. 
Clarke, Miss CoraH., Jamaica Plain. 
Clay, Henry, Dorchester. 
Cleary, Lawrence, West Roxbury. 
Clement, Asa, Dracut. 
Cleveland, Ira, Dedham. 
Cobb, Albert A., Brookline. 
Coburn, Isaac E., Everett. 
Codman, James M., Brookline. 
Codman, Ogden, Lincoln. 
Coffin, G. Winthrop, West Roxbury. 
Coffin, William E., Dorchester. 
Converse, Elisha S., Maiden. 
Converse, Parker L., Woburn. 
Coolidge, Joshua, Watertown. 
Copeland, Franklin, West Dedham. 
Coy, Samuel I., Boston. 
Crocker, George O., New Bedford. 
Crocker, Uriel, Boston. 
Crosby, Josiah, Arlington. 
Crowell, Philander, Chelsea. 
Crowell, Randall H., Chelsea. 
Cummings, John, Woburn. 
Curtis, Charles F., Jamaica Plain. 
Curtis, George S., Jamaica Plain. 
Cushing, Robert M., Boston. 

fDaggett, Henry C, Boston. 
Damon, Samuel G., Arlington. 



398 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Dana, Charles B., Wellesley. 
Darling, Charles K., Boston. 
Davenport, Edward, Dorchester. 
Davenport, George E., Medford. 
Davenport, Henry, Boston. 
Dawson, Jackson, Jamaica Plain. 
Deblois, Stephen G., Boston. 
Dee, Thomas W., Mount Auburn. 
Denny, Clarence H., Boston. 
fDenny, R. S., Dorchester. 
Denton, Eben, Dorchester. 
Dewson, Francis A., Newtonville. 
Dexter, E. Gordon, Boston. 
Dickerman, George H., Somerville. 
Dike, Charles C, Stoneham. 
Dinsmore, William B., New York, 

N. Y. 
Dorr, George, Dorchester. 
Dove, George W.W., Andover. 
Durant, William, Boston. 
Durfee, Mrs. Fidelia B., Fall River. 
Durfee, George B., Fall River. 
Dutcher, F. J., Hopedale. 

Eaton, Horace, Quincy. 
Eldridge, Azariah, Yarmouthport. 
fEldridge, E. H., Roxbury. 
Ellicott, Joseph P., Boston. 
Endicott, William E., Canton. 
Eustis, William C, Hyde Park. 
Everett, William, Dorchester. 

Fairchild, Charles, Belmont. 
Falconer, William, Glencove, N.Y. 
Farlow, John S., Newton. 
Farlow, Lewis H., Newton. 
Farquhar, Robert, Boston. 
fFaxon, John, Quincy. 
Fay, Mrs. Rebekah L., Chelsea. 
Fenno, J. Brooks, Boston. 
Fewkes, Arthur H., Newton High- 
lands. 
Fewkes, Edwin, Newton Highlands. 
Fillebrown, John, Arlington. 
Fisher, David, Newport, R.I. 
Fisher, James, San Diego, Cal. 
Fisher, Warren, Boston. 
Flagg, Augustus, Boston. 



Fleming, Edwin, West Newton. 
Fletcher, George V., Belmont. 
Fletcher, John W., Chelsea. 
Fletcher, J. Henry, Belmont. 
Flint, Charles L., Boston. 
Flint, David B., Watertown. 
Flynt, William N., Monson. 
Forster, Edward J., M. D., Charles- 
town. 
Foster, Francis C, Cambridge. 
Fottler, John, Jr., Dorchester. 
Fowle, George W., Jamaica Plain. 
Fowle, William B., Auburndale. 
Freeman, Abraham, Dorchester. 
French, Jonathan, Boston. 
French, J. D. Williams, Boston. 
Fuller, Henry Weld, Roxbury. 

Galvin, John, West Roxbury. 
Gardner, Henry N. , Belmont. 
Gardner, JohnL., Brookline. 
Gibbs, Wolcott, M.D., Cambridge. 
Gillard, William, Atlantic. 
Gilmore, E. W., North Easton. 
Gilson, F. Howard, Reading. 
Glover, Albert, Boston. 
Glover, Joseph B., Boston. 
Goddard, A. Warren, Brookline. 
Goddard, Mrs. MaryT., Newton. 
Goodell, L. W., Amherst. 
Gorham, James L., Jamaica Plain. 
fGould, Samuel, Boston. 
Gray, James, Wellesley. 
Gregory, James J. H., Marblehead. 
Greig, George, Toronto, Ont. 
Groom, Thomas, Dorchester. 
Grundel, Hermann, Dorchester. 
Guild, J. Anson, Brookline. 

Hadwen, Obadiah B., Worcester. 
Hall, Edwin A., Cambridgeport. 
Hall, George A., Chelsea. 
Hall, George R., Fort George, Fla. 
Hall, John R., Roxbury. 
Hall, Lewis, Cambridge. 
Hall, Stephen A., Revere. 
Hall, William F., Brookline. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



399 



Halliday, William H., South Boston. 

t Hammond, Gardner G. , Boston. 

Hammond, Samuel, Boston. 

Hanson, P. G., Woburn. 

Harding, Charles L., Cambridge. 

Harding, George W., Arlington. 

Harding, Lewis B., Boston. 

Harding, William C, Stamford, Ct. 

Hardy, F. D., Jr., Carnbridgeport. 

Harrington, Leonard B., Salem. 

Harrington, Nathan D., Somerville. 

Harris, Charles, Cambridge. 

Hart, William T., Boston. 

Hastings, Levi W., Brookline. 

Hathaway, Seth W., Marblehead. 

fHaughton, James, Boston. 

fHaven, Alfred W., Portsmouth, 
N.H. 

Hayes, Daniel P., Exeter, N. H. 

Hayes, Mrs. Francis B., Senior, Lex- 
ington. 

Hayes, Francis B., Lexington. 

Hay ward, Jonas P., Ashby. 

fHazeltine, Hazen, Boston. 

Head, Charles D., Brookline. 

Henshaw, Joseph P. B., Boston. 

Heywood, George, Concord. 

Hilbourn, A. J., Chelsea. 

Hill, George, Arlington. 

Hill, John, Stoneham. 

Hilton, William, Boston. 

Hitchings, E. H., Boston. 

Hittinger, Jacob, Belmont. 

Hoar, Samuel, Concord. 

Hodgkins, John E., Chelsea. 

fHollis, George W., Grantville. 

Hollis, John W., Allston. 

Holt, Mrs. Stephen A., Winchester. 

Hooper, Thomas, Bridge water. 

Horner, Mrs. Charlotte N. S., George- 
town. 

Hovey, Charles H., Carnbridgeport. 

Hovey, Charles M., Carnbridgeport. 

Hovey, John C, Carnbridgeport. 

Hovey, Stillman S., Woburn. 

fHowe, George, Boston. 

Hubbard, Charles T., Weston. 



Hubbard, Gardner G., Cambridge. 
Hubbard, James C, Everett. 
-(•Humphrey, F. J., Dorchester. 
Humphrey, George W., Dedham. 
Hunneman, Joseph H., Boston. 
Hunnewell, Arthur, Wellesley. 
Hunnewell, H. Hollis, Wellesley. 
Hunnewell, Walter, Wellesley. 
Hunt, Franklin, Boston. 
Hunt, Moses, Charlestown. 
Hunt, William H., Concord. 
Hyde, James F. C, Newton High- 
lands. 

Inches, Herman B., M. D., Boston. 

Jackson, Abraham, Boston. 
Jackson, Charles L., Cambridge. 
Jackson, Robert T. , Dorchester. 
Janvrin, William S., Revere. 
Jeffries, John, Boston. 
Jenks, Charles W., Boston. 
Johnson, J. Frank, Boston. 
Joyce, Mrs. E. S., Medford. 

Kakas, Edward, West Medford. 
Kelly, George B., Jamaica Plain. 
•(•Kendall, D. S., Woodstock, Ont. 
Kendall, Edward, Carnbridgeport. 
fKendall, Joseph R., Oakland, Cal. 
Kendrick, Mrs. H. P., Allston. 
Kennard, Charles W., Boston. 
Kennedy, George G., M. D., Milton. 
Kent, John, Charlestown. 
fKeyes, E. W., Denver, Col. 
Keyes, George, Concord. 
Kidder, Nathaniel T., Boston, 
t Kimball, A. P., Boston. 
King, Franklin, Dorchester. 
Kingman, Abner A., Brookline. 
Kingman, C. D., Middleborough. 
Kinney, John M., East Wareham. 
Kinsley, Lyman, Carnbridgeport. 

Lamb, Thomas, Boston 
Lancaster, Charles B., Newton. 
Lane, John, East Bridgewater. 
Lawrence, Amos A., Boston. 



400 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Lawrence, James, Boston. 
Lawrence, John, Boston. 
Lee, Henry, Boston. 
Leeson, Joseph R., Newton Centre. 
Lemme, Frederick, Arlington. 
Leuchars, Robert B., Boston. 
Lewis, A. S., Framingham. 
Lewis, William G., Framingham. 
Lincoln, George, Hingham. 
Locke, William H., Belmont. 
Lockwood, Rhodes, Boston. 
Lodge, G. Henry, M. D., Boston. 
Loftus, John P., North Easton. 
Loomis, Jason B., Boston. 
Lord, George C, Newton. 
Loring, Caleb W., Beverly Farms. 
Loring, George B., Salem. ' 
Lovett, George L., West Newton. 
fLowder, John. Watertown. 
Lowell, Augustus, Boston. 
Luke, Elijah H., Cambridgeport. 
Lumb, William, Boston. 
Lunt, Charles H., Jamaica Plain. 
Lyman, Theodore, Brookline. 
Lyon, Henry, Charlestown. 

f Mahoney, John, Boston. 
Mann, James F., Ipswich. 
Mann, Jonathan, Milton. 
Manning, Jacob W., Reading. 
Manning, Mrs. Lydia B., Reading. 
Manning, Robert, Salem. 
Manning, Warren H., Reading. 
Martin, Darius A., Chelsea. 
Martin, John S., Roxbury. 
Matthews, Nathan, Boston. 
MeCarty, Timothy, Providence, R.I. 
McClure, John, Revere. 
Mc William, George, Whitinsville. 
Melvin, James C, West Newton. 
Merriam, Herbert, Weston. 
Merriam, M. H., Lexington. 
Merrifield, William T., Worcester. 
"Metivier, James, Cambridge. 
Minton, James, Boston. 
Moore, John B., Concord. 
Moore, John H., Concord. 



Morrill, Joseph, Jr., Roxbury. 
fMorse, Samuel F., Boston. 
Morse, William A., Boston. 
Motley, Thomas, Forest Hills. 
Mudge, George A., Portsmouth, N.H. 
Munroe, Otis, Boston. 

Needham, Daniel, Groton. 
Nevins, David, Framingham. 
Newman, J. R., Winchester. 
Newton, Rev. William W., Pittsfield. 
Nickerson, Albert W., Marion. 
Nickerson, George A., Dedham. 
Norton, Charles W. , Allston. 
Nourse, Benjamin F., Boston. 

Oakman, Hiram A., North Marsh- 
field. 
Osgood, James Ripley, Boston. 
Oxnard, George D., Boston. 

Packer, Charles H., Boston. 
fPage, Thomas, Boston. 
Paige, Clifton H., Boston. 
Palmer, Julius A., Jr., Boston. 
Parker, Augustus, Roxbury. 
Parker, Mrs. Margaret, Wakefield. 
Parkman, Francis, Jamaica Plain. 
fPartridge, Henry, Dunkirk, N. Y. 
Partridge, Horace, Cambridge. 
Paul, Alfred W-, Dighton. 
Peabody, John E., Salem. 
fPearce, John, West Roxbury. 
Peck, O. H., Denver, Col. 
Peck, W. G., Arlington. 
Peirce, Silas, Boston. 
Penniman, A. P., Waltham. 
Perkins, Augustus T., Boston. 
Perkins, Edward N., Jamaica Plain. 
Perkins, William P., Way land. 
f Perry, George W., Maiden. 
Philb rick, William D. , Newton Centre. 
Pierce, Dean, Brookline. 
Pierce, Henry L., Boston. 
Pierce, Samuel B., Dorchester. 
Poor, John R., Somerville. 
Potter, Joseph S., Arlington. 



MEMBERS FOR LIFE. 



401 



Prang, Louis, Roxbury. 
Pratt, Laban, Dorchester. 
Pratt, Lucius G. , West Newton. 
Pratt, Robert M., Boston. 
Pratt, William, Winchester. 
Pray, Mark W., Boston, 
t Prescott, Eben C, Boston. 
Prescott, William G., Boston. 
Prescott, William G., Quincy. 
Pringle, Cyrus G., Charlotte, Vt. 
Proctor, Thomas P., West Roxbury. 
Prouty, Gardner, Littleton. 
Pulsifer, Royal M., Auburndale. 
Putnam, Joshua H., Brookline. 

Quinby, HoseaM., M.D., Worcester. 

Rand, Miss Elizabeth L., Newton 
Highlands. 

Rand, Oliver J., Cambridgeport. 

Rawson, Warren W., Arlington. 

Ray, James F., Franklin. 

Ray, James P., Franklin. 

Ray, Joseph G., Franklin. 

Reed, George W., Boston. 

Richards, John J., Boston. 

Richardson, Charles E., Cambridge- 
port. 

Rinn, J. Ph., Boston. 

Ripley, Charles, Dorchester. 

Robbins, I. Gilbert, Dorchester. 

Robbins, Nathan, Arlington. 

Robeson, William R., Boston. 

Robinson, John, Salem. 

Robinson, Joseph B., Allston. 

Rogers, JohnH., Boston. 

Ross, Henry, Newtonville. 

Ross, M. Denman, Forest Hills. 

Ross, Waldo 0., Boston. 

Ruddick, William H., M. D., South 
Boston. 

Russell, George, Woburn. 

Russell, John E., Leicester. 

Russell, Walter, Arlington. 

fSampson, George R., New York, 

N. Y. 
f Sanborn, Amos C, Cambridgeport. 



Sanford, Oliver S., Hyde Park. 

Sargent, Charles S., Brookline. 

Sargent, John O., Lenox Furnace. 

Saville, Richard L., Brookline. 

Sawtelle, Eli A., Boston. 

Sawyer, Timothy T., Charlestown. 

fScott, Charles, Newton. 

Scudder, Charles W., Brookline. 

Sears, J. Montgomery, Boston. 

Seaver, Nathaniel, East Boston. 

Seaver, Robert, Jamaica Plain. 

Shaw, Christopher C, Milford, N. H. 

Shimmin, Charles F., Boston. 

Shorey, John L., Lynn. 

Skinner, Francis, Boston. 

Smith, Benjamin G., Cambridge. 

Smith, Calvin W., Grantville. 

Smith, Charles H., Jamaica Plain/ 

Smith, Chauncey, Cambridge. 

Smith, Edward N. , San Francisco. 

Smith, George O., Boston. 

Smith, James H., Needham. 

Smith, Whitman B., Roxbury. 

Snow, Eben, Cambridge. 

Snow, Miss Salome H., Brunswick, 
Me. 

Sparhawk, Edward C, Brighton. 

Spaulding, Edward, West Newton. 

Spaulding, Mahlon D., Boston. 

Speare, Alden, Newton Centre. 

Spencer, Alfred W., Boston. 

Spjingall, George, Maiden. 

Stetson, Nahum, Bridgewater. 

Stewart, William J. , Winchester. 

Stickney, Rufus B., Somerville. 

fStimpson, George, New York, N. Y. 

Stimpson, H. H., Cambridge. \ 

Stone, Amos, Everett. 

Stone, George F., Newton. 

Stone, Phineas J., Charlestown. 

Story, E. Augustus, Brighton. 

Strong, William C, Newton High- 
lands. 

Sturgis, John H., Brookline. 

Sturgis, Russell, Jr., Manchester. 

Sturtevant, E. Lewis, M.D., Geneva, 
N. Y. 



402 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Surette, Louis A., Concord. 

Taft, John B., Cambridge. 
Taylor, Horace B., Boston. 
Thurlow, Thomas C, Newburyport. 
Tidd, Marshall M., Woburn. 
Tilton, Stephen W., Roxbury. 
Todd, John, Hingham. 
Tolman, Benjamin, Concord. 
Tolman, Miss Harriet S., Boston. 
Torrey, Everett, Charlestown. 
fTurner, John M. , Dorchester. 
Turner, Roswell W., Dorchester. 
Turner, Royal W., Randolph. 

Underwood, Guy C.,, Roxbury. 
Underwood, William J., Belmont. 

Vass, William J., Brookline. 
Vinal, Miss Mary L., Somerville. 
Vose, Benjamin C, Hyde Park. 

Wainwright, William L. , Braintree. 
Wakefield, E. H., Cambridge. 
Walcott, Henry P., M.D. , Cambridge. 
Wales, George 0., Braintree. 
Walker, Edward C. R., Roxbury. 
Walker, Theophilus W., Waltham. 
Walley, Mrs. W. P., Boston. 
Ward, John, Newton. 
Wardwell, William H., Newton 

Centre. 
Ware, Benjamin P., Beach Bluff, 
f Warren, George W., Boston. 
Washburn, Andrew, Hyde Park. 
Wason, Elbridge, Brookline. 
Waters, Edwin F., Newton Centre. 
Waters, George F., Boston. 
Watson, Thomas A., East Braintree. 
Watts, Isaac, Waverly. 
Webber, Aaron D., Boston. 



Weld, Aaron D., WestRoxbury. 
Weld, George W., Newport, R. I. 
Weld, Moses W., M. D., Boston. 
Weld, Richard H., Boston. 
Weld, William G., Boston. 
West, Mrs. Maria L., Neponset. 
Weston, Leonard W., Lincoln. 
Weston, Seth, Revere. 
Wheelwright, A. C, Boston. 
Whipple, John A., Boston. 
Whitcomb, William B., Medford. 
White, Benjamin C, Boston. 
White, Edward A., Boston. 
White, Francis A., Brookline. 
Whitely, Edward, Cambridgeport. 
fWhittle, George W., Somerville. 
fWhytal, Thomas G., New York, 

N. Y. 
Wilbur, George B., West Newton. 
Wilder, Edward Baker, Dorchester. 
Wilder, Henry A., Maiden. 
Willard, E. W., Newport, R. I. 
Willcutt, Levi L., West Roxbury. 
Williams, Aaron D., Boston. 
Williams, Benjamin B., Boston. 
Williams, Philander, Taunton. 
Willis, George W., Chelsea. 
Willis, Joshua C, Roxbury. 
Wilson, Henry W., Boston. 
Wilson, William Power, Boston. 
Woerd, Charles V., Waltham. 
Woerd, Charles V., Jr., Waltham. 
Wood, Charles G., Boston. 
Wood, Luke H., Marlborough. 
Wood, R. W., Jamaica Plain. 
Wood, William K., West Newton. 
Woods, Henry, Boston. 
Woodward, Royal, Brookline. 
Wright, George C, West Acton. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



Members of the Society and all other persons who may know of deaths, 
changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the following list is 
inaccurate in any particular will confer a favor by promptly communica- 
ting to the Secretary the needed corrections. 



Abbot, Samuel L., M. D., Boston. 
Abbott, Allen V., Boston. 
Aird, Duncan, Belmont. 
Allen, Andrew F., Arlington, 
^.llen, Calvin, Roxbury. 
Allen, Charles L., Garden City, N.Y. 
Atkinson, Charles M., Brookline. 
Atkinson, Edward, Brookline. 
Atkinson, William B., Newburyport. 

Bacon, Augustus, Roxbury. 
Bacon, William, Roxbury. 
Badlam, William H., Dorchester. 
Barber, J. Wesley, Newton. 
Bard, James, Framingham. 
Barker, John G., Jamaica Plain. 
Batchelder, G. W., St. Albans, Vt. 
Beard, Edward L., Cambridge. 
Beebe, J. Arthur, Boston. 
Beer, Carl, New York, N.Y. 
Bird, John L., Dorchester. 
Bliss, Benjamin K., Boston. 
Bock, William A., North Cambridge. 
Bolles, Matthew, Boston. 
Bolles, William P., Roxbury. 
Bolton, John B., Somerville. 
Boott, William, Boston. 
Bowditch, E. F M Framingham. 
Bowditch, James H., Brookline. 
Bowker, Albert, East Boston. 
Boyden, Clarence F., Taunton. 
Bradlee, John T., Boston. 
Breck, Charles H., Brighton. 



Breck, Charles H. B., Brighton. 
Brooks, George, Brookline. 
Brown, Atherton T., Roxbury. 
Brown, David H., West Medford. 
Brown, Joseph T., Boston. 
Burley, Edward, Beverly. 
Butler, Edward, Wellesley. 

Carter, Miss Maria E., Woburn. 
Cartwright, James, Wellesley. 
Chaffin, John C, Newton. 
Chase, Joseph S., Maiden. 
Chase, Leverett M., Roxbury. 
Cheney, Amos P., Natick. 
Clark, James W., Framingham. 
Clark, Joseph, Manchester. 
Clark, Joseph W., Dedham. 
Clark, Theodore M., Newton ville. 
Collins, Frank S., Maiden. 
Comley, James, Lexington. 
Crafts, William A., Boston. 
Crosby, J. Allen, Jamaica Plain. 
Curtis, Daniel T., Milton Lower Mills. 
Curtis, Joseph H., Boston. 

Davenport, Albert M., Watertown. 
Davis, Frederick, Newton. 
Davis, Thomas M., Cambridgeport. 
De Mar, John A., Brighton. 
Ditson, Oliver, Boston. 
Dolbear, Mrs. Alice J., College Hill. 
Doran, Enoch E., Brookline. 
Doyle, William E-, East Cambridge. 



404 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Duffley, Daniel, Brookline. 

Eaton, Jacob, Cambridgeport. 

Farrier, Mrs. Cynthia, Stoneham. 
Faxon, Edwin, Jamaica Plain. 
Faxon, Marshall B., Boston. 
Felton, Arthur W., West Newton. 
^Fenno, Warren, Revere. 
Fergusson, Thomas M., Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
Fisher, Sewall, Framingham. 
Fletcher, Edwin, Acton. 
Forbes, William H., Jamaica Plain. 
Foster, Joshua T. , Medford. 
Fowle, Charles L., Dorchester. 
Francis, George E.,M.D., Worcester. 
French, William E., Boston. 
Frohock, Roscoe R., Maiden. 
Frost, Edward, Littleton. 
Frost, George, West Newton. 
Frost, Stiles, Newtonville. 
Frost, Varnum, Belmont. 
Fuller, T. Otis, Needham. 

Gardiner, Claudius B., Newburyport. 
Gibbon, Mrs. James A., Dorchester. 
Gilbert, Samuel, Boston. 
Gill, Mrs. E. M., Medford. 
Gleason, Herbert, Maiden. 
Godbold, Gustavus A., Chelsea. 
Goddard, Thomas, Boston. 
Goodwin, Lester, Brighton. 
Gould, William P., Newtonville. 
Grant, Charles E., Concord. 
Gray, Howard, Dorchester. 
Gray, William, Jr., Dorchester. 
Greene, Malcolm C. , Dorchester. 
Grew, Henry, Hyde Park. 
Grover, William 0., Boston. 
Guerineau, Louis, Cambridge. 

Hall, William T., Revere. 
Hamlin, Delwin A., Allston. 
Hammond, Clement M. , Hyde Park. 
Harris, Miss Ellen M., Jamaica Plain. 
Harris. Frederick L., South Natick. 



Hartwell, Samuel, Lincoln. 
Harwood, George S., Newton. 
Hatch, Samuel, Boston. 
Hayes, John L., Cambridge. 
Hazleton, H. L., Hingham. 
Hersey, Alfred H., Hingham. 
Hersey, Edmund, Hingham. 
Heustis, Warren, Belmont. 
Hewins, James, Medfield. 
Hews, Albert H., North Cambridge. 
Hill, Benjamin D., Peabody, 
Hill, Edwin S., Hyde Park. 
Hill, J. Willard, Belmont. 
Hill, Miss Katie A., Belmont. 
Howe, Rufus, Marlborough. 
Hunt, Henry C, Newton. 

Jameson, G. W., East Lexington. 
Jones, Moses, Brookline. 
Jordan, Samuel, Yarmouth. 
Judkins, Rev. B., West Dedham. 

Kendall, Jonas, Framingham. 
Kenrick, Miss Anna C, Newton. 

Lamprell, Simon, Marblehead. 
Lang, John H. B., Boston. 
Langmaid,Mrs. Mary, Somerville. 
Lee, Charles J., Dorchester. 
Lee, Francis H., Salem. 
Livermore, Miss Maria, Mt. Auburn. 
Loring, Charles G., Boston. 
Loring, John A., Boston. 
Lothrop, David W., West Medford. 
Lothrop, H. A., Sharon. 
Lothrop, Thornton K., Boston. 
Lowell, John, Newton. 

Manda, W. A., Cambridge. 
Marcou, Mrs. J., Cambridge. 
Markoe, George F. H., Roxbury. 
Martin, William J., Milton. 
May, F. W. G., Boston. 
McPermott, Andrew, Roxbury. 
Mcintosh, Aaron S., Roxbury. 
McLaren, Anthony, Forest Hills. 
McMillan, Robert, Whitinsville. 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



405 



Meriam, Horatio C, D.M.D., Salem. 
Merrill, J. Warren, Cambridgeport. 
Merrill, S. A., Wollaston. 
Meston, Alexander, Andover. 
Mills, William, Somerville. 
Minton, Peter J., Forest Hills. 
Morandi, Francis, Maiden. 
Morandi, Francis W., Maiden. 
Morton, James H., Mount Hope. 
Murray, Daniel D., Brookline. 
Muzzey, Rev. Artemas B., Cambridge. 

Nelson, Mrs. Thomas L., Worcester. 
Nightingale, Rev. Crawford, Dor- 
chester. 
Norton, Michael H., Boston. 
Norton, Patrick, Boston. 

O'Brien, James, Jamaica Plain. 

Park, William D., Boston. 
Parker, George A., Halifax. 
Parker, John, Boston. 
Patterson, James, Cambridge. 
Payson, Samuel R., Boston. 
Peirce, George H., Concord. 
Petremant, Robert, Roxbury. 
Phillips, Nathaniel, Dorchester. 
Pierce, Samuel H., Lincoln. 
Plimpton, Willard P., West Newton. 
Power, Charles J., South Framing- 
ham. 
Prince, Thomas, Roxbury. 
Purdie, George A., Wellesley Hills. 
Putnam, Charles A., Salem. 
Putnam, Henry W., Salem. 

Randall, Macey, Sharon. 
Richards, John S., Brookline. 
Richardson, E. P , Lawrence. 
Richardson, Horace, M.D. Boston. 
Richardson, Spencer W., Boston. 
Ridler, Charles E., Boston. 
Robbins, Oliver R., Weston 
Roberts, Edward, Hyde Park. 
Robinson, William, North Easton. 
Rogers, Samuel C. B., Jamaica Plain. 
Ross, Charles W., Newtonville. 

12 



SafFord, Nathaniel F., Milton. 
Saunders, Miss Mary T., Salem. 
Saville, George, Quincy. 
Sawtell, J. M., Fitchburg. 
Schmitt, Georg A., Wellesley. 
Scott, Augustus E., Lexington. 
Scott, George H., Allston. 
Scott, John W., Nahant. 
Scudder, Samuel H., Cambridge. 
Sharpies, Stephen P., Cambridge. 
Shattuck, Frederick R., Roxbury. 
Shedd, Abraham B., Weston. 
Shedd, Arthur B., Chicago, 111. 
Sheppard, Edwin, Lowell. 
Sheppard, Samuel A. D., Newton. 
Snow, Eugene A., Melrose. 
Snow, Francis B., Dorchester. 
Southworth, Edward, Quincy. 
Spooner, William H., Jamaica Plain. 
Squire, John P., Arlington. 
Stearns, Charles H., Brookline. 
Stevenson, Hamilton, Woburn. 
Stone, Samuel G., Charlestown. 
Storer, Charles, Natick. 
Story, Miss Sarah W., Brighton. 
Strahan, Thomas, Chelsea. 
Sullivan, Julius L. D., Somerville. 
Swan, Charles W., Boston. 

Tailby, Joseph, Wellesley. 
Talbot, Josiah W., Norwood. 
Teel, William H., West Acton. 
Temple, Felker L., Somerville. 
Terwilliger, S. F., Saratoga Springs, 

N. Y. 
Tillinghast, Joseph, New Bedford. 
Tobey, S. Edwin, Boston. 
Torrey, Bradford, Boston. 
Trautman, Martin, Boston. 
Turner, Nathaniel W. Boston. 

Van der Veur, P.W., New York, N.Y. 
Vaughan, J. C, Chicago, 111. 

Walker, Charles H., Chelsea. 
Walker, Joseph T., Watertown, N.Y. 
Walker, William P., Somerville. 
Waterer, Hosea, South Natick. 



406 



MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Weld, Christopher M., Jamaica Plain. 
Wellington, Miss Caroline, East 

Lexington. 
Wells, Benjamin T., Newton. 
Weston, Mrs. L. P., Danvers. 
Wheatland, Henry, M.D., Salem. 
White, Nelson B., Norwood. 
Whitney, Joel, Winchester. 
Whiton Starkes, Hingham Centre. 
Wilde, Hiram, Randolph. 
Wilmarth, Henry D., Jamaica Plain. 
Wilson, B. Osgood, Watertown. 
Wilson, George W., Maiden. 



Wiswall, Henry M., Watertown. 

Withington, Henry H., Jamaica 
Plain. 

Wolcott, Mrs. Henrietta L. T., Bos- 
ton. 

Wood, Mrs. AnnaD., West Newton. 

Wood, E. W., West Newton. 

Woodford, Joseph H., Newton. 

Woolson, George C, Passaic, N. J. 

Worthington, Roland, Roxbury. 

Wright, Daniel, Lowell. 

Zirngiebel, Denys, Needham. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS, 



SECTION XXVI. —Life Members. 

The payment of thirty dollars shall constitute a Life Membership, and 
exempt the member from all future assessments; and any n\ember having 
once paid an admission fee may become a Life Member by the payment of 
twenty dollars in addition thereto. 

SECTION XXVII. — Admission Fee and Annual Assessment. 

Every subscription member, before he receives his diploma, or exercises 
the privileges of a member, shall pay the sum of ten dollars as an admission 
fee, and shall be subject afterwards to an annual assessment of two dollars. 

SECTION XXIX. — Discontinuance of Membership. • 

Any member who shall neglect for the space of two years to pay his annual 
assessment shall cease to be a member of the Society, and the Treasurer 
shall erase his name from the List of Members. Any member may withdraw 
from the Society, on giving notice to the Treasurer and paying the amount 
due from him to the Society. 

The attention of Annual Members is particularly called to Section XXIX. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the 
following list is inaccurate in any particular will confer a favor by 
promptly communicating to the Secretary the needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard to Joseph 
Maxwell, elected in 1830, and George W. Smith, elected in 1851. The names 
of those known to be deceased are marked with a star. 



*Benjamin Abbott, LL. D., Exeter, N. H. 

*John Abbott, Brunswick, Me. 

*Hon. John Quincy Adams, LL. D., late President of the United States, 

Quincy. 
*Professor Louis Agassiz, Cambridge. 

* William T. Aiton, late Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew, England. 
*Thomas Allen, late President of the St. Louis Horticultural Society, 

St. Louis, Mo., and Pittsfield, Mass. 
*Hon. Samuel Appleton, Boston. 
*Hon. James Arnold, New Bedford. 
*Edward Nathaniel Bancroft, M. D., late President of the Horticultural 

and Agricultural Society of Jamaica. 
*Hon. Philip P. Barbour, Virginia. 

*Don Angel Calderon de la Barca, late Spanish Minister at Wash- 
ington. 
♦Robert Barclay, Bury Hill, Dorking, Surrey, England. 
♦James Beekman, New York. 
♦L'Abbe Berlese, Paris. 
♦Nicholas Biddle, Philadelphia. 
*Dr. Jacob Bigelow, Boston. 
*Mrs. Lucy Bigelow, Medford. 
*Le Chevalier Soulange Bodin, late Secretaire General de la Societe 

d'Horticulture de Paris. 
Hon. George S. Boutwell, Groton. 
*Josiah Bradlee, Boston. 
*Hon. George N. Briggs, Pittsfield. 
*Hon. James Buchanan, late President of the United States, Lancaster, 

Penn. 
*Hon. Jesse Buel, late President of the Albany Horticultural Society, 

Albany, N. Y. 
*Hon. Edmund Burke, late Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C. 



408 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

*Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Geneva, Switzerland. 
*Hon. Horace Capron, late U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
*Commodore Isaac Chauncet, U. S. Navy, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
*Ward Chipman, late Chief-Justice of New Brunswick, St. John. 
*Lewis Clapier, Philadelphia. 
*Hon. Henry Clay, Lexington, Ky. 
H. W. S. Cleveland, Minneapolis, Minn. 

* Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Bart., England. 

*Zaccheus Collins, late President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 
Society, Philadelphia. 

*Roswell L. Colt, Paterson, N. J. 
Caleb Cope, ex-President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 
Philadelphia. 

*William Coxe, Burlington, N. J. 

*John P. Cushing, Watertown. 

*Charles W. Dabney, late U. S. Consul, Fayal, Azores. 

*Hon John Davis, LL. D., Boston. 

*Sir Humphry Davy, London. 

*Gen. Henry Alexander Scammel Dearborn, Roxbury. 

* James Dickson, late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society of 
London. 

*Mrs. Dorothy Dix, Boston. 

*Capt. Jesse D. Elliot, U. S. Navy. 

*Hon. Stephen Elliot, LL. D., Charleston, S. C. 

*Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth, late Commissioner of Patents, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

*Allyn Charles Evanson, late Secretary of the King's County Agricul- 
tural Society, St. John, N. B. 

*Hon. Edward Everett, LL. D., Boston. 

*Hon. Horace Everett, Vermont. 

*F. Faldermann, late Curator of the Imperial Botanic Garden, St. Peters- 
burg. 

*Hon. Millard Fillmore, late President of the United States, Buffalo, N.Y. 

*Dr. F. E. Fischer, late Professor of Botany at the Imperial Botanic 
Garden, St. Petersburg. 

*Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, late President of the American Agri- 
cultural Society, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

* Joseph Gales, Jr., late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society, 

Washington, D. C. 
*George Gibbs, New York. 
*Stephen Girard, Philadelphia. 

*Hon. Robert T. Goldsborough, Talbot County, Maryland. 
*Ephraim Goodale, South Orrington, Maine. 
*Mrs. Rebecca Gore, Waltham. 
*Hon. John Greig, late President of the Domestic Horticultural Society, 

Canandaigua, N. Y. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 409 

*Mrs. Mary Griffith, Charlieshope, N. J. 

*Gen. William Henry Harrison, late President of the United States, 

North Bend, Ohio. 
*S. P. Hildreth, M. D., Marietta, Ohio. 

*Thomas Hopkirk, late President of the Glasgow Horticultural Society. 
*David Hosack, M. D., late President of the New York Horticultural 

Society. 
*Lewis Hunt, Huntsburg, Ohio. 
*Joseph R. Ingersoll, late President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural 

Society, Philadelphia. 
*Gen. Andrew Jackson, late President of the United States, Nashville, 

Tenn. 
*Mrs. Martha Johonnot, Salem. 

*Jared Potter Kirtland, M. D., LL.D., East Rockport, Ohio. 
*Thomas Andrew Knight, late President of the Horticultural Society of 

London. 
*Gen. La Fayette, La Grange, France. 
*Le Comte de Lasteyrie, late Vice-President of the Horticultural Society 

of Paris. 
L. A. H. Latour, M. P., Montreal, Canada. 
*Baron Justus Liebig, Giessen, Germany. 
♦Professor John Lindley, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society of 

London. 
*Franklin Litchfield, late U. S. Consul at Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. 
* Joshua Longstreth, Philadelphia. 
*Nicholas Longworth, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

* Jacob Lorillard, late President of the New York Horticultural Society. 
*John Claudius Loudon, London. 

*Hon. John A. Lowell, Boston. 

*Baron Charles Ferdinand Henry Von Ludwig, late Vice-President of 
the South African Literary and Scientific Institution, Cape Town, 
Cape of Good Hope. 
*Hon. Theodore Lyman, Brookline. 
Col. Theodore Lyman, Brookline. 
*Hon. James Madison, late President of the United States, Montpelier, Va. 
*Mrs. Charlotte Maryatt, Wimbledon, near London. 
Joseph Maxwell, Rio Janeiro. 
*D. Smith McCauley, late U. S. Consul-General at Tripoli, Philadelphia. 
*Hon. Isaac McKim, late President of the Horticultural Society of Mary- 
land, Baltimore. 
Rev. James H. Means, Dorchester, Mass. 

* James Mease, M. D., Philadelphia. 
♦Lewis John Mentens, Brussels, Belgium. 
*Hon. Charles F. Mercer, Virginia. 
♦Francois Andre Michaux, Paris. 

Donald G. Mitchell, New Haven, Conn. 
*Samuel L. Mitchill, M. D., LL.D., New York. 



410 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

♦Hon. James Monroe, late President of the United States, Oak Hill, Va. 

♦Alfred S. Monson, M. D., late President of the New Haven Horticultural 
Society, New Haven, Conn. 

♦Hon. A. N. Morin, Montreal, Canada. 

♦Theodore Mosselmann, Antwerp, Belgium. 
Baron R. Von Osten Sacken, Heidelberg, Germany. 

♦Baron Ottenfels, late Austrian Minister to the Ottoman Porte. 

♦John Palmer, Calcutta. 

♦Son. Joel Parker, LL. D., Cambridge. 
Samuel B. Parsons, Flushing, N. Y. 

♦Hon. Thomas H. Perkins, Brookline. 

♦A. Poiteau, late Professor in the Institut Horticole de Fromont. 

♦Hon. James K. Polk, late President of the United States, Nashville, 
Tenn. • 

♦John Hare Powel, Powelton, Pa. 

♦Henry Pratt, Philadelphia. 

♦William Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 

♦Rev. George Putnam, D. D., Roxbury. 

♦Col. Joel Rathbone, late President of the Albany and-Rensselaer Horti- 
cultural Society, Albany, N. Y. 

♦Archibald John, Earl of Roseberry, late President of the Caledonian Horti- 
cultural Society. 

♦Joseph Sabine, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society of London. 

♦Don Ramon db la Sagra, Havana, Cuba. 

♦Henry Winthrop Sargent, Fishkill, N. Y. 

♦Sir Walter Scott, Abbotsford, Scotland. 

♦John Shepherd, late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Liverpool, England. 

♦John S. Skinner, late Editor of the American Farmer, Baltimore, Md. 
George W. Smith, Boston. 

♦Stephen H. Smith, late President of the Rhode Island Horticultural 
Society. 

♦Hon. Charles Sumner, Boston. 

♦Hon. John Taliaferro, Virginia. 

♦Gen. James Talmadge, late President of the American Institute, New 
York. 

♦Gen. Zachary Taylor, late President of the United States, ' Baton 
Rouge, La. 

♦James Thacher, M. D., Plymouth. 
John J. Thomas, Union Springs, N. Y. 

♦James W. Thompson, M. D., Wilmington, Del. 

♦Grant Thorburn, New York. 

♦M. Du Petit Thodars, Paris. 

♦Le Vicomte Hericart De Thury, late President of the Horticultural 
Society of Paris. 

♦Mons. Toltgard, late President of the Horticultural Society of Rouen, 
France. 

♦Gen. Nathan Towson, late President of the Horticultural Society, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 411 

*Hon. John Tyler, late President of the United States, Williamsburg, Va. 
*Rev. Joseph Tyso, Wallingford, England. 

*Hon. Martin Van Buren, late President of the United States, Kinder- 
hook, N. Y. 
*Federal Vanderburg, M. D., New York. 
*Jean Baptiste Van Mons, M. D., Brussels, Belgium. 
*Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer, Albany, N. Y. 
* Joseph R. Van Zandt, Albany, N. Y. 
*Benjamin Vaughan, M. D., Hallowell, Me. 
*Petty Vaughan, London. 
*Rev. N. Villeneuve, Montreal, Canada. 
*Pierre Philippe Andre Vilmorin, Paris. 
*James Wadsworth, Geneseo, N. Y. 

*Nathaniel Wallich, M. D., late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. 
*Malthus A. Ward, M. D., late Professor in Franklin College, Athens, Ga. 
*Hon. Daniel Webster, Marshfield. 
*Hon. John Welles, Boston. 
*Jeremiah Wilkinson, Cumberland, R. I. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, Boston. 
*Frederick Wolcott, Litchfield, Conn. 
*Ashton Yates, Liverpool, England. 

*Lawrence Young, late President of the Kentucky Horticultural Society, 
Louisville. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Members and correspondents of the Society and all other persons who may 
know of deaths, changes of residence, or other circumstances showing that the 
following list is inaccurate in any particular will confer a favor by promptly 
reporting to the Secretary the needed corrections. 

Information, or any clew to it, is especially desired in regard to Alexander 
Burton, elected in 1829, S. Reynolds, M.D., 1832, and Francis Summerest, 
1833. The names of those known to be deceased are marked with a star. 



*John Adlum, Georgetown, D. C. 

♦Don Francisco Aguilar t Leal, late U. S. Vice-Consul at Maldonado, 

Banda Oriental del Uruguay. 
*Mons. Alfroy, Lieusaint, France. 

A. B. Allen, New York. 
♦James T. Allen, late President of the Nebraska State Horticultural 

Society, Omaha. 
*Rev. Thomas D. Anderson, D. D., South Boston. 
*Thomas Appleton, late U. S. Consul at Leghorn, Italy. 
*Col. Thomas Aspinwall, late U. S. Consul at London, Brooklme. 

P. M. Augur, State Pomologist, Middlefield, Conn. 
♦Isaac Cox Barnet, late U. S. Consul at Paris. 

Patrick Barry, First Vice-President of the American Pomological Society, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
♦Augustine Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 
♦Eugene Achille Baumann, Rahway, N. J. 
♦Joseph Bernard Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 

Napoleon Baumann, Bolwiller, Alsace. 

D. W. Beadle, St. Catherine's, Ontario. 

Professor William J. Beal, Lansing, Michigan. 
♦Noel J. Becar, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
♦Edward Beck, Worton College, Isleworth, near London. 

Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, Peekskill, N. Y. 
♦Louis Edouard Berckmans, Rome, Ga. 

Prosper J. Berckmans, Augusta, Ga. 
♦Alexander Bivort, late Secretary of the Societe Van Mons, Fleurus, 

Belgium. 
♦Tripet Le Blanc, Paris. 

♦Charles D. Bragdon, Pulaski, Oswego Co., N. Y. 
♦William D. Brinckle, M. D., Philadelphia. 

♦George Brown, late U. S. Commissioner to the Sandwich Islands, 
Beverly. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 413 

*John W. Brown, Fort Gaines, Ga. 
♦Dr. Nehemiah Brush, East Florida. 

* Arthur Bryant, Sr., late President of the Illinois State Horticultural 

Society, Princeton. 
♦Robert Buist, Philadelphia. 
♦Dr. E. W. Bull, Hartford, Conn. 

William Bull, Chelsea, England. 

Rev. Robert Burnet, ex-President of the Ontario Fruit Growers' Asso- 
ciation, Burlington. 

Alexander Burton, United States Consul at Cadiz, Spain, Philadelphia. 

Isidor Bush, Bushberg, Jefferson Co., Mo. 

George W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio. 
*Francis G. Carnes, New York. 
♦Col. Robert Carr, Philadelphia. 
♦Rev. John 0. Choules, D. D., Newport, R. I. 
*Rev. Henry Colman, Boston. 
*James Colvill, Chelsea, England. 

Benjamin E. Cotting, M. D., Boston. 
♦Samuel L. Dana, M. D., Lowell. 
*J. Decaisne, late Professeur de Culture au Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 

Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 
. *James Deering, Portland, Me. 
*H. F. Dickehut. 

♦Sir C. Wentworth Dilke, Bart., London. 
*Hon. Allen W. Dodge, Hamilton. 

Rev. H. Honywood D'Ombrain, Westwell Vicarage, Ashford, Kent, 

England. 
♦Andrew Jackson Downing, Newburg, N. Y. 
♦Charles Downing, Newburg, N. Y. 

Parker Earle, Cobden, 111. 

♦F. R. Elliott, late Secretary of the American Pomological Society, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

George Ellwanger, Rochester, N. Y. 
♦George B. Emerson, LL. D., Winthrop. 
♦Ebenezer Emmons, M. D., Williamstown. 
♦Andrew H. Ernst, Cincinnati, 0. 
♦Nathaniel Fellows, Cuba. 
♦Henry J. Finn, Newport, R. I. 

♦ Willard C. Flagg, late Secretary of the American Pomological Society, 

Moro, 111. 
♦Michael Floy, late Vice-President of the New York Horticultural Society, 

New York City. 
♦John Fox, Washington, D. C. 
♦Hon. Russell Freeman, Sandwich. 
Andrew S. Fuller, Ridgewood, N. J. 
Henry Weld Fuller, Roxbury. 

Hon- Robert W. Furnas, President of the Nebraska State Horticultural 
Society, Brownville. 



414 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

♦Augustin Gande, late President of the Horticultural Society, Depart- 
ment of the Sarthe, France. 
♦Robert H. Gardiner, Gardiner, Me. 

* Benjamin Gardner, late U. S. Consul at Palermo, Sicily. 
♦Capt. James T. Gerry, U. S. Navy. 

♦Abraham P. Gibson, late U. S. Consul at St. Petersburg. 
*R. Glendinning, Chiswick, near London. 

Professor George L. Goodale, Cambridge. 
*George W. Gordon, late U. S. Consul at Rio Janeiro, Boston. 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge. 

Obadiah B. Hadwen, ex-r President of the Worcester County Horticultural 
Society, Worcester. 

* Charles Henry Hall, New York. 

*Abraham Halsey, late Corresponding Secretary of the New York Horti- 
cultural Society, New York. 
*Dr. Charles C. Hamilton, late President of the Fruit Growers' Associa- 
tion and International Show Society of Nova Scotia, Cornwallis. 
♦Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, D. D., Dorchester. 
♦Thaddeus William Harris, M. D., Cambridge. 
*John Hay, late Architect of the Caledonian Horticultural Society. 
♦Bernard Henry, late U. S. Consul at Gibraltar, Philadelphia. 

Shirley Hibberd, Editor of the Gardeners' Magazine, London. 
♦J. J. Hitchcock, Baltimore. 

Robert Hogg, LL. D., Editor of the Journal of Horticulture, London. 
♦Thomas Hogg, New York. 

Thomas Hogg, New York. 

J. C. Holding, ex-Treasurer and Secretary of the Cape of Good Hope 
Agricultural Society, Cape Town, Africa. 

Rev. S. Reynolds Hole, Caunton Manor, Newark-upon-Trent, Notting- 
hamshire, England. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, K. C. S. I., The Camp, Sunningdale, England. 

Josiah Hoopes, West Chester, Pa. 

Professor E. N. Horsford, Cambridge. 
*Sanford Howard, Chicago, 111. 

♦Dr. William M. Howsley, late President of the Kansas State Horticul- 
tural Society, Leavenworth. 
*Isaac Hunter, Baltimore, Md. 
♦Isaac Hurd, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

George Husmann, Napa, Cal. 
♦Professor Isaac W. Jackson, Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. 
♦Thomas P. James, Cambridge. 
♦Edward Jarvis, M. D., Dorchester. 

J. W. P. Jenks, Middleborough. 

William J. Johnson, M. D., Fort Gaines, Ga. 

Charles Joly, Vice-President of the Societe d'Horticulture de France, 
Paris. 

Samuel Kneeland, M. D., Boston. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 415 

*Mons. Laffay, St. Cloud, near Paris, France. 

*David Landreth, late Corresponding Secretary of the Pennsylvania Horti- 
cultural Society, Bristol, Pa. 

C. C. Langdon, Mobile, Alabama. 
*Dr. William LeBaron, late State Entomologist, Geneva, 111. 

Max Leichtlin, Baden-Baden, Germany. 

G. F. B. Leighton, President of the Norfolk Horticultural and Pomologi 
cal Society, Norfolk, Va. 

Victor Lemoine, Nancy, France. 
*E. S. H. Leonard, M. D., Providence, R. I. 
*Andre Leroy, Author of the Dictionnaire de Pomologle, Angers, Franco. 

J. Linden, Ghent, Belgium. 
*Hon. George Lunt, Scituate. 
*F. W. Macondray, San Francisco, Cal. 
*James J. Mapes, LL. D-, Newark, N. J. 

*A. Mas, late President of the Horticultural Society, Bourg-en-Bresse, 
France. 

Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, Editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle, London. 
*James Maury, late U. S. Consul at Liverpool, England. 

T. C. Maxwell, Geneva, N. Y. 
*William Sharp McLeay, New York. 
*James McNab, late Curator of the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Thomas Meehan, Editor of the Gardener's Monthly, Germantown, Pa. 
*Allan Melvill, New York. 
*John Miller, M. D., late Secretary of the Horticultural and Agricultural 

Society of Jamaica. 
*Stephen Mills, Flushing, N. Y. 
*Charles MTntosh, Dalkeith Palace, near Edinburgh. 

Joseph E. Mitchell, President of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, 

Philadelphia. 
*Giuseppe Monarchini, M. D., Canea, Isle of Candia. 
*Edouard Morren, Editor of the Belgique Horticole, Liege, Belgium. 
*Horatio Newhall, M. D., Galena, 111. 

*David W. Offley, late U. S. Consular Agent at Smyrna, Turkey. 
* James Ombrosi, late U. S. Consul at Florence, Italy. 
*John J. Palmer, New York. 
*Victor Paquet, Paris. 

*John W. Parker, late U. S. Consul at Amsterdam, Holland. 
*Andre Parmentier, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

William Paul, Waltham Cross, London, N. 
*Sir Joseph Paxton, M. P., Chatsworth, England. 
*John L. Payson, late U. S. Consul at Messina, Sicily. 
*Com. Matthew C. Perry, U. S. Navy, Charlestown. 

*David Porter, late U. S. Charge d' Affaires at the Ottoman Porte, Con- 
stantinople. 

* Alfred Stratton Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 

* William Robert Prince, Flushing, N. Y. 



416 MASSACHUSETTS HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

P. T. Quinn, Newark, N. J. 
*Rev. W. F. Radclyffe, London, England. 

* William Foster Redding, Baltimore, Md. 
D. Redmond, Ocean Springs, Miss. 

Dr. Edward Regel, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

S. Reynolds, M. D., Schenectady, N. Y. 
*John H. Richards, M. D., Illinois. 

Charles V. Riley, Entomologist to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 
*Mons. J. Rinz, Jr., Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. 
*Thomas Rivers, Sawbridgeworth, Herts, England. 

William Robinson, Editor of The Garden, London. 
*Bernhard Roeser, M. D., Bamberg, Bavaria. 
*Dr. J. Smith Rogers, New York. 
*Capt. William S. Rogers, U. S. Navy. 
*Thomas Rotch, Philadelphia. 
*George R. Russell, Roxbury. 

John B. Russell, Newmarket, N. J. 
*Rev. John Lewis Russell, Salem. 

William Saunders, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

* William Shaler, late U. S. Consul-General at Havana, Cuba. 

* William Shaw, New York. 
*Caleb R. Smith, Burlington, N. J. 
*Daniel D. Smith, Burlington, N. J. 

*Gideon B. Smith, late Editor of the American Farmer, Baltimore, Md. 

*John Jay Smith, Germantown, Penn. 

*Horatio Sprague, late U. S. Consul at Gibraltar. 

Robert W. Starr, Port William, Nova Scotia. 

Dr. Joseph Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas. 
*Capt. Thomas Holdup Stevens, U. S. Navy, Middletown, Conn. 

* William Fox Strangeway, late British Secretary of Legation at Naples, 

Italy. 
Dr. J. Strentzel, Martinez, Cal. 
*Judge E. B. Strong, Rochester, N. Y. 
*James P. Sturgis, Canton, China. 
William Summer, Pomaria, S. C. 
Francis Summerest. 
♦Professor Michele Tenore, late Director of the Botanic Garden at 

Naples, Italy. 
*James Englebert Teschemacher, Boston. 
*Robert Thompson, Chiswick, near London. 
*George C. Thorburn, New York. 
Professor George Thurber, Editor of the American Agriculturist, 

New York. 
*John Tilson, Jr., Edwardsville. Illinois. 

*Cav. Doct. Vincenzo Tineo, late Director of the Botanic Garden at 
Palermo. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 417 

*Luther Tucker, late Editor of the Cultivator, Albany, N. Y. 
*Carey Tyso, Wallingford, England. 
*Louis Van Houtte, Ghent, Belgium. 
* Alexander Vattemare, Paris. 

H. J. Veitch, Chelsea, England. 
*Emilien de Wael, late Secretary of the Horticultural Society, Antwerp , 

Belgium. 
*John A. Warder, M. D., late President of the Ohio State Horticultural 
Society, North Bend, Ohio. 

Anthony Waterer, Knapp Hill, near Woking, Surrey, England. 
*J. Ambrose Wight, late Editor of the Prairie Farmer, Chicago, III. 

Benjamin Samuel Williams, Upper Holloway, London, N. 

Professor John Wilson, Edinburgh University, Scotland, 
♦William Wilson, New York. 
♦Hon. J. F. Wingate, Bath, Me. 
*Gen. Joshua Wingate, Portland, Me. 
♦Joseph Augustus Winthrop, Charleston, S. C* 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Business Meeting, May 1, 1886, 231 

Business Meeting, June 5; Members elected, 231 

Business Meeting, July 3; Appropriation for Prizes for Roses, p. 232; 
Prizes for Ship Timber and Reports, 232; Letter to Society of Ameri- 
can Florists, 232; Members elected, . .- 232 

Business Meeting, August 7; Preparation for Meeting of the American 

Pomological Society, pp. 232,233; Committee on Nominations, . . 233 

Business Meeting, September 4; Report of Nominating Committee pre- 
sented, p. 233; Award of Gratuities, 233; Photograph presented, 233; 
Members elected, 233 

Business Meeting, October 2; Annual Election, p. 234; Appropriation 

for Gratuities for Plants and Flowers, 234; Members elected, . . 234 

Business Meeting, November G; Appropriation for Prizes for 1887, p. 
235; Hall for Annual Exhibition, 235; Sale of Sinking Fund Bonds, 
235; Members elected, ... 235 

Business Meeting, December 4; Reports of Committees, on Vegetables 
and on Plants and Flowers, read, p. 236; Further time granted 
Fruit Committee, 236; List of Prizes for 1887 reported, 236; Commit- 
tee authorized to secure Mechanics' Hall, 236; Report of Committee 
on President's Address, 236-238; Members elected, .... 238 

Business Meeting, December 11 ; Schedule of Prizes considered, p. 238; 
Reports of Fruit Committee, Library Committee, and of Secretary and 
Librarian read, 239; Award of Silver Medal to George E. Daven- 
port, 239 

Business Meeting, December 18; Decease of Hon. Marshall P. Wilder 

announced, pp. 239-241; Appropriations for 1887, 241 

Report of Committee on Plants and Flowers; Introduction, pp. 242, 
243; Saturday Exhibitions, 243-245; 250, 251; 252, 253; 256, 257; 260-265; 
267,268; Spring Exhibition, 245-250; May Exhibition, 251,252; Rhodo- 
dendron Show, 253-256; Rose and Strawberry Exhibition, 257-260; 
Annual Exhibition, 265-267; Chrysanthemum Show, 268-270; Prizes 
for Herbaceous Plants and Special Prizes, 270, 271; Prizes and Gra- 
tuities awarded, 272-296 

Report of the Committee on Fruits, pp. 297-301; Prizes and Gratuities 

awarded, 302-320 

Report of the Committee on Vegetables, pp. 321-326 ; Prizes and Gra- 
tuities awarded, 327-341 



11 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Report of the Committee on Gardens; Introduction, p. 342; Residence 

of Mrs. Francis B. Hayes, 342, 343; Grounds of Charles S. Sargent, 
343-346; Grounds of WUrren Heustis & Son, 346; Vineyards, 347; 
George B. Andrews's, 347-349; Arthur J. Bigelow's, 349-352; Conclu- 
sion, . . .... 352-354 

Report of the Committee on Publication and Discussion, . . . 355, 356 
Report of the Committee on the Library, pp. 356-359; Library Ac- 
r cessions,— Books Purchased, 359-369; Books, etc., Received by Dona- 
tion and Exchange, 369-383; Periodicals Purchased, 384; Periodicals 

Received in Exchange, 384, 385 

Report of the Secretary and Librarian, 386, 387 

Report of the Treasurer, 388 391 

Report of the Finance Committee, . 390, 391 

Mount Auburn Cemetery, 392, 393 

Officers amd Standing Committees for 1887, . . . . . . 394, 395 

Members of the Society; Life, 396-402; Annual, 403-406; Honorary, 

407-411; Corresponding, 412-417 

Extracts from the Constitution and By-Laws, 406